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08 Ago 2023 Linkers: conoce los conectores en Inglés C1 (lista completa)

Conectores en inglés c1: aprende a utilizar los linkers como un pro.

Esta vez os traemos conectores en inglés C1 y sus sinónimos para que no tengáis excusa de no utilizarlos. Actually (de hecho), os recomendamos que intentéis utilizar bastantes en vuestro discurso y así ningún examen oficial se os resistirá. Moreover , los conectores o linking words , se utilizan con bastante más frecuencia en inglés por lo que cuantos más uses, más fluidez demostrarás. Por cierto os invitamos a que leáis nuestra super entrada: conectores en inglés, aprende a enlazar ideas como un nativo.

¿Conoces nuestro canal de Youtube ? ¡Suscríbete! Cada semana subimos algo nuevo 😉

Conectores en inglés C1: qué son y ejemplos

Son palabras que utilizan para unir dos o varias partes de una oración.

En cuanto a conectores en inglés , si queréis conseguir el nivel C1 , en el Salón de Idiomas os recomendamos que dejéis de usar los típicos AND, BUT, SO, etc. cuando tengáis la ocasión pues cualquiera que tenga unos conocimientos básicos en inglés los conoce y utiliza. Cuando se dé el caso, prueba a emplear sinónimos y verás como tu speaking y writing tendrán un léxico más rico y más parecido a un nivel avanzado.

TIP: Otra forma de demostrar un C1 es utilizar ➤   adverbios en inglés de nivel avanzado .

Por cierto, no des palos de ciego en cuanto al orden de los linkers o conectores en inglés C1 . Por regla general tienen un orden establecido en la frase y casi siempre es al principio de la misma.

Linkers and connectors C1: lista y sus sinónimos

Aquí está la primera lista de conectores en inglés nivel avanzado . La tabla de abajo se divide en 2 partes: la primera incluye los conectores o conjunctions in English más usados y sus sinónimos, mientras que la segunda incluye un listado de palabras (algunos linkers, otros no) orientadas a ayudaros a variar vuestro léxico.

Por cierto hemos llamado a esta entrada Conectores en inglés C1 porque da sinónimos de nivel mas avanzado de los típicos «and, «but», «so», «because», sin embargo, si todavía no conoces tu nivel de inglés exacto, te recomendamos que hagas algunas de las pruebas de nivel gratis que tenemos en la plataforma de Salón de Idiomas (evaluarás tu nivel gramatical, de léxico y auditivo) pues son muy específicas.

Test de nivel

Lista de conectores en inglés de nivel avanzado

Cómo practicar los linkers en inglés C1

Buena pregunta. Obviously , lo primero que has de hacer es intentar integrarlos paulatinamente en tu discurso. Estaría bien que tu profesor te corrija, te ayude a cambiar el hábito y empieces a usar sinónimos de conectores con los que no estés muy acostumbrado. Recuerda que los conectores en inglés dan coherencia y cohesión a tu producción oral y escrita y eso es fundamental en exámenes oficiales de inglés tipos Linguaskill , LanguageCert , Aptis o Trinity , entre muchos otros. De hecho, la coherencia y la cohesión son unos elementos fundamentales que se evalúan dentro de los criterios de evaluación en estas pruebas oficiales.

Secondly , te recomendamos que redactes writings (por ejemplo aquí puedes ver cómo redactar un artículo en inglés ). Cuando escribas, tendrás más tiempo para emplear linkers en inglés. Cuanto más redactes y más conectores uses, más los interiorizarás.

¡Sácate tu título oficial de inglés!

Prepárate con Salón de Idiomas, más de 500 reseñas en Google nos avalan. ¡Infórmate!

Seguro que también te interesa:

  • LanguageCERT certificados de inglés
  • Oxford Test of English
  • LanguageCert preguntas
  • Oxford o Aptis: comparamos los dos exámenes ¿cuál es mejor?
  • Preguntas frecuentes Habilitación lingüística: despejando dudas
  • Curso Intensivo Trinity C1 online: prepárate de forma efectiva
  • Convalidar inglés en la universidad: Títulos de inglés válidos

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Oxford House

  • How to write a C1 Advanced Essay

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay | Oxford House Barcelona

  • Posted on 26/02/2020
  • Categories: Blog
  • Tags: C1 Advanced , Cambridge Exams , Writing

The Cambridge C1 Advanced is an excellent qualification to aim for if you’re thinking of studying or working abroad. It’s recognised by universities and governments all over the world and also helps you prove your language skills to future employers.

One of the most demanding parts of the exam is Part 1 of the Writing paper, which includes writing an essay. For many of you, this won’t come naturally… especially in another language.

So, to give you the best chance at success, we’ve created this in-depth guide full of Cambridge C1 Advanced Writing tips and useful language to get you producing excellent essays in no time.

So, pick up your pen, and let’s get started!

If you’d like to get more help with the C1 Advanced, consider our exam preparation class!

C1 Advanced Writing Requirements

The C1 Advanced Writing exam has two writing parts, which you must complete in 90 minutes. Both parts have a word limit of between 220-260 words. We recommend getting lots of writing practice under these conditions!

Part 1 is always a discursive essay . It requires you to think about arguments for and against a topic.

Part 2 is a situationally based writing task. This could be a letter , an email , a report , a proposal or a review and you have three options to choose from.

Today, we’ll be looking at how to do your best in part 1.

Before you begin

When you turn over the paper and begin Writing Part 1, take some time to read the task instructions. Identify all parts of the question, underlining which parts are obligatory and noting which parts are optional.

Let’s take a look at an example question!

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay - Example Question | Oxford House Barcelona

Remember, you don’t have to use the opinions expressed in the box, but they may help you to get the ball rolling . Also, you only have to talk about two of the options given, not all three.

Make a plan

Take ten minutes to lay out your ideas. Make a pros and cons list for each of the three options and then decide which two you feel most confident with. Here’s some things you might come up with, can you think of any more?

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay - Make a Plan | Oxford House Barcelona

Structure your essay

The essence of a good essay is a clear structure.

Introduction

Here you want to introduce the topic in your own words. Your first line should also grab the reader’s attention, then you should paraphrase the question. Finally, try using a statistic or a rhetorical question. This will make them want to read on, right?

Paragraph 1

Discuss the first option you’ve chosen. Include a good topic sentence and remember to give reasons for your answer. Describe some of the advantages, and even some of the disadvantages too. This will give a well-balanced argument.

Paragraph 2

Here’s where you introduce the second option. Again, try to present both sides of the argument and give reasons for your ideas. Gradually work towards the conclusion.

State your final opinion. This should be a summary of the rest of the essay and point clearly to which option you think is the most important. Do not introduce any new arguments at this stage. The conclusion is where you tie-up any loose ends .

This is an advanced piece of writing, so make sure your choice of language reflects it. You will get marked for accuracy, however, occasional errors can still be present as long as they do not impede understanding. So don’t play it too safe . This is your opportunity to show what you can do, so take some risks and have fun with it!

In the writing paper you should use a range of vocabulary, including less common lexis. Brainstorm some vocabulary related to the topic. Take your time to think of nouns and compound nouns that you know at C1 level. Really let your vocabulary sparkle .

