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Linking/transition words: Things you need to know...

All assignments are written in formal language.   You need to ensure that you demonstrate your knowledge and understanding alongside your ability to answer the question/solve the problem. 

Below are some ideas to help you to develop your structure and flow.

  • Linking / transition words and phrases join ideas, sentences and paragraphs together. They should be used within sentences and to move from one idea to another (between sentences).   

These words and phrases indicate the direction, order and flow of ideas. Significantly, they strengthen the quality and structure of your work.

  • Redundant Words - less is more.  P articularly when trying to reduce the word count, it is important to look for phrases which can be replaced with a single word.

Linking/Transition Words

Transitions link one main idea to another separated by a semi-colon or full-stop.  When the transition word is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:

Among other functions, they can signal cause and effect or sequencing (see examples in the table below).

Linking words: conjunctions

Linking words within a sentence  are referred to as coordinating conjunctions.  Do not worry about the term: think about the function.

Conciseness / redundant words

Microsoft Word now has an additional feature within the Edito r - it is called conciseness or wordiness.  

  • If you cannot see the Editor menu a quick tip is to hold down the function (fn key at the bottom left of the keyboard) + F7 (top line of keys).
  • From the Refinements section - select Conciseness - if there are any suggestions a number will appear in the box alongside this option
  • A dotted line will appear under any groups of groups
  • Either select the identified text by clicking with your right mouse button OR click on the down down next to the Conciseness menu.
  • MS Word will display any alternative words which you can either select and they will be replaced in your text or reject if you want to keep the original phrases.

Examples:  try to replace phrases with a single words which mean the same.

Need to know more...

  • Related pages
  • External links
  • Academic writing Illustrates the main features of academic writing so that you are aware of what it is and what it involves
  • Critical Thinking Academic work involves thinking, not just accepting what you read or are told.
  • Terms and Definitions Important words appear in your assignments and examinations. The aim of this factsheet is to help you to fully understand what they mean.

Additional resources to help you to improve your confidence and grades:-

  • Writing Effectively  demonstrates the importance of: clarity, structure, relevance, argument and precision.
  • Writing Mechanics  gives further examples and resources on areas including: sentence structure, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation and grammar.

Linking/Transition words - Scribbr  https://www.scribbr.co.uk/syntax/transition-words-examples/ [Accessed 10 February 2023]

There are many books concerning academic writing, look around Dewey number  808

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Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words, other interesting articles.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

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There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

Using a paraphrasing tool for clear writing

With the use of certain tools, you can make your writing clear. One of these tools is a paraphrasing tool . One thing the tool does is help your sentences make more sense. It has different modes where it checks how your text can be improved. For example, automatically adding transition words where needed.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or writing rules make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

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Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic writing.

Disclosure: This post may contain affiliate links, which means I may earn a small commission if you make a purchase using the links below at no additional cost to you . I only recommend products or services that I truly believe can benefit my audience. As always, my opinions are my own.

Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing

Linking words expressing additions in academic writing, linking words expressing cause and effect in academic writing, linking words expressing contrasts and comparisons in academic writing, linking words expressing emphasis in academic writing, linking words expressing illustrations in academic writing, linking words expressing summaries and conclusions in academic writing, linking words expressing conditionality in academic writing, linking words expressing generalisations in academic writing, linking words expressing concessions in academic writing.

1. First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)

Example: First, I review the existing literature on cross-border collaboration. Second, I explain the methodology …

Example: The thesis starts with a literature review. Next, I describe the case study design.

Example: Finally, recommendations for future research are presented.

4. Subsequently

Example: Study participants underwent several experiments and were subsequently examined.

5. Afterwards

Example: The event increased public awareness of this issue. Afterwards, politicians debated it more openly.

6. Eventually

Example: Eventually, this led to the creation of a social movement.

Example: Before scientists discovered the role of neurons in information processing, they assumed that…

8. Previously

Example: Previously, scholars believed that nurture was the most important factor in a child’s development.

linking words critical essay

Example: Scholars examine the causes and effects of poverty.

10. Furthermore

Example: Furthermore, the data illustrates the number of chemicals that can be found in drinking water.

11. Additionally

Example: Additionally, the interviewee lamented a lack of attention to his work.

12. As well as

Example: Scholars utilise qualitative as well as quantitative methods to study this phenomenon.

13. Besides

Example: Besides the public outreach component, we wrote a handbook to disseminate the research results in the academic community.

Example: The financial compensation was also appreciated by the study participants.

15. Moreover

Example: Moreover, interviewees were asked to describe their own experiences.

You may also like: How to paraphrase a quote: 4 simple strategies

16. Because

Example: This theory was ultimately rejected because it was built on a flawed dataset.

Example: The outcomes improved since different parties joined forces.

Example: As the number of studies increases, better conclusions can be drawn.

Example: Scientists realised that the data analysis had flaws. So they decided not to run the same data analysis again.

20. Therefore

Example: Many researchers have conducted this experiment with similar results. Therefore, this theory can be debunked.

21. Consequently

Example: The literature highlights the importance of age and physical fitness. Consequently, these factors will be investigated further.

Example: Due to a low response rate, the study’s validity is low.

23. Nevertheless

Example: One academic study found the opposite results. Nevertheless, it can be argued that…

Example: Many scholars have explored this issue. Yet, to date, no inclusive framework exists to explain…

25. Although

Example: Although a confidentiality agreement was provided, study participants were hesitant to disclose private information.

26. In spite of

Example: In spite of the different study contexts, all experiments pointed to similar results.

27. Whereas

Example: People often stated that they are aware of the rules whereas they behaved as if they did not.

Example: While older studies often emphasise structural effects, newer ones tend to highlight the role of agency.

29. In contrast

Example: In contrast to previous findings, my analysis shows that…

30. Similarly

Example: One study found that the majority of residents in disadvantaged areas do not have access to sufficient resources. Similarly, my research revealed that most residents live too far away from the services and resources they would need to climb the social ladder.