How to write a C1 Advanced Essay - Vocabulary | Oxford House Barcelona

No one likes a broken record . Find synonyms for simple words. You want to use a variety of language, and try not to repeat yourself too much. Check out these different ways of saying the same thing:

advantage = benefit, positive, upside

disadvantage = downside, drawback

effect = influence, impact, result, outcome

problem = issue, challenge, difficulty, obstacle, setback, complication

important = valuable, essential, beneficial

expensive = costly, dear, high-priced, extortionate

cheap = inexpensive, affordable, economical

big = great, large, sizeable, considerable, wide, vast

small = slight, tiny, little

Quick tip: Visit Thesaurus.com to study more synonyms!

Experiment with different grammatical forms. At this level you’re expected to have a good grasp on the grammar. You should use a range of simple and complex grammatical forms with control and flexibility. So challenge yourself with some of these…

  • Participle clauses
  • Conditionals
  • Modal verbs
  • Passive with reporting verbs
  • Cleft sentences
  • Comparatives
  • Relative clauses

Useful expressions

To make your essay flow it’s best to use some key phrases. These will link all your ideas together, and help it sound semi-formal. Take a look at the expressions below. Why not use some in your next essay?

Introduction:

It is often said that…

Many people feel that…

We live in an age when..

More and more…

Introducing & Addition:

Firstly, secondly, thirdly…

On the one hand…

In addition…

What is more…

For example…

For instance…

As a case in point…

Contrasting:

In contrast…

On the other hand…

Alternatively…

However…

Conclusion:

All things considered…

As far as I’m concerned…

In light of the above…

What the examiners are looking for

When writing your essay, bear in mind what you’ll be marked on:

Have you answered all parts of the question? Is everything relevant to the question?

Communicative Achievement

Is the style and tone appropriate? Remember it should be semi-formal and neutral.

Organisation

Does it follow a logical order? Have you used paragraphs and linking devices?

Are you using a variety of grammar and vocabulary? Is it accurate?

Now your masterpiece has come together. Remember to take time to check your work. Here’s the official Writing Checklist from Cambridge Assessment English . And our list of the most common mistakes:

  • subject + verb agreement
  • singulars / plurals
  • question formation
  • variety of tenses
  • dependent prepositions

Some final tips

Avoid contractions (I’m, they’re, we’re) as this is a formal writing.

Don’t use first person pronouns (I, my, our, us).

Practise under timed conditions.

Use model answers to practise fixed expressions.

——

Looking for more help with your Cambridge C1 Advanced exam? Here are our other guides from our blog:

C1 Advanced Reading and Use of English – Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3

And if you are not sure if you’re ready for the C1 Advanced, check out our article Am I ready for the C1 Advanced exam? to find out!

Glossary for Language Learners

Find the following words in the article and then write down any new ones you didn’t know.

Get the ball rolling (exp) : to start something.

Lay out (v): to explain something in detail.

Paraphrase (v): to say the same thing in a different way.

Tie-up any loose ends (exp): to resolve issues.

Play it safe (exp): to act cautiously.

A broken record (exp): when someone repeats themself.

Sparkle (v) : to shine.

Good grasp (exp): a good knowledge.

Bear in mind (exp) : to consider.

Masterpiece (n): an incredible work of art.

exp = expression

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Small Talk For Business English

  • By: oxfordadmin
  • Posted on 19/02/2020

Your Guide To Moving To The USA

  • Posted on 04/03/2020

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How to Write an Essay for C1 Advanced (CAE)

Luis @ kse academy.

  • diciembre 21, 2022

As I’m sure you already know, Cambridge exams have several papers (Reading, Writing, Use of English, Speaking and Listening), and each of these components is divided into different parts. In this post, I want to focus on Writing Part 1 of the C1 Advanced, that is, how to write an Essay for the CAE . Because, remember, C1 Writing Part 1 will always be an essay 🙂 

Sample C1 Essay

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New C1 Writing Guide out now!

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  • Essay, Review, Formal and Informal Email and Letter, Report & Proposal
  • 500+ useful phrases ready to use in your writings
  • 95 pages of exclusive and original writing content
  • Description of the C1 Writing paper
  • Detailed description of each part of the Writing paper
  • Assessment criteria and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

See sample or Buy on Amazon

What are the parts of the C1 Advanced Writing?

The C1 Advanced (CAE) Writing, as we have already seen in another article, has 2 parts , and for each one you will have to write a text according to the exercise instructions. What you should know is that there is a limited range of text types that you may be asked to write in each part, so let’s see: 

  • Writing Part 1: In this part you will always have to write an essay, and you will have no other options to choose from. That’s why it is really important that you pay attention to this article and learn how to write an essay for C1 Advanced to the best of your ability. 
  • Formal letter/email
  • Informal letter/email
  • Review 
  • Proposal 

Each writing task you do should be between 220 and 260 words long, approximately, and, as they are different types of writing, you should take into account the peculiarities of each one in terms of structure, register, grammar and vocabulary, etc. 

So let’s start with the one that concerns us in this article: Essays! 

What is an essay ?

An Essay is a text of opinion in which we analyse a topic, a situation or a problem from different points of view or by considering several points or solutions to the problem. In each of the paragraphs, we deal with each point and express different facts, considerations and opinions. 

Now that we know what an essay is, let’s look at how to write an essay and its characteristics. 

How to Write an Essay for CAE Writing

Here are the main characteristics of a C1-level essay so that you can keep them in mind when writing: 

  • Purpose: With an essay, what we do is evaluate a topic, situation or problem that is of some interest or controversy (e.g. teenage mobile phone use ). Often, the Writing activity is set as a task that takes place after a class debate. In an exam, you will have to imagine the debate for yourself (duh!).
  • Tone and register: As it is a text on a serious or controversial topic, the Essay is always written in a formal context, so we must use an objective tone. Furthermore, the linguistic register should always be formal, avoiding common words such as things , stuff , get , etc.; contractions ( can’t , don’t , won’t , etc.); or expressions that may sound informal. 
  • Structure: Like all writing tasks, an essay has a fairly well-defined structure, although it is not 100% fixed and immovable. To begin with, we can choose to give it a title or not, but, personally, I find it more appropriate to write an Essay with a title. Have you ever seen a text published without a title? Probably not.  As for the body of the essay, it should be divided into the following paragraphs: introduction, point 1, point 2 and conclusion. In other words, in general, a Cambridge C1 Essay should have 4-5 paragraphs.
  • Opinion: This is where we have the most leeway when writing an essay for C1. There are many ways of expressing your opinion in an Essay, so you should choose the one that best suits your Writing approach. What I usually recommend, however, is that you remain impartial throughout the whole text and only express your opinion at the end, in the last paragraph, as a conclusion. As always, the most important thing is that you justify everything you say in your writing and that your conclusion answers the main question of the assignment.
  • Coherence and progression: Coherence is essential in all Writings, but especially in the essay. As it is a supporting and argumentative text, you cannot write unconnected sentences and paragraphs; the ideas must follow a logical and well-connected order, using connectors appropriate to C1 level, in this case. Furthermore, the reader must perceive a logical progression of paragraphs, without losing the thread of what you are trying to argue. Otherwise, when they get to the last paragraph, they won’t know what you are talking about and our writing will have failed catastrophically. 

CAE Writing Essay Example

Now that we are familiar with the main features of an essay for Cambridge Advanced (CAE) Writing, let’s look at a sample essay at C1 level, both the sample instructions and a possible answer.

C1 Essay Instructions

In the picture below you can see an example from the Cambridge website. 

essay connectors c1

From these instructions, we must always extract the essentials: 

  • Topic: facilities which should receive money from local authorities
  • sports centres
  • public gardens
  • «Museums aren’t popular with everybody!»
  • «Sports centres mean healthier people.»
  • «A town needs green spaces – parks are great for everybody.»
  • Address only 2 of the 3 points given. 
  • Answer and justify the main question (« to which facility is it most important that local authorities give money «).
  • Justify your answer (« giving reasons in support of your answer «)
  • Use your own words (« use your own words as far as possible «)

According to the task model outlined above, we can approach out writing with the following structure: 

  • Introduction
  • Point 1 (museums)
  • Point 2 (sports centres)

Although it is not set in stone, you will normally get 4 paragraphs. So now let’s look at an example Essay for CAE Writing: 

At first glance, we can see that this Essay for C1 has an introductory title and 4 paragraphs ( introduction , museums , sports , conclusion ). In addition, if we read the text carefully, we can see the following aspects: 

  • Title: The title perfectly summarises for the reader the topic to be covered in the text. Sometimes, a title in the form of a question such as « Which facilities should receive funding from local authorities? » can be a good idea, although I always prefer more concise titles.
  • Introduction : introduces the topic and mentions the two options we are going to discuss in the following paragraphs. 
  • Museums : Discusses the benefits of museums and the benefits of investing money in them. 
  • Sports centres : Discusses the benefits of sports centres and the consequences of investing money in them. 
  • Conclusion : In a very clear way, museums are seen as the ones that should receive the investment for certain reasons that are well justified. 
  • Connectors: Connectors are used that clearly define the coherence and progression of the text.: on the one/other hand, in addition, ultimately, however, while, etc. 
  • We do not use contractions or catch-all words.
  • When it comes to
  • comes to mind
  • valuable cultural resource
  • heritage 
  • generating income
  • engage in physical activity
  • positive outlet for energy
  • Grammar is also advanced (E.g.: Not only can…, but they also… )

In short, this is a good example of an Essay for CAE Writing. It should be noted, however, that this writing is written to simulate a strong C1 level, perhaps without necessarily going into a C2 level.

Will I be penalised if I write less than 220 or more than 260 words?

This is the most typical question in this part of the exam and the answer is: yes and no. Let me explain. The assessors won’t count the words and penalise you according to the number of words only. There is a rumour going around among students and teachers that for every 10 words they take away X points, but this is not true. However, if you have gone over 260 words by 50 or 100 words, or more, there is probably some content that is not relevant to the assignment, and that is penalised. Likewise, if you write less than 220 words, you are probably missing important information or you are not covering it in the detail required by the task instructions.

For this reason, I always recommend going over 20 words at most. That way you won’t lose points if your assignment covers the required topics and points. 🙂

The best guide for C1 Advanced Writing with examples and useful expressions

Although I will be publishing more articles explaining how to do each type of task for C1 Advanced, the best thing you can do to get plenty of information and practice is to buy the official KSE Academy guide to CAE Writing. In this guide you will find the following:

I hope you found this post useful. If you did, don’t forget to share with your friends and family. 🙂

I’ll see you in the next post. Until then, don’t forget to keep smiling! 

Luis @ KSE Academy

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Formal Linking Words / Cohesive Devices

Linking words can also be referred to as connectors, conjunctions, and cohesive devices. This webpage includes a useful lesson on helping improve students’ knowledge of these linking words. It includes a lesson plan using a kinaesthetic matching activity and worksheet.

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Lesson: matching activity.

Cut these up and students match

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Linking Words Reference Sheet

Print off and give this to students as a helpful reference guide. 

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Linking Words – Full List, Examples & Worksheet

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| Candace Osmond

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Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost.

Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses.

Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English. I also list examples of linking words under every category, and I whipped up a helpful worksheet to test your skills.

What Are Linking Words?

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Linking words, transition words, or connecting words in the English language help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing.

Linking words and phrases are connectors or transitional phrases. They are also part of formal language, so you’ll find them in academic writing, opinion writing, critical essays, dialectic essays , journalism, and business documents.

Some linking verbs link clauses within a sentence, such as although, in case, and whatever. That means you can find them in the middle of sentences from time to time. Others link two complete sentences, such as besides, as a result, and however.

List of Transition Words

Now that you know the meaning of transition words, let’s look at the usage of transition words in sentences and clauses. Don’t worry, I’ll break it all down for you!

Below, I’ve got a list of linking words and phrases to serve as alternative choices for connecting ideas in writing. Note that there are several types of transition words which we will discuss later.

Agreement/Addition/Similarity

Linking words may help the reader understand additional comments or ideas in a statement. They may also express agreement or similarities. These words are also called additive transition words, commonly found in expository essays and narrative essays.

  • In the first place
  • As a matter of fact
  • In like manner
  • In addition
  • Not only, but also
  • Coupled with
  • In the same way
  • In the same manner
  • First, second, third
  • Not to mention
  • In the light of
  • By the same token
  • Additionally
  • Correspondingly
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • At the same time
  • Together with
  • Identically

Here are some examples of additive linking words in a sentence.

  • The group found that a constructivist approach leads to higher test scores. Moreover, essay examinations show higher levels of learning.
  • The resort has tennis courts. Furthermore, it has an Olympic pool.

Negative Ideas

Some linking words come in pairs to join negative ideas.

  • Not, neither
  • Neither, nor

Here are sentence examples of linking words showing negative ideas.

  • I haven’t seen Lory, neither have I talked to her friend.
  • I neither drink nor smoke.

Opposition/Limitation/Contradiction

Whereas some linking words show an extra idea, these transition phrases and words express contrasting ideas in writing.

  • Although this may be true
  • In contrast
  • (and) still
  • Notwithstanding
  • Different from
  • Of course…, but
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Be that as it may
  • Nonetheless
  • Even so/though
  • Nevertheless
  • In spite of

Here are some sentences with linking words of opposition.

  • The short story can be analyzed using a functionalist lens. However, its historical theme is better understood with a critical perspective.
  • As much as I want to go, I must take care of my sister.

Some linking words show relationships between ideas by accepting an idea with reservation instead of showing complete opposition. Here are some examples.

  • All the same
  • Regardless of this
  • Up to a point

Here are some sentence examples.

  • Many citizens opposed this unfair policy, which the president nevertheless enacted.
  • I like him even if we have different views in life.

Cause/Condition/Purpose

You may also use linking words in your writing piece to show conditions and purpose for a logical flow of ideas. Words like reason get the reader ready to understand why. These words are commonly found in hypothesis essays.

  • In the event that
  • Granted (that)
  • Provided that
  • On (the) condition (that)
  • For the purpose of
  • With this intention
  • With this in mind
  • In the hope that
  • Inasmuch as
  • To the end that
  • For fear that
  • In order to
  • Seeing/being that
  • The researchers used this method so that the results would be valid, reliable, and aligned with the objectives.
  • I will not be attending the seminar due to a high fever.