31. Equally

Example: E qually important, however, is the role of personal beliefs in decision-making processes.

32. Likewise

Example: The interviewee considered this issue important and expected his colleagues to do likewise.

33. On the other hand

Example: On the one hand, research in this field advanced considerably in the last 20 years. On the other hand, a lot remains unclear.

Example: Unlike social scientists, physical scientists often conduct laboratory examinations.

linking words critical essay

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35. Particularly

Example: Particularly relevant for this study is the molecular orbital theory.

36. Especially

Example: Especially younger interviewees expressed dissatisfaction with the status quo.

37. Above all

Example: Above all, this method can generate better insights into the physical processes at hand.

Example: Indeed, motivation turned out to be a defining factor of academic success.

38. Clearly

Example: Clearly, these scholars were not aware of recent advances in medical sciences.

39. Definitely

Example: This was definitely the most important event of the year.

40. Importantly

Example: More importantly, the findings underscore the importance of conflict resolution.

41. Undoubtedly

Example: Undoubtedly, all stakeholders had good intentions.

42. Obviously

Example: Obviously it is too early to draw final conclusions.

43. Of course

Example: Of course, this study should be replicated in a different context.

44. Surprisingly

Example: Surprisingly, all results were unambiguous.

45. Such as

Example: Scientists have explored different parts of the problem, such as CO2 emissions and hydrological processes.

46. For example

Example: Many interviewees were nervous. For example, when asked to describe the event, some of them started to stutter.

47. For instance

Example: Scholars have criticised this approach for different reasons. For instance, they argued that qualitative methods are insufficient to draw generalisable conclusions.

48. In this case

Example: Difficulties arise when no study participants can be found. In this case, alternative methods should be considered.

50. To conclude

Example: To conclude, the empirical analysis supports previous research findings.

51. In conclusion

Example: In conclusion, the reviewed literature highlights a clear research gap.

52. To sum up

Example: To sum up, a mixed methods approach is a better choice than a purely quantitative one.

53. In summary

Example: In summary, it is my opinion that conditions should be improved.

54. In short

Example: In short, scholars call for more research on climate change mitigation.

55. Altogether

Example: Altogether, these examples support the main argument.

Example: Energy supply became a growing problem. Thus, new policies were implemented.

Example: The first dataset was incomplete. Hence, a new dataset had to be developed.

Example: Unless stated otherwise, I refer to the concept as…

59. As long as

Example: As long as the conditions do not change, the results should remain stable.

Example: If scientists study this phenomenon in the future, they should pay attention to structural drivers.

61. Provided that

Example: Provided that nothing changes, the effects on society will be negative.

Example: Should the distribution change, it is fair to expect…

63. Even if

Example: Even if more experiments are conducted, human behaviour remains hard to predict.

Example: Often, this issue was flagged by interviewees themselves.

65. Commonly

Example: Commonly, this criterion is used for categorising plants.

66. Overall

Example: Overall the data confirmed the hypothesis.

67. Typically

Example: Typically emotions run high in such situations.

68. Generally

Example: Generally speaking, scholars address this issue from two angles.

Example: Mainly researchers in the global North discuss this phenomenon.

Example: Mostly, these results cannot be replicated outside of the lab.

71. Even if

Example: This is hard to prove. Even if the study sample is large enough.

72. Regardless of

Example: Regardless of their genetic makeup, mice showcased the same symptoms.

Example: Albeit experiencing setbacks, successful students do not get discouraged.

74. Admittedly

Example: Admittedly, the validity of this study should be increased.

75. Nonetheless

Example: Nonetheless, this study can be seen as a valuable contribution to the international literature.

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Connecting ideas

How to connect ideas at the sentence and paragraph level in academic writing.

What is cohesion?

Cohesion refers to the way we use vocabulary and grammatical structures to make connections between the ideas within a text. It provides flow and sequence to your work and helps make your paragraphs clear for the reader.

Cohesive devices are words and expressions that show relationships between parts of text and ideas, such as cause and effect, time, addition, or comparison and contrast.

Watch the video to learn how to make your ideas link together and your narrative flow.

How can I create cohesion?

Let’s look at types of cohesive devices.

Linking words

Academic writing usually deals with complex ideas. To enable the reader to follow your thoughts, they need to be clearly and smoothly linked. To join ideas and sentences, we use a number of connecting words and phrases. For example:

Additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore.

If, in that case, provided that, unless.

Correspondingly, equally, for the same reason, in a similar manner, in comparison, in the same way, on the one hand, similarly.

Alternatively, although, but, conversely, despite, even so, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, on the contrary, contrary to, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the other hand, rather, still, though, yet, whereas, while.

Again, in fact, interestingly, indeed, it should be noted (that), more important(ly), most importantly, to repeat, (un)fortunately, unquestionably.

A further instance of this is..., an example of this is…, for example, for instance, such as, thus, as follows.

In other words, more simply, namely, simply put, to put it differently / another way, such as, that is.

A / the consequence of, because, due to, for, the effect of …, since, the result of …

Accordingly, as a result/consequence, consequently, for this reason, hence, so, therefore, thus.

Admittedly, although, clearly though, even though, however, indeed, obviously.

As a rule, for the most part, generally, in general, in most cases, normally, on the whole, usually.

First, second, third (etc), next, before, earlier, finally, following, given the above, later, meanwhile, subsequently, then, to conclude, while.

A note about presentation and style

Check a usage guide for exact rules for punctuation. Many introductory phrases have a comma after them. For example, 'therefore,' and 'in addition,'.

Referring backwards

To avoid repeating words and phrases many times, we use cohesive devices to make references to other parts of a text, such as:

  • Pronouns: it, he, she, his, her, they, their
  • Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
  • Articles: a, the
  • Adverbs: previously, subsequently

The Australian prime minister has called an early election. The date was selected to coincide with the start of the Olympic Games. This decision was based on the views of his ministerial advisors, who predicted that voter confidence in the government’s policies would be strong at this time . As previously mentioned , decisions on the timing of elections are based on predictions of voter confidence in the existing government.