Examples/Support/Emphasis

You can also use transition words in your piece of writing that show examples or support of an idea.

  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • For one thing
  • In particular
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For example
  • For instance
  • For this reason
  • To put it another way
  • To demonstrate
  • That is to say
  • With attention to
  • By all means
  • To emphasize
  • To enumerate
  • Particularly
  • Significantly
  • Specifically
  • Surprisingly
  • Important to realize
  • Another key point
  • On the negative side
  • First thing to remember
  • Must be remembered
  • To point out
  • Point often overlooked
  • She visited several cities, namely Portland, Jacksonville, Charleston, and Hartford.
  • Transition words improve writing flow. For instance, we use further to add extra ideas related to the previous statement.

Effect/Consequence/Result

Grammarist Article Graphic V4 78

You might also spot transitional devices for essays that show consequences, results, and effects.

  • As a result
  • In that case
  • Under those circumstances
  • Accordingly
  • Consequently

Consider the examples below.

  • We watered the plant for seven days. In effect, it grew three inches taller.
  • Because she didn’t study for the test, Anna failed and had to retake it.

Conclusion/Summary/Restatement

These words and phrases show transitions between sentences to show conclusions. You’ll find these words in essay conclusions of different essay types.

  • In simple language
  • In explanation
  • In lay terms
  • In a nutshell
  • As can be seen
  • In simple terms
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • As shown above
  • In the final analysis
  • In the long run
  • In either case
  • Given these points
  • As has been noted
  • In any event
  • On the whole
  • By and large
  • For the most part
  • In conclusion
  • To summarize

Note that in lay terms and in explanation are formal alternative choices to “ in a nutshell.”

Here are some examples.

  • Matter is a material that occupies space and has mass. In simple language, it is any physical substance.
  • I don’t want to climb the corporate ladder. After all, money isn’t everything.

Time/Chronology/Sequence

Linking words’ other role in writing is to show sequence or chronology. Under the time category, these phrases add a meaning of time. You can find these words in an essay introduction when the writer explains how the paper is structured.

  • In due time
  • From time to time
  • At the present time
  • Sooner or later
  • Up to the present time
  • To begin with
  • Straightaway
  • In the meantime
  • In a moment
  • Without delay
  • All of a sudden
  • At this instant
  • First, second
  • By the time
  • Immediately
  • Occasionally
  • I watched the movie on television. Eventually, I fell asleep.
  • First, fill the pan with water. Then, bring it to a boil.

Space/Location/Place

The following transition words are famous adverbial expressions that limit or modify space. Some of these words and phrases are also transition words of time.

  • In the middle of
  • To the left/right
  • In front of
  • On this side
  • In the distance
  • In the foreground
  • In the background
  • In the center of
  • Adjacent to
  • Opposite to

Below are sentence examples using transition words of space.

  • My house is located behind the building.
  • To the left of the supermarket is a flower shop.

Common Mistakes With Transition Words

Transition words help you create a flow of arguments for readers to understand what you’re saying. But misused transition words and phrases will make your writing unclear. Avoid these mistakes to give your readers a better experience.

Starting a Sentence With So, And, and Also

Both so and and are coordinating conjunctions, which means they can start independent clauses that stand on their own. But it’s not recommended to use these words and also as sentence starters in formal writing. For example:

  • Incorrect: Also, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.
  • Correct: Furthermore, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.

Combination of Transition Words And/Or

When writing an essay, avoid English transition words and/or because it makes your paper look messy. Instead, consider whether you need both connectors or only one of them. If you need them both, try this alternative.

  • Incorrect: boat and/or plane.
  • Correct: boat, plane, or both.

Using As Well As as Alternative to And

As well as has a different meaning from the transition word and. And means you’re listing something of equal importance. Meanwhile, as well as is for additional, less essential information. Here’s an example.

  • Incorrect: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis as well as provide recommendations for improvement.
  • Correct: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis and provide recommendations for improvement.

Archaic Words

Your writing may not make any sense to readers if you overuse archaic transition words like therewith .

For example, hereby means as a result. We can replace it with more modern and explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement is connected to the previous statement.

Linking Words Summary

A linking word is a term that connects different ideas in your text, whether they are contrasting, supporting, or adding. They can improve your writing and help it flow better, I promise!

Regardless of the style of writing, every piece of writing contains linking words to show perfect transitions. I hope my guide on the definition and list of transitions helps you use these words and phrases correctly. Memorize each category, and don’t overuse them in essays.

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Connectors in English: How to Use Them to Make Your English Flow Beautifully

Are your essays in English marked poorly despite your grammatically correct sentences?

Have you ever been told that your paragraphs don’t connect to each other even though they talk about the same topic?

This is where English connectors come in—a.k.a., the words I’ve marked in bold above!

Today, I’m going to talk about what connectors in English are, the most common ones you’ll come across and how to practice them.

Once you’re done with this article, I hope you’ll agree that these words and phrases are simply magical!

What Are English Connectors?

English connectors for cause and effect, english connectors for illustration, english connectors for emphasis, english connectors for comparison, english connectors for contrast, english connectors for sequence, english connectors for conclusion, tips for practicing english connectors, and one more thing....

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

English connectors are little words and phrases that help you connect sentences, paragraphs and ideas. Used both in spoken and written English, they help make your English sound more logical and structured.

You can think of connectors as like the thread that holds a necklace’s beads (i.e. sentences, paragraphs and ideas) together.

In fact, you probably already use them without even realizing it!

Note that English connectors are different from English conjunctions . While conjunctions link two or more words or clauses within a sentence, connectors establish that two separate sentences or ideas are related to each other. 

To help you understand further, I’m going to walk you through some of the most common connectors in English and how they’re used. Some are used formally, while others are more casual. Some are even  interchangeable —that is, you can use them in place of similar words.

In everyday conversations , we often need to explain things.

Perhaps you were late for school because your car ran out of gas. Or you want to buy chocolates because you want to surprise your mother on her birthday.

Explaining things will be much easier if you throw in these important English connectors.

Let’s take a look at them!

Giving illustrations or examples helps us prove our point and convince other people to believe us. These words help people understand what you’re trying to say and can help them see why you believe what you believe.

While discussing an issue or idea, you may want to focus on a particular point or example. To make the listener understand the importance of that specific idea, you can use the following connectors.

Sometimes, we need to draw attention to certain similarities to make a point or explain something. This is especially important in writing!

To make better comparisons, use the following English connectors.

Sometimes, we need to express different or contradicting ideas side-by-side. Doing this helps the listener or reader focus on important differences and makes them aware of the many sides of a topic.

These connectors are useful when you’re giving step-by-step instructions or listing points.

Finally , how do you let your reader know that you’ve reached the end? (See what I did there?)

There are certain connectors that we usually use during conclusions or when we’ve reached the end of what we wanted to say. When writing or stating conclusions, you usually repeat the most important points.

Here are some quick tips that’ll help you learn English connectors more efficiently.

Make Your Own Sentences

To explain the meanings and uses of different connectors, I’ve provided example sentences for each. However, you’ll remember them much better if you come up with your own examples.

You can start by using connectors in your diary entries, notebooks, essays and the like. Soon, you’ll find yourself using these connectors in everyday speech as well!

Write a Short Story or Essay

To see the huge difference English connectors can make, try writing a paragraph without any connectors and then rewrite it using some of the connectors above. You’ll quickly realize that your sentences will flow better, sound more logical and become easier to understand.

Learn English with Authentic Content

You probably want to speak English like a native (or at least try to). So why not learn from natives? Try watching a speech in English to get a good idea of how these fit together. Look for the ones with transcripts that you can write notes in, maybe even circling all of the connecting terms as you see them. 

FluentU takes authentic videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons.

You can try FluentU for free for 2 weeks. Check out the website or download the iOS app or Android app.

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Do Online Exercises

Finally, to check whether you’ve understood how to use connectors correctly, you can try online exercises from websites that cover English grammar .

For example, the ones on English Daily  and English Grammar are pretty short and can be completed in a few minutes.

There’s also ToLearnEnglish , which provides a brief list of common connectors before you solve the exercise, making it a great resource for review.

Now that you know the most commonly-used English connectors, you can use them in sentences and paragraphs with great confidence. Try your hand at some of the exercises I’ve suggested for practice.

So what are you waiting for?

Get out there and start incorporating these useful English connectors into your everyday life!

If you like learning English through movies and online media, you should also check out FluentU. FluentU lets you learn English from popular talk shows, catchy music videos and funny commercials , as you can see here:

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If you want to watch it, the FluentU app has probably got it.

The FluentU app and website makes it really easy to watch English videos. There are captions that are interactive. That means you can tap on any word to see an image, definition, and useful examples.

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FluentU lets you learn engaging content with world famous celebrities.

For example, when you tap on the word "searching," you see this:

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FluentU lets you tap to look up any word.

Learn all the vocabulary in any video with quizzes. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you’re learning.

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FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples. Learn more.

The best part? FluentU remembers the vocabulary that you’re learning. It gives you extra practice with difficult words—and reminds you when it’s time to review what you’ve learned. You have a truly personalized experience.

Start using the FluentU website on your computer or tablet or, better yet, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play store. Click here to take advantage of our current sale! (Expires at the end of this month.)

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Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors in English with Examples!

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Struggling to connect ideas? ‘Connectors in English’ have your back. Connect, express, and impress – all with Connectors in English!

Connectors Definition

Linker Words or Word Connectors are used to link large groups of words: phrases and sentences . You can also use them to connect paragraphs to give them coherence. Sentence connectors are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence and may be categorized as follows:

  • This restaurant has the best kitchen in town. However, their staff are quite rude.

2. IN CONTRAST

  • House prices have gone up this year. In contrast, car prices seem to be stagnating.

3. NEVERTHELESS

  • I was in so much pain I didn’t want to get up in the morning. Nevertheless, I went to football practice as usual.

4. NONETHELESS

  • I don’t think Sean has serious behavioural problems. Nonetheless, I’ll talk to him first thing in the morning.
  • I’ve asked you a thousand times not to leave your dirty socks on the floor. Yet, you keep doing it.

6. ON THE OTHER HAND

  • England has the best language schools. On the other hand, it has the worst weather.

7. BY COMPARISON

  • Going out with Jim has its risks. By comparison, being with Tim is as easy as falling off a log.

8. ON THE CONTRARY

  • I don’t hate Jim. On the contrary, I’m rather fond of him.
  • I didn’t want to take a side in the argument. Instead, I put my headphones on and listened to some smooth jazz.

10. IN ANY CASE

  • I was thinking of going round Jim’s place. In any case, I haven’t been invited.

11. ALL THE SAME

  • Yes, he’s very good-looking. All the same, I don’t think you should go out with him.

Read more: Other ways to say ON THE OTHER HAND!

transition in a sentence

👉 SIMILARITY

1. LIKEWISE

  • You can’t give your phone number to every man who asks for it. Likewise, you can’t go out with everyone who fancies you.

2. SIMILARLY

  • You’re not allowed to use your phone here. Similarly, you have to switch it off when you’re in the library.

3. CORRESPONDINGLY

  • She’s an excellent photographer. Correspondingly, her paintings are works of art.

4. IN THE SAME WAY

  • Cutting down on sugar will help you lose weight. In the same way, doing more exercise will help you get rid of a few kilos.
  • I want to talk to Prince Harry when I’m in England. Also, I want to meet his sister-in-law.

Read more: Difference between COMPARED TO and COMPARED WITH

linker words

1. AS A RESULT

  • I’ve done a pranic healing course. As a result, I’ve been able to cure my neighbour’s sick cat.

2. AS A CONSEQUENCE

  • Zack has skipped school on many occasions. As a consequence, he’s failed his French test.

3. THEREFORE

  • We’re going to experience some meteor showers in the next few days. Therefore, the number of miraculous self-healings will rise.
  • You didn’t tell me you wanted to come. Thus, we won’t be taking you with us.

5. ACCORDINGLY

  • Plenty of tourists visit the area in summer. Accordingly, selling hand-made objects is the main source of income for locals.

Read more: 6 Ways to Improve Your English Writing Skills

connectors-of-sequence

👉 SEQUENCING

1. FIRST, FIRSTLY, FIRST OF ALL, IN THE FIRST PLACE

  • First of all, I’d like to talk about the benefits of having a pet pig.

2. TO BEGIN WITH

  • To begin with, pet pigs are cleaner than dogs.

3. FOR ONE THING

  • For one thing, they’re completely loyal to their owners.

4. SECOND, SECONDLY, IN THE SECOND PLACE

  • Secondly, their impressive numeracy skills must be mentioned.

5. FOR ANOTHER THING

  • For another thing, you might want to consider how cute they look in pyjamas.

6. THIRD, THIRDLY, IN THE THIRD PLACE

  • In the third place, you can always count on your pet pig to perform some tricks for you when you’d like to impress a pretty girl.
  • Also, they don’t eat much.
  • Besides not eating much, they won’t ever chew on your electric cords.

9. IN ADDITION

  • In addition, they can be taught to feed themselves if you allow them access to your pantry.

10. FURTHERMORE

  • Furthermore, they make wonderful walking buddies.

11. MOREOVER

  • Moreover, they’ll show you the way home when you’re drunk.

12. FINALLY

  • Finally, pet pigs are fantastic guards. No burglar would ever have the heart to hurt a pet pig.

13. LAST, LASTLY, LAST OF ALL

  • Lastly, your reputation as an eccentric will rapidly grow in the neighbourhood if you’re seen walking a pet pig on a leash every morning.

Read more: 18 Powerful Websites to Improve Your Writing Skills in English

connectors

👉 ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

1. MOST IMPORTANTLY

  • I’d like to talk to you about how to keep calm at your workplace. Most importantly, never go to the canteen while your boss is there.

2. PRIMARILY

  • You’ll have to focus on your immediate surroundings. Primarily, on your computer screen.

3. ABOVE ALL

  • Above all, don’t ever look up from your notes when people are around.

4. MOST SIGNIFICANTLY

  • Most significantly, avoid eye-contact at all costs.