In the example above:

  • The date - refers back to the election date
  • This decision - refers to the prime minister calling an early election
  • His - refers to the Australian prime minister
  • this time - refers to the start of the Olympic Games
  • As previously mentioned - refers to all of the earlier information about the selection of election dates

Looking forward

We often use words and phrases to highlight new information for the reader. This helps make a smooth transition from one point to another. Such phrases include: the following, as follows, below, next, subsequently .

The following dates have been proposed for the forthcoming election: September 8, September 15 and 3 October.

The next issue to be discussed is the influence of the media on voter confidence in the government.

Connecting paragraphs

Apart from using the linking words / phrases above, showing the link between paragraphs could involve writing ‘hand-holding’ sentences. These are sentences that link back to the ideas of the previous paragraph. For instance, when outlining the positive and negative issues about a topic you could use the following:

Example (from beginning of previous paragraph):

  • One of the main advantages of X is…

When you are ready to move your discussion to the negative issues, you could write one of the following as a paragraph opener:

  • Having considered the positive effects of X, negative issues may now need to be taken into account…
  • Despite the positive effects outlined above, negative issues also need to be considered...

It is always important to make paragraphs part of a coherent whole text; they must not remain isolated units.

Checking for paragraph links in your own work

When you are editing your next written assignment, ask yourself the following questions as you read through your work (Gillett, Hammond, & Martala, 2009):

  • Does the start of my paragraph give my reader enough information about what the paragraph will be about?
  • Does my paragraph add to or elaborate on a point made previously and, if so, have I made this explicit with an appropriate linking word / phrase?
  • Does my paragraph introduce a completely new point or a different viewpoint to before and, if so, have I explicitly shown this with a suitable connective?
  • Have I used similar connectives repeatedly? If yes, try to vary them using the above list.

Strategies to improve cohesion

  • Select a piece of writing, preferably from a textbook or journal article, from your area of study.
  • Choose a paragraph and underline or highlight all the different forms of cohesion used, such as using linking words, referring backwards, looking forwards or adding synonyms.
  • Which forms are the most common?
  • Choose a couple that you think are effective and practice using them in your own writing.
  • Try to use a variety of ways to show the relationship between your ideas.

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Linking words

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Linking words help link sentences to other sentences and paragraphs to other paragraphs. These linking words help to:

  • increase cohesion in your writing by connecting your ideas.
  • add clarity to your writing so you say exactly what you want to say.
  • make your writing sound more professional.

Compare the two paragraphs below. Notice how the linking words add flow to the paragraph

Linking words have a number of specific language functions, such as sequencing, summarising and referencing. Linking words enable writers to express their ideas naturally. Linking words can be extremely useful, it is important not to overuse them, your writing may sound too verbose. Not using them enough will make your writing sound simplistic. Be sure that you use a suitable range of linking words. Paragraph with   linking words (bold)

The function of linking words

Sentence to previous sentence, subordinate clause.

To add information

To show cause and effect

To contrast/contradict information

To emphasise and highlight

To equate/show similarity

To refer back

To present alternatives

To provide examples

To show a sequence

To summarise and simplify

To show an idea is limited or uncommon

To show an idea is widespread

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Linking words & connecting ideas

Get your writing to flow by trying these words and phrases to link words and connect your ideas. Once you are tuned into these words, you will see them throughout academic writing.

Download these on our helpsheet, University Speak .

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Formal Linking Words / Cohesive Devices

Linking words can also be referred to as connectors, conjunctions, and cohesive devices. This webpage includes a useful lesson on helping improve students’ knowledge of these linking words. It includes a lesson plan using a kinaesthetic matching activity and worksheet.

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The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay

linking-words

Let’s face it: You can’t write an essay (or any other writing piece) without linking words.

Also known as connecting words or transition words, they serve to make your writing flow and help those reading your work follow the flow of your thoughts, ideas , and  arguments .

This post is your guide to linking words and their role in writing. Not only will you learn the types of these words, examples, and reasons to use them, but you’ll also get a massive list of transition words and phrases as well as linking words PDF to download and use whenever necessary.

Table of Contents:

What are Linking Words?

Why use transition words in essays, linking words examples, addition/agreement/similarity, contrast/contradiction/limitation/opposition, comparison/concession/condition, clarification, cause/effect/result, emphasis/example, generalization, illustration, location/place/space, reason/reference, time/sequence, summary/conclusion/restatement.

  • The Ultimate List of Linking Words: Download

Linking words are lexical items (words and phrases) we use to connect ideas in writing and get a reader to the next sentence or paragraph.

They aren’t about essay writing only:

Whether you write a fiction book,  marketing content , academic works,  autobiography , or poems, you’ll need to connect ideas. That’s what transition words do:

They link your thoughts and arguments into a chain to show how they relate to each other. Also known as transition words, these phrases often start a sentence or a paragraph. However, you’ll also use them in the middle of sentences to bring ideas together.

The most common places for linking words in essays are:

  • the start of a paragraph
  • the start of a sentence introducing a new idea or extending an argument 
  • the beginning of a concluding statement

Essay linking words is an integral part of academic writing. Put it simply, you can’t write a paper without using them; otherwise, your writing won’t make any sense for readers.

Transition words for essay serve to:

  • connect ideas in writing
  • create a flow of thoughts and arguments for readers to understand what you want to say
  • guide readers from one idea to another, demonstrating how they relate to each other
  • hook readers  and encourage them to read the next sentence or paragraph
  • add more information
  • support or contrast a point
  • show the result, conclude, demonstrate an effect of this or that point

Using essay maker and connecting words, each sentence and paragraph must pass readers on to the next one. These connecting words serve as an instrument to guide readers from one thought or point to the next.