5. ESSENTIALLY, BASICALLY (usually spoken)

  • How can I put this? Essentially, having an affair with one of your colleagues should be the last thing on your mind.

Read more: 7 Special Apps To Quickly Improve Your Typing Speed

Sequence-Connectors-and-Example-Sentences

👉 PARTICULARIZATION

1. IN PARTICULAR, PARTICULARLY

  • Nearly a third of marriages end in divorce. In particular, it’s middle-aged couples that yearn for much more from life.

2. MORE SPECIFICALLY

  • Couples tend to argue about financial issues. More specifically, they argue when one of them is out of work.

Read more: How Many Types of Expressions there are in English?

words connectors

👉 EXAMPLIFICATION

1. FOR EXAMPLE

  • To solve this problem, you might want to try making small gestures. For example, making your spouse’s favourite meal for dinner or giving him a massage after a tiring day.

2. FOR INSTANCE

  • Appreciate the small things your spouse does for you. For instance, leave thank-you notes for them every now and then.

3. TO ILLUSTRATE

  • Misunderstandings can be highly destructive. To illustrate, if your spouse sees you with a friend of the opposite sex in a café, he might not understand why he hasn’t been invited and demand an explanation.

Read more: Other ways to say for example?

👉 EXPLANATION

1. THAT IS TO SAY, THAT IS

  • Keep romance alive. That is to say, don’t let your lovelife fall into routine.
  • I have a very good reason for not trusting my ex. Namely, he’s a convicted felon.

3. IN OTHER WORDS

  • Don’t be unsociable. In other words, go out and make some friends.

4. PUT DIFFERENTLY

  • John has managed to get over Jane. Put differently, he’s started seeing other women.

Read more: 10 Common English Expressions with Explanation (Video)

👉 EMPHASISING

1. AS A MATTER OF FACT

  • I love sleeping with my pet pig. As a matter of fact, I can’t fall asleep unless he’s in my bed.
  • I told them not to invite Rachel to the party. In fact, I was the only person who saw what a party pooper she really was.

3. ACTUALLY

  • I think it would be a good idea to send her some flowers. Actually, you should get her a hundred orchids.
  • He may be the best-dressed man around. Indeed, he has a really good taste in fashion.

Read more: Essential Academic Writing Examples and Phrases!

👉 FOCUSING AND LINKING

1. AS FOR (often suggests disinterest or dislike)

  • I’m going to Janet’s party at the weekend. As for Mary’s, I think I’ll pass.

2. WITH RESPECT TO

  • Starting your own IT company may be the one of the best things you can do right now. With respect to opening a pet shop, it’s hard to say the same thing.

3. REGARDING

  • Start your day with making the most important phone calls. Regarding emails, you might put them off until later.

4. WITH REGARD TO

  • With regard to handling complaints, you might want to keep in mind that your customers are always right.

5. AS REGARDS

  • Working from home has many advantages. As regards disadvantages, it might be difficult to keep your cat off your keyboard.

6. TALKING OF

  • Talking of cats, you can’t trust them to keep you company when you need it. They’re quite selfish creatures.

7. AS FAR AS … CONCERNED

  • As far as dogs are concerned, they might give you a chance to get up from your desk and get some exercise during the day.

Read more: English Grammar: Sentence Structure in English

👉 CONCLUSION

1. IN CONCLUSION

  • In conclusion, it may be said that pigs make the best pets.

2. IN BRIEF

  • Meeting my boss at the pub was an interesting experience. In brief, it was a disaster.

3. IN SUMMARY

  • In summary, it may not be the best idea to frequent the same pubs as your boss.

4. TO SUM UP

  • To sum up, some people are better suited to working from home than others.

5. ALL IN ALL

  • All in all, you have to make sure both you and your customers are satisfied with your work.

Read more: What are the other ways to say in conclusion ?

👉 CORRECTION

  • I thought it was a good idea to get a ferret. Rather, it had always been my dream to get one.

2. TO BE MORE PRECISE

  • You might want to change a few things. To be more precise, I think you should start again from scratch.

Read more: Best English Grammar and Spelling Checkers Online

1. AT FIRST

  • It wasn’t a piece of cake to learn English. At first, I couldn’t pronounce all the words correctly.
  • Then, I couldn’t spell all the words correctly.

3. AFTERWARDS

  • Afterwards, I had a hard time understanding the tenses.
  • Later, I couldn’t memorize phrasal verbs and idioms.

5. IN THE MEANTIME

  • In the meantime, I was getting some help from MyEnglishTeacher .

6. MEANWHILE

  • Meanwhile, I was enjoying my skype lessons more and more.

Read more: A Visual List of 100 English IDIOMS FOR TIME with Examples

👉 DISMISSAL

(of what was said before)

  • I couldn’t get my head around the Passive Voice. Anyway, I don’t think it’s important to use it all the time.
  • Anyhow, I’ve just decided to learn Russian next.

3. AT ANY RATE

  • At any rate, I don’t want to become a simultaneous interpreter in five languages.

Linking Words Quiz › TEST YOURSELF

  • As far as / thinking
  • As far as / concerned
  • However / asked
  • As for / treated
  • Likewise / equally
  • Another / like
  • Just as / so too
  • To begin with
  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • Furthermore
  • Accordingly
  • All the same
  • In particular
  • In the back
  • For one thing
  • Subsequently
  • Despite this
  • On top of that
  • In other words
  • Along those lines
  • In contrast
  • At any rate
  • Firstly / Secondly
  • Now / Later
  • Soon / After
  • Before / After
  • On the other side
  • As a result

👉  Connectors Synonyms

Connectors are not only used in grammar . Connectors are things that are used to connect or tether two, or more, things together. There are many different synonyms for connectors:

  • Bond, coupling, joint, link, adapter, clamp, fastener, junction, tie, terminal, plug, fitting, splicing, fastener, sleeve, etc.

👉  Sentence Definition

A sentence is a set of words that forms a coherent and complete thought and message. This means that a sentence says something concrete. It has to be structured and logical in order for the sentence to be correct.

Sentences are made up of various parts , such as: nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, articles, etc. Within a sentence, there are parts that relate the thought and message , such as: subject, predicate, object, phrase, punctuation, etc. Each of these parts is important for a sentence to be complete.

Through sentences we tell other people what we think, feel, or what we want to do . In order to relate those thoughts we string together words into groups. These finally relate our message to other people and the world.

There are four different types of sentences , and each has its own specific goal and structure. These types are: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.

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One of the best posts I’ve ever read here. Congrats!!

It’s awesome so useful and practical thanks a million. I’m gonna share it with my friends.

Daniel Deressa

I liked it so much. Thank you Mr/Mrs tutor.

Durga Karki

Indeed, it refreshing our vocabulary

Anom

Thank you very much!! This must be by far one of the greatest post I’ve seen to improve my writing skills and expand the vocabulary of connectors. Therefore 😉 , I will add to my list of resources and share with my friends

So glad! 😃❤️

Avik

Thanks a ton, teacher!

Sure, anytime!

Simran kalsi

Thankyou soo muchhh for this usefull info..

pathmawathy anuratharan

Thank you so much for this useful

Mathew TD

Excellent exercise

My great thanks

It is highly appreciated

alim

Thanks a lot

you are welcome!