Linking words examples are many, and it’s clear why: every piece of writing contains tons of connecting and transition words. Let’s take an essay sample from  Bid4Papers writers  to see the example of linking words in academic writing:

linking-words-examples

This one was an  essay introduction . 

Now, why not take a step further and look for essay linking words in  essay conclusions ?

linking-words-examples-2

Types and List of Linking Words to Use in Essays

Below you’ll find the ultimate list of transition words for essays by categories. Choose the role you need a word to play (reason, contrast, emphasis, restatement, etc.) and consider the corresponding table of transitions.

If you need the whole transition words list in one place, jump to the next category of this post to find the downloadable linking words pdf.

And now, for connecting words categories:

These words serve to add info to what you’ve previously stated, demonstrate the commonality between arguments, and support your thoughts.

Linking words for contrast is your instrument to show how things are different and provide counterarguments. They work best in  persuasive  and  critical  essays.

These lexical items will help you if you need to provide conditions to your statements, show how things are different/similar, or accept a point with reservation.

These words will help you with  personal  or  narrative essays: They are linking words in opinion writing that indicates you’re going to explore ideas in more detail.

Expository essays will win with these words too.

Cause and effect connecting words do what their name says exactly: demonstrating a cause of some point and providing the result of what has been done or started.

These words are for putting forward your point more forcefully, providing examples.

Perfect transition words for hypothesis essays , generalization lexical items serve to make a general statement you’ll then specify and prove in detail.

These words and phrases are for you to provide examples in essays.

Use these words to provide order and reference or clarify spatial relationships between your points or ideas.

These transitional words will help you demonstrate relationships between ideas and provide reasons for what and why has started or occurred.

Use these words in your essay when you need to indicate the time and order of what you say.

Restatement words will help you express an alternative to what you previously stated. They work for all essay types, including  rhetorical precis  and  dialectic essays .

Use summary and conclusion transitional phrases to sum up your points and come up with the final paragraph of your writing.

The Ultimate List of Connecting Words: Download

And now, for the most interesting and practical part:

Below you can find the linking words worksheet that gathers all the most commonly used transitional words in essays. Feel free to download this linking words PDF and refer to it every time you write an essay and experience writer’s block:

linking-words-pdf

Do you need more guides and worksheets like this to assist you with academic writing? Please share your ideas in the comments, and our writers will be happy to help!

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50 linking words to use in academic writing

It’s very common for students to use long words they don’t understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and convoluted, and uses a lot of jargon. This leads many students to fall into a trap of imagining that the longer the word, the more impressive and intelligent their writing will seem.

We often see long sentences and multisyllabic words where shorter sentences and simpler words would do. Some students even use Microsoft Word’s thesaurus function to replace a common word with a more complicated word. This is a risky move, because unless you’re very careful, the new word may not carry quite the same meaning as the original, even if it’s similar.

The result can range from funny to confusing, which defeats the purpose of academic writing: to be as clear and concise as possible, using just the right words to convey your argument. Using uncommon words, instead of making your paper seem smarter, generally detracts from your ideas.

To avoid this, using linking or transition words that signpost your arguments can help to clarify your views and show the reader what to expect from certain paragraphs or sentences. These words give structure to the whole, helping you to organise your ideas and assist the reader in understanding them.

We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing.

CLICK HERE to download these FREE flashcards

Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language.

Describing similarities

Correspondingly

Not only… but also

In the same way

Showing cause and effect

Consequently

As a result

Hence (never ‘hence why’)

Since (try to avoid ‘as’ when showing cause and effect)

Accordingly

This suggests that

It follows that

For this reason

Comparing and contrasting

Alternatively

On the other hand

On the contrary

Showing limitation or contradiction

Despite/in spite of

While (not whilst!)

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

50 linking words to use in academic writing

Emphasis, addition or examples

To illustrate

Further (not ‘furthermore’)

First, second and third (not firstly, secondly and thirdly)

For instance

In addition

To summarise

It can be concluded that

As can be seen

Given the above

As described

The best way to get better at writing academic language is to read academic writing. You’ll pick up all sorts of useful tips from published papers in your area of study.

linking words critical essay

Updated 31 January 2023 Ellen McRae, PhD, AE (IPEd), MNZSTI Senior Managing Editor

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Linking Words for Essay Writing: Useful Paragraph Phrases

Linking Words for Essay Writing: Useful Paragraph Phrases

Importance of Linking Words in Essay Writing

Importance of Linking Words in Essay Writing

An essay is an important piece of writing when a student is seeking college admission. It needs to have a clear flow so that the readability is perfect. Rightly so, the sentences you construct need to flow and lead to each other seamlessly.

Linking or transition words come in handy to make your essay have comprehensible sentences.  The words act as the ideal connectors and bridges that eliminate sentence isolation.

linking words critical essay

Factually, both writing and speaking need linking words that will help the audience form a clear relationship between ideas. Listeners and readers are able to comprehend responses when the right linking words are in place.

What are Linking Words in Essay Writing?

Linking words are the uniformity basis of an essay. When these words are in an essay, they showcase a connection between sentences. As usual, a typical essay consists of different sections and paragraphs.

linking words+examples

If there are no transition words, the sentences will appear incoherent and messy. The use of linking words clearly show the relationship existing between all sections and paragraphs in an essay.

When writing your essay, make use of linking words as a bridge between the concepts you are writing and ideas in your essay. The readers will enjoy a cohesive piece of essay with texts that are flowing smoothly.

The assessment team has a lot of essays to read and you can make their work easy by using your linking words appropriately. If this is not the case, your professor will have to go through a lot of stress in trying to understand your essay.

Basically, if you want to impress your readers and consequently improve your scores, practice the best linking words skills.

Reasons for Using Linking Words in Essay Writing

Only proper usage of linking words will help you come up with a compelling essay. After toiling to conduct research for your essay, improper structure of sentences will make your efforts go to waste. 

using linking words

Good students endeavor and strive to create an appealing and expressive essay. A thorough use of the right linking words will make your presentation and persuasion of ideas flow perfectly.

Linking words are very crucial in any type of essay . If you do not want your texts to appear clucky, transition words ought to be in place.

 Here are more reasons why you need linking words in your essay:

1. Flow of order and sequence

An essay needs flow of texts, ideas and thoughts otherwise it will lose its quality. Therefore, writers need to make huge efforts and use the right linking words that will bring a sequence of order in the essay.

Such words include next, then, firstly, secondly, afterwards, finally and afterwards. Other transition words to use include concurrently, at the same time, earlier, first of all, following this and for now.

A good sequence order in your essay is also enhanced when you use words such as lastly, in the end, in the beginning or once upon a time.

2. Showcasing comparison        

There are essays that will require the writer to show comparison. Linking words play an important role in contrast and argumentative essays .

If you need to bring out comparison clearly, consider the use of words such as similarly, equally, comparable, in the same time and likewise.

 Apart from same as, other words or phrases to use include just like, just as and comparably.

3. Contrasting

a contrasting sentence

Transition words are the best when you want to bring out contrast in a sentence. In most of the cases, place then at the beginning or in the middle of your sentence to create the right contrast.

However, despite this, yet, whereas and alternatively are some of the words you can use.

4. Illustration of examples

There are places in your essay where you will have to give examples. Obviously, most essays will need illustration of evidence with the use of linking words.

Giving examples without these words will make your text to sound blunt.

Linking words such as for instance, in the case of, and for instance will make it easy to introduce your examples.

5. Including additions

You will also need to use linking words when putting additions in your essays. These words will ensure that you have added a txt with the correct meaning to your essay.

Furthermore, also, secondly, in addition and moreover are some of the linking words to use.

6. Introduction of cause and effects

Cause and effects in an essay can help the writer draw a sensible conclusion. In essence, it helps to bring about good connection of the essay when a conclusion is being added. Therefore, the relationship between cause and effect is better shown using the right linking words.

Owing to, thus, since, as a result of and because are some of the transition words you can use. Other words to use include stems from, leads to, results from, for this reason etc.

7. For conclusion purposes

Starting an impressive essay can only be better if the conclusion is attractive. It is good to bring about the conclusion using appropriate linking words that are not common.

You can conclude your essay using words such as finally, in conclusion, summarizing, in summary and briefly. 

As a writer, you need to bear in mind that adjusting and positioning these words is a must if you are to impress your readers.

Conclusion linking words

Dos of Using Linking Words

  • Adjust and position your linking words properly otherwise the reader will not be impressed.
  • Do mix up the linking words you use.  Using one word several times can be very annoying to the reader. Since the transition phrases are many, mix them up in your essay to avoid repetition.
  • Be accurate in using these words when connecting your ideas in an essay. Know the difference between these phrases to understand the meaning correctly.
  • You can use these words when you want to accentuate a point. In other words, use them to stress something important in your writing.

30 Examples of Linking Words for Essay Writing

  • On the flipside
  • On the contrary
  • By and large   
  • As a consequence of
  • In conclusion
  • Following this
  • At this point of time
  • In the same way
  • As an example
  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • Under the circumstances
  • That is to say
  • With this intention
  • Subsequently
  • In order to
  • Of less importance
  • What’s more
  • Furthermore
  • Alternatively
  • In spite of
  • To illustrate
  • To demonstrate
  • In the middle of
  • For the avoidance of doubt

Wrapping Up on Linking words on Essay Writing

You can’t overlook the significance of linking words in essay writing. Transition words are important in bringing ideas together so that they appear as a whole in your essay.

All in all, an essay that flows well must incorporate the right transition words to link arguments and actions. The readers will be able to connect an event that took place because of a consequence of a different action.

Essays need to have a flow of ideas with each one building on the other. Yet still, organization of thoughts in essay writing is valuable and this is where linking words play a critical role.

To sum it up, the more your thoughts are in good organization, the smoother your essay will flow. When you use linking words appropriately, your piece will have a logical structure that is appealing to the reader.

Josh Jasen

When not handling complex essays and academic writing tasks, Josh is busy advising students on how to pass assignments. In spare time, he loves playing football or walking with his dog around the park.

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  • Common linking words

All sentences in a paragraph need to relate to the main idea in the topic sentence. The reader should be able to see how each sentence flows from the previous one and how each is connected to the topic sentence. Linking words and phrases weave sentences together to create a cohesive paragraph.

Linking words and phrases

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Academic Phrasebank

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Being critical.

  • GENERAL LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
  • Being cautious
  • Classifying and listing
  • Compare and contrast
  • Defining terms
  • Describing trends
  • Describing quantities
  • Explaining causality
  • Giving examples
  • Signalling transition
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As an academic writer, you are expected to be critical of the sources that you use. This essentially means questioning what you read and not necessarily agreeing with it just because the information has been published. Being critical can also mean looking for reasons why we should not just accept something as being correct or true. This can require you to identify problems with a writer’s arguments or methods, or perhaps to refer to other people’s criticisms of these. Constructive criticism goes beyond this by suggesting ways in which a piece of research or writing could be improved. … being against is not enough. We also need to develop habits of constructive thinking. Edward de Bono

Highlighting inadequacies of previous studies

Previous studies of X have not dealt with … Researchers have not treated X in much detail. Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they … Most studies in the field of X have only focused on … Such approaches, however, have failed to address … Previous published studies are limited to local surveys. Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether … The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than published studies on the effect of X are not consistent. Smith’s analysis does not take account of …, nor does she examine …

The existing accounts fail to resolve the contradiction between X and Y. Most studies of X have only been carried out in a small number of areas. However, much of the research up to now has been descriptive in nature … The generalisability of much published research on this issue is problematic. Research on the subject has been mostly restricted to limited comparisons of … However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic research into … Short-term studies such as these do not necessarily show subtle changes over time … Although extensive research has been carried out on X, no single study exists which … However, these results were based upon data from over 30 years ago and it is unclear if … The experimental data are rather controversial, and there is no general agreement about …

Identifying a weakness in a single study or paper

Offering constructive suggestions.