Mohan

Helpful post! You have nicely divided all the connectors in group like result, time, explanation, conclusion …. and present them with accurate examples. Everything is easy to grab. Thanks for sharing this rare post.

Thank you so much Mohan! I’m glad you loved it!

Akande Kola

Thanks for this usefull lessons. They are highly educattive.

Thank you so much!

Oscar

So far this is the best post I’ve ever seen. I find it hard to use those connectors in statements. I can speak basic English and sometimes not concise with my statements because I’m not good in using connectors in English. Thank you for this great post. It will help a lot of speakers to become articulate with the language.

Thank you so much Oscar for your feedback!

Nam

Thanks millions for posting the tables of connecting sentences. Have a great life

Mica

I love this array of connectors. Great selections to fit our lesson. Thank you to all who are part of this website and contributors. God bless you all!

MyEnglishTeacher.eu

Thank you so much Mica.

Concept Mastery

Linker words, also known as sentence connectors, play a crucial role in connecting phrases, sentences, and paragraphs for enhanced coherence in writing. In terms of contrast, words like “however,” “in contrast,” and “nevertheless” emphasize opposing ideas. For expressing similarity, “likewise,” “similarly,” and “correspondingly” are effective. Result-oriented connectors include “as a result,” “therefore,” and “accordingly,” signaling outcomes or consequences. These words help create a logical flow within text, ensuring a smooth transition between ideas. Whether highlighting differences, similarities, or results, these connectors contribute to cohesive and well-structured writing, facilitating the comprehension of complex information.

himali

Its very useful , thank you.

Thank you so much Himali!

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C1.2 Essay connectors practice

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C1.2 Essay connectors practice

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Learning english, connectors and punctuation, how difficult was this activity.

The town council is planning to build a new supermarket. Practise your grammar and vocabulary by choosing the correct connector and punctuation to complete the sentence.

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How to write a formal Letter/Email ? | C1 Advanced (CAE)

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FCE, CAE, CPE

Practice tests online.

Writing paper will require a response which is consistently appropriate for the specified target reader , and for example, you can expect to be asked to write different kinds of letters. Moreover, their register and style can be formal or informal .

What is the formal style of writing?

The main characteristics of a formal writing style are:

  • A more complex structure. Formal writing often uses longer sentences. In formal writing, you will also see a more structured approach generally, with points clearly introduced, explained and concluded.
  • An objective approach.  Main points are usually stated and then supported with arguments. Formal writing is less likely to be emotional in style.
  • Writing in the third person.  Formal writing is not a personal writing style. The writer often aims to sound dispassionate about the topic.

essay connectors c1

Me, myself, I Everybody likes to talk about themselves, but when (for example) you’re reviewing a film, y ou should be talking about the film and not about yourself.

The informal you The way the word you is used in informal speech ‘You should have seen it!’ ‘if you know what I mean’   is not appropriate in formal writing. The word you point a finger at the reader. But the readers are not friends of yours, and you have no right to make assumptions about them.

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Structure

Practice, write & improve, c1 advanced (cae) formal letter/email: writing guide, before you start….

Read the task carefully and then… You need to underline all the content points and consider the following:

  • Why are you are writing the letter/email? To correct information, to apply for a job, to complain about something…
  • Who is the target reader? You may have to write to the editor of a publication, to a potential employer, to a university administrator…
  • Which language/register would be appropriate to reach my goal? Is there enough specific detail in my letter/email to convince the target reader?

  The CAE test does not require you to include dates or addresses in any of your letters, whether formal or informal.

1. Salutation

If you do not know the name of the person you are writing to, use this. It is always advisable to try to find out a name.

Dear Sir or Madam

If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only. If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss , you can use Ms , which is for married and single women.

Dear Mr Jenkins

Dear Editor

2. The first paragraph (opening)

The first paragraph of formal letters should include an introduction to the purpose of the letter. The summary of the letter can be found and the intentions which will be displayed through the rest of the letter should be outlined.

Example 1: I am writing in response to the advert I saw in the newspaper seeking people to work as tour guides. I think I would make a very good tour guide and I wish to apply for the job.

Example 2: I am writing about a recent incident in your shop in which I had the misfortune to be involved in. The incident I refer to is when one of your staff stopped me and accused me of shoplifting. 

3. The next paragraphs (main content)

The second and following paragraphs should provide the main information of the letter, and describe the main purpose mentioned in the introductory first paragraph .  Most letters in English are not very long, so keep the information to the essentials and concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical manner rather than expanding too much.

  • You should always be polite and respectful. A useful way to achieve it especially in formal letters is to use ‘modal verbs’, i.e., would, could or should.
  • It’s important to write simply and clearly . It’s worth noting that you have to avoid using informal language, for instance, avoid contractions (i.e. I’m, it’s, etc.).

Sample paragraph structure:

Paragraph 1: To begin with, I would like to put forward … Paragraph 2: Needless to say, this was …. Paragraph 3: But the thing that impressed me most…

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4. closing and signing off.

Example call to actions:

Example:1   Thank you for your consideration of my suggestions. I look forward to an opportunity to discuss this matter further. Example 2:  If you require further information, please do not hesitate to ask

Closing and signing off:

Yours faithfully –  use it if you don’t know the name of the recipient. Yours sincerely –  use it if you know the name of the recipient.

Let’s sum it up…

C1 advanced (cae) formal letter/email: example letters, cae example formal letter/email.

You recently had an unpleasant experience when you were shopping in a department store. One of the assistants wrongly accused you of shoplifting. Although you were able to prove that you had paid for the item in question, you received no apology.

Write a letter to the manager of the shop, saying why you are angry and disappointed and asking for some kind of compensation for the way you were treated. Say that you will take further action if you do not receive an official apology.

Model answer

Dear Mr Menton,

I am writing about a recent incident in your shop in which I had the misfortune to be involved in. The incident I refer to is when one of your staff stopped me and accused me of shoplifting in front of about 20 other people. Needless to say, this was an extremely embarrassing situation for me. Thank goodness I had kept the receipt to prove that I had paid for everything on my person at the time, but to be accused of stealing like that in front of all those people – some of whom I knew personally – was very humiliating and degrading. The shop assistant used a very accusatory tone…

But the thing that angered and dismayed me most was not the accusation itself – after all, misunderstandings happen sometimes – but the accuser’s failure to acknowledge his mistake or apologise to me. When I showed him the receipt, he simply walked off mumbling about how ‘shady’ a character I looked. Considering how much embarrassment I was caused, I do not think it was too much to have expected a simple apology either, do you?

Which brings me back to why I am writing; if I cannot get an apology from this assistant, then I would like a formal one from you instead. If an official apology is not forthcoming and I am not compensated in some way – with a shopping voucher for example – then be warned that I will take further steps to ensure that I get justice.

I look forward to hearing from you at the very earliest convenience.

Yours sincerely, Michael Mathers

A student from a business school in an English-speaking country has arranged to spend two months on a work experience programme in your department. Your manager has asked you to write a letter to the student, welcoming him to your company, explaining what he will be expected to do and how he will benefit from this experience.

Write your letter .