The study would have been more interesting if it had included … These studies would have been more useful if they had focused on … The study would have been more relevant if the researchers had asked … The questionnaire would have been more useful if it had asked participants about … The research would have been more relevant if a wider range of X had been explored

Introducing problems and limitations: theory or argument

Smith’s argument relies too heavily on … The main weakness with this theory is that … The key problem with this explanation is that … However, this theory does not fully explain why … One criticism of much of the literature on X is that … Critics question the ability of the X theory to provide … However, there is an inconsistency with this argument.

A serious weakness with this argument, however, is that … However, such explanations tend to overlook the fact that … One of the main difficulties with this line of reasoning is that … Smith’s interpretation overlooks much of the historical research … Many writers have challenged Smith’s claim on the grounds that … The X theory has been criticised for being based on weak evidence. A final criticism of the theory of X is that it struggles to explain some aspects of …

Introducing problems and limitations: method or practice

The limitation of this approach is that … A major problem with the X method is that … One major drawback of this approach is that … A criticism of this experimental design is that … The main limitation of this technique, however, is … Selection bias is another potential concern because …

Perhaps the most serious disadvantage of this method is that … In recent years, however, this approach has been challenged by … Non-government agencies are also very critical of the new policies. All the studies reviewed so far, however, suffer from the fact that … Critics of laboratory-based experiments contend that such studies … There are certain problems with the use of focus groups. One of these is that there is less …

Using evaluative adjectives to comment on research

Introducing general criticism.

Critics question the ability of poststructuralist theory to provide … Non-government agencies are also very critical of the new policies. Smith’s meta-analysis has been subjected to considerable criticism. The most important of these criticisms is that Smith failed to note that … The X theory has been vigorously challenged in recent years by a number of writers. These claims have been strongly contested in recent years by a number of writers. More recent arguments against X have been summarised by Smith and Jones (1982): Critics have also argued that not only do surveys provide an inaccurate measure of X, but the … Many analysts now argue that the strategy of X has not been successful. Jones (2003), for example, argues that …

Introducing the critical stance of particular writers

Smith (2014) disputes this account of … Jones (2003) has also questioned why … However, Jones (2015) points out that … The author challenges the widely held view that … Smith (1999) takes issue with the contention that … The idea that … was first challenged by Smith (1992). Smith is critical of the tendency to compartmentalise X. However, Smith (1967) questioned this hypothesis and …

Jones (2003) has challenged some of Smith’s conclusions, arguing that … Another major criticism of Smith’s study, made by Jones (2003), is that … Jones (2003) is probably the best-known critic of the X theory. He argues that … In her discussion of X, Smith further criticises the ways in which some authors … Smith’s decision to reject the classical explanation of X merits some discussion … In a recent article in Academic Journal, Smith (2014) questions the extent to which … The latter point has been devastatingly critiqued by Jones (2003), who argues that … A recently published article by Smith et al. (2011) casts doubt on Jones’ assumption that … Other authors (see Smith, 2012; Jones, 2014) question the usefulness of such an approach.

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  • Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on 20 October 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 15 March 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

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There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before ‘as well as’ but not before ‘and’.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

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Linking Words To Use In An Essay

linking words critical essay

Table of Contents

Concerned that your essay isn’t logical or has enough structure? You can include linking words, or transition words to make it stronger.

An essay is a crucial type of academic paper. It needs to have a clear flow so that the readability is perfect. Precisely stated, the sentences you create should naturally flow into one another. However, using linking words helps ensure that the sentences in your essay make sense. The words serve as the perfect linkers and overpasses to break up sentence segmentation. Additionally, these words can be used to present a conclusion, provide details, summarise, highlight a point, arrange material, compare and contrast ideas, and give illustrations. You might not be aware of these words and how to use them in your essay writing. Don’t worry. We are here to help you! This blog of All Assignment Help will let you know all about linking words and how you can use them in your essay writing to make it more effective and readable.

What are Linking Words?

Linking words are those words that showcase a connection between sentences. They help in forming the uniformity in the essay. Often referred to as transition words, these words serve to establish a connection between paragraphs or other essay sections. Linking words serves as a means of connecting the ideas or thoughts expressed in essays.

Moreover, the use of linking words makes your writing look more logical. Thus, you should use proper linking words to reduce the reading efforts of the readers. Your essay shouldn’t cause readers mental strain to understand it. Therefore, it is essential to make things simple for them.

Essays commonly use linking words in the following places:

  • The beginning of a paragraph
  • Beginning of a statement that expands on an argument or presents something new
  • At the start of a concluding statement

However, you need to use the right to link it from one another sentences or paragraphs. For example, when you are writing an argumentative essay , you need to make sure the flow of linking words is correct and logical so that the argument you are presenting sounds accurate.

Read Here: Words You May Find Confusing

The Reasons Behind Using Linking Words in Essays

Essay sentences that link is a crucial component of academic writing. To put it another way, you cannot write a paper without using them. Otherwise, readers will not understand what you have written. Linking words in the essay are used to:

  • Link concepts in your writing
  • Organize your ideas and arguments so that readers can follow along and grasp what you are trying to communicate.
  • Lead readers from one concept to the next while highlighting their connections.
  • Draw readers in and encourage them to continue reading the following sentence or paragraph
  • Provide more details
  • Strengthen or disprove an argument
  • Show the outcome, draw a conclusion, and illustrate how this or that point is affected

Every phrase and paragraph in an essay must lead the reader to the next one using essay maker and connecting words. The purpose of these transitional words is to help readers move from one idea or point to the next.

Three Main Types of Linking Words

There are three main types of linking words i.e. coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions. Let’s discuss these three more briefly.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions are utilized to join two or more equally important items. Another name for them is FANBOYS, which is a shorthand for For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.

For example, she is putting a lot of effort into her studies to gain admission to a reputable university.

Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinate clause is joined to a main clause by a subordinating conjunction. However, the supporting clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and is of lesser significance than the main clause.

For example, she stayed home from work because she felt sick.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are utilized in pairs to connect two things of equal value. They are used to illustrate the connection between two concepts.

For example, not only did she finish her work, but she also helped her colleagues.

You can learn about the types of linking words by taking an online course. You can also hire someone to take your online class for you to get professional assistance which will help you in acing your online course with great credits.

Useful Linking Words for Essay Writing

It is not an easy task to compose a compelling essay. If you want to make your essay more appealing and expressive, focus on research, presentation, and persuasion. However, if you don’t have a knack for writing, then you will fail miserably in forming a logical essay with judicial use of linking words.

There are various categories of linking words one can use while writing an essay. Here, you will share the main categories and word lists to be used while framing an essay.

linking words

Linking Words List for Agreement/Addition/Similarity

Using linking words can help the reader understand further remarks or concepts in a statement. They might also convey agreement or similarities. These words are also known as additive transition words, which are often utilized in narrative and explanatory essay writings. The words used to link in such context are:

  • In the first place
  • As a matter of fact
  • In like manner
  • In addition
  • Not only, but also
  • In the same manner
  • First, second, third
  • Not to mention
  • In the light of
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • At the same time
  • Together with
  • Identically

List Of Linking Words for Sequence/Order

Any kind of essay needs to have flow. Your essay will lose its brilliance if there is a lack of consistency or logical flow of ideas. Here is a linking word list that helps by showing a sequence order in the essay.

  • First/ Second/ Third or Firstly/ secondly/ Thirdly
  • Primary/ Secondary
  • At this point of time
  • Concurrently
  • First of all
  • Following this
  • The next step
  • In the beginning
  • It all started when
  • Once upon a time
  • To begin with/ To start with

Linking Word List for Opposition/Limitation/Contradiction

However, certain linking words provide additional information, these transitional words and phrases convey opposing concepts in writing. These are:

  • Although this may be true
  • In contrast
  • Different from
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Nonetheless
  • Even so/though
  • Nevertheless

List Of Words for The Conclusion

An essay with a strong conclusion is considered to be excellent. Unfortunately, most students conclude their essays with nearly the same words, but you have the opportunity to do so here. Look at the linking words list for an excellent conclusion:

  • To conclude
  • In conclusion
  • On the whole
  • Summarising
  • By and large
  • All things considered
  • In the long run
  • For the most part
  • By the large
  • Consequently
  • As a result

Linking Word List to Give Place/Location/Geographical Area

They can be used alone or in combination with words from other categories. They are almost often used together with other terms from the aforementioned groups. They are used to define, limit, or restrict space like the time ones. However, students often face difficulties when using linking words to write about a place and location, which ultimately leads them to buy online essay writing help from professionals. Here is your list of words that you can use to give a location or place.

  • in the background
  • in the center of
  • adjacent to
  • opposite to
  • to the left/right
  • on this site

List of Linking Words for Examples/Support/Emphasis

Transition words that provide examples or strengthen an idea might be used in your essay writing. Here is a list of words that can be used to improvise such contexts:

  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • For one thing
  • In particular
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For example
  • For instance
  • For this reason
  • To put it another way
  • To demonstrate
  • That is to say
  • With attention to
  • By all means
  • To emphasize

Words for Reason/Reference

You can use these linking words to explain connections between concepts and give explanations for what has started or happened.

  • for the purpose of
  • seeing that
  • with this in mind
  • as applied to
  • the fact that
  • granted that
  • in order to
  • with this purpose
  • considering
  • in connection to
  • with regards to
  • provided that

Linking Words for Time/Chronology/Sequence

Another function of linking words in literature is to illustrate chronology or sequence. These expressions give time a meaning that is included in the time category. These are the types of words that appear in the introduction of an essay when a writer outlines the structure of the work.

  • Sooner or later
  • Up to the present time
  • To begin with
  • Straightaway
  • In the meantime
  • In a moment
  • Without delay

Linking Words for Outcomes/Impacts/Repercussions

These particular words are used to demonstrate how one item affected another, to illustrate the outcomes of an action, or to demonstrate how something affected something else. A short list of transitions that work well for this specific category is shown below.

  • consequently
  • for this reason
  • in that case
  • as a result

Also Read: Your Guide Towards Writing An Outstanding Short Essay!

Final Thoughts!

The importance of linking words in essay writing cannot be overstated. These words are crucial for connecting concepts and making your essay read as a cohesive whole. Your essay will flow more naturally the more well-organized your thoughts are. Additionally, your writing will have a logical framework and an engaging read when you make use of linking words correctly.

However, to learn more about these words, you can choose to sign up for an online English class. An online English class will help you boost your knowledge about linking words and how you can use them in your writing. Furthermore, whenever you find yourself struggling with your English class and want to pay someone to take my online English class for me, you can hire an online class helper who will be there to take your worries aside.

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Home > Essay writing and study advice

  • How to begin a new paragraph. Useful linking words and phrases.

It is a good idea to occasionally use linking words and phrases at the start of a new paragraph. They can help to link what you have said in the previous paragraph to what you are about to say in your new paragraph.

These link words and phrases are often referred to as signposts. This is because they help to indicate to the reader when one point ends and other begins, as well as the relationship between each point.

Used with care, they can help to guide examiners and tutors through your essay. As well as bolster the impression of a coherent, flowing and logical piece of work.

Useful linking words and phrases that can be used at the start of new paragraphs:

A contrary explanation is that, …

Although, …

As a consequence, …

As a result, …

As we have seen, …

At the same time, …

Accordingly, …

An equally significant aspect of…

Another, significant factor in…

Before considering X it is important to note Y

By the same token, …

But we should also consider, …

Despite these criticisms, …it’s popularity remains high.