Dear Mr Miller 

We are delighted that you have decided to spend two months on a work experience programme in the xxx marketing department. We warmly welcome you  to our company in general and to our department in particular .  

Y ou will be given the unique opportunity to work with a young team launching a  new soft drink. Your work will be as interesting as demanding. You will have  to analyse sever al surveys which  have recently been conducted. Based on the results of your analysis you will have to think about possible target customers . F urther more, you will be asked to develop ideas on how exactly we could  launch our soft drink. You will have to gather though ts about how to run a successful campaign. As this project has not been made public yet, we expect  you not to talk about this project to your friends or family . You will be expected  to work hard and, sometimes, for long hours.

However , you will most certainly learn a lot. Y ou will be given the unique chance to develop a marketing campaign. You will also get used to working with different marketing tools. Furthermore, you will have to learn how to  take advanta ge of a wide va riety of computer programs, which will not only  help you to analy se the surveys conducted but will also assist you in making out possible target customers. This two months work experience programme will  help you to understand the use and impact of marketing tools. We are confident that this experience will go far beyond that what you have learnt at university .

We are looking forward to working with you.  

Y ours sincer ely

Your company would like to offer work-experience placements to students in an international college. Write a letter for publication in the student newspaper at the college.

Your letter should explain what your company does, what kind of work-experience placements are available, and how students would benefit from the experience.

Dear Students,

Are you looking for a work placement that will give you plenty of valuable experience and will look good on your CV? If so, then our company may have something to offer you.

We are an international educational exchange organisation which organises links between schools all over the world. We currently have three work-experience placements available for students from your college. The work would involve a range of office tasks, including dealing with correspondence, arranging meetings and keeping our database up-to-date. We are particularly interested in offering these placements to students with some knowledge of two or more languages.

The placements would be of great benefit to the students who are given this opportunity. It would provide experience of working in a small and dedicated team, which would give you the chance to develop a wider range of office skills than would normally be the case in larger organisations. Our international network means that you would also gain some contacts all over the world, which might be of particular value to any of you considering a career in some aspect of education.

You will find further information about our organisation and the placements we offer on our website and we look forward to hearing from any of you who think that the work might be right for you — and that you might be the right person for one of these placements.

Best wishes to you all, Paula Fisher

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Example Questions

Cae formal letter & email topic 1.

Volunteers needed

We are looking for volunteers to help out at a famous, international sporting event. We’re looking for friendly, respectful people with good language skills, good team skills and a ‘can-do’ attitude. We need people to welcome delegates, provide customer service and solve problems. If you think you have what it takes, apply now.

Write an application to become a volunteer. Mention:

– your language skills – your personal qualities – examples of times when you have demonstrated team skills – any relevant work experience

Now write your letter . You do not need to include any postal addresses

CAE Formal Letter & Email Topic 2

A colleague of yours, Alice Watson, has applied for a job in the public relations department of a large charity. Poverty Action. You have been asked to write a letter providing a character reference for her. Indicate how long and what capacity you have worked with her, and how her personal characteristics would make her suited for her job. Here is part of the letter you received from Poverty Action:

The job of Public Relations Co-ordinator consists mainly of supervising PR work and entails travelling around the country and working with various people in our large organization. The successful applicant will need good managerial skills and be committed to the philosophy of our charity

Write your letter in reply. You do not need to include postal addresses

CEA Formal Letter & Email Topic 3

On a recent holiday, you lost a valuable item. Fortunately, you have travel insurance to cover the cost of anything lost. 

Write a letter to the manager of your insurance company. In your letter:

–  describe the item you lost – explain how lost it – tell the insurance company what you would like them to do.

Write your email in an appropriate style.

More than Practice Tests

C1 advanced (cae) formal letter/email: tips & strategy.

essay connectors c1

If you aim to write an official letter, you should:

  • avoid everyday  colloquial language  or  slang
  • avoid contractions ( I’m, it’s )
  • avoid emotional, subjective language  (terrible, rubbish, etc.)
  • avoid general words such as  nice, good, get, etc.

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Writing Checklist

essay connectors c1

After writing your text, you can check it yourself using the writing checklist below.

How to do that? Simply check your text/email by answering the questions one by one:

  • Have I covered all the key information required by the task?
  • Have I written only information which is relevant to the task?
  • Have I developed the basic points in the task with my own ideas?

Communicative Achievement

  • Have I achieved the main purpose(s) of the text (for example, explaining, persuading, suggesting, apologising, comparing, etc.)?
  • Have I used a suitable mix of fact and opinion?
  • Have I used a suitable style and register (formal or informal) for the task?

Organisation

  • Have I used paragraphs appropriately to organise my ideas?
  • Have I used other organisational features appropriately for the genre of the text (for example, titles, headings, openings, closings, etc.)?
  • Is the connection between my ideas clear and easy for the reader to follow? (For example, have I used appropriate linking words, pronouns, etc. to refer to different things within the text?)
  • Are the ideas balanced appropriately, with suitable attention and space given to each one?
  • Have I used a wide range of vocabulary?
  • Have I avoided repeating the same words and phrases?
  • Have I used a range of simple and more complex grammatical structures?
  • Have I correctly used any common phrases which are relevant to the specific task or topic?
  • Is my use of grammar accurate?
  • Is my spelling accurate?

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: Useful phrases

Useful phrases for a f ormal letter: (use as set phrases in the exam, don´t experiment with new vocabulary or grammar)

Dear Sir or Madam Dear Mr Jenkins

With regards to the letter/email on… With reference to your letter/email… After having received your letter/email… I received your address from … and would like … Thank you very much for your letter/email on… I have been given your contact details by… and I would like to… In reply to your letter/email of…

Reason for writing

I am writing with regard/reference to …  I am writing to express (my concern about/ disappointment with/disapproval of/apologies for) I would like to draw your attention to/point out …

Referring to their letter 

As you stated in your leter, … Regarding… Concerning … With regard to…

Complaining 

I am wiing to compiain about … You said …but in fact what happened …

Introducing points

(I feel) I must also (dis)agree with … I should also like to point out that … Your (article) states that … However,…

Request for action

I would appreciate it/be grateful if you would … I look forward to receiving/seeing … I trust/very much hope you will …

I hope to hear from you soon… If you require any further information, feel free to contact me Should you require anything else, do not hesitate in contacting me Regards Yours faithfully Yours sincerely (signature)

C1 Advanced (CAE) Formal Letter/Email: FAQ

Who is the audience? This will be given in the prompt.

What is the purpose of the writing? You are usually giving information or requesting action. You should be direct and get to the point quickly.

Should I use headings or bullet points? No.

How should it start? “Dear Sir or Madam (if no name is given), I am writing to…” This is the expected opening of a letter. First, you explain why you are writing, in the next paragraph you explain why you think you should get what you want.

How should it finish? You should clearly re-state your recommendation or desired action in your last paragraph. This is usually followed by a “I am looking forward to…” statement and “Yours faithfully/Yours sincerely, x.”

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Would you pass C1 Advanced (CAE)?

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    Dear Mr Jenkins. or simply. Dear Editor. 2. The first paragraph (opening) The first paragraph of formal letters should include an introduction to the purpose of the letter. The summary of the letter can be found and the intentions which will be displayed through the rest of the letter should be outlined.