Certainly, there is no shortage of disagreement within…

Consequently, …

Correspondingly, …

Conversely, …

Chaytor, … in particular, has focused on the

Despite this, …

Despite these criticisms, … the popularity of X remains largely undiminished.

Each of these theoretical positions make an important contribution to our understanding of, …

Evidence for in support of this position, can be found in…,

For this reason, …

For these reasons, …

Furthermore, …

Given, the current high profile debate with regard to, …it is quite surprising that …

Given, the advantages of … outlined in the previous paragraph, …it is quite predictable that …

Having considered X, it is also reasonable to look at …

In addition to, …

In contrast, …

In this way, …

In this manner, …

In the final analysis, …

In short, …

It can be seen from the above analysis that, …

It could also be said that, …

It is however, important to note the limitations of…

It is important to note however, that …

It is important however not to assume the applicability of, …in all cases.

It is important however not to overemphasis the strengths of …

In the face of such criticism, proponents of, …have responded in a number of ways.

Moreover, …

Notwithstanding such criticism, ….it’s popularity remains largely undiminished.

Notwithstanding these limitations, ….it worth remains in a number of situations.

Noting the compelling nature of this new evidence, …has suggested that.

Nevertheless, …remains a growing problem.

Nonetheless, the number of, …has continued to expand at an exponential rate.

On the other hand, critics of, …point to its blindness, with respect to.

Of central concern therefore to, …sociologists is explaining how societal processes and institutions…

Proponents of…, have also suggested that…

Subsequently, …

Similarly, …

The sentiment expressed in the quotation, embodies the view that, …

This interpretation of, … has not been without it’s detractors however.

This approach is similar to the, …. position

This critique, unfortunately, implies a singular cause of, …

This point is also sustained by the work of, …

This counter argument is supported by evidence from, …

The use of the term, …

Therefore, …

There appears then to be an acceleration in the growth of

There is also, however, a further point to be considered.

These technological developments have greatly increased the growth in, …

To be able to understand, …

Undoubtedly, …

While such failures must not be discounted, … there were in comparison small, when compared

Whilst the discussion in the preceding paragraph, …

Whether crime rates were actually lower at this time continues to be a matter of debate. Evidence from…

There are an almost limitless number of linking phrases and words one can use. What is important is that they complement the style of your writing.

Use these examples to arouse your creativity.

Remember that you don’t have to use them all the time. Using words like, ‘therefore’ ‘subsequently’ ‘moreover’ etc. for every new paragraph would probably become repetitive and detract from the key component of most academic work – critical analysis.

Finally, remember to succinctly, identify the key paragraphs and/or sections of your essay during your introductory paragraph. Then restate them along side an unambiguous position in your concluding paragraph. Again this will help to communicate a clear and understandable progression and structure, to those who read or mark your essay.

Best wishes. S J Tonge.

144 Responses to “How to begin a new paragraph. Useful linking words and phrases.”

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  1. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

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  2. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

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  3. The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay

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  4. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

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  5. How to Write a Critical Essay

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  1. How to write and develop critical essays

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  4. Band 9 LINKING WORDS for IELTS Writing Task 2

  5. 5 Other Ways to Say In Conclusion at End of Essay or End of Paragraph

  6. Critical Essay 1

COMMENTS

  1. Linking/transition words

    Academic writing Linking/transition words: Things you need to know... All assignments are written in formal language. You need to ensure that you demonstrate your knowledge and understanding alongside your ability to answer the question/solve the problem. Below are some ideas to help you to develop your structure and flow.

  2. 50 linking words to use in academic writing

    50 linking words to use in academic writing academic writing linkers essay writing thesis ESL English It's very common for students to use long words they don't understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be.

  3. Transition Words & Phrases

    Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence. Transition words example

  4. Linking Words

    | Grammar Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost. Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses. Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English.

  5. 75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

    Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication.

  6. Connecting ideas

    Examples and tips of cohesive, critical and interpretive writing. How can I create cohesion? Let's look at types of cohesive devices. Linking words Academic writing usually deals with complex ideas. To enable the reader to follow your thoughts, they need to be clearly and smoothly linked.

  7. All About Linking Words, With Examples

    How to use linking words. Linking words generally come before a new idea as a way to introduce it. This includes new clauses, new sentences, and new paragraphs, as well as standalone words and phrases. When a linking word or phrase begins a sentence, clarity is usually helped if you place a comma after it. Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches ...

  8. Linking words

    Linking words have a number of specific language functions, such as sequencing, summarising and referencing. Linking words enable writers to express their ideas naturally. Linking words can be extremely useful, it is important not to overuse them, your writing may sound too verbose. Not using them enough will make your writing sound simplistic.

  9. Linking words & connecting ideas

    Download these on our helpsheet, University Speak. Get your writing to flow by trying these words and phrases to link words and connect your ideas. Once you are tuned into these words, you will see them throughout academic writing. Contrasting ideas Comparing ideas Sequencing ideas However Similarly /Similar to At first/Firstly/First of all ...

  10. Linking words in academic writing / AEUK

    Free Download Linking: Cohesion & Coherence Worksheet This worksheet helps to consolidate what is 'cohesion' with a focus on pronouns, word forms and summary nouns. It also includes a coherence sheet on key connections and two practice activities. Example Level: ***** [B2/C1] / Webpage Link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP

  11. PDF Linking words and phrases

    Division of Student Success To make your work more readable and meaningful, ideas and paragraphs must be linked. Linking words are essential in developing coherent, logical arguments and discussion in your assignments. They show the relationships between the ideas and are the glue that holds your assignment together.

  12. The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay

    The most common places for linking words in essays are: the start of a paragraph the start of a sentence introducing a new idea or extending an argument the beginning of a concluding statement Why Use Transition Words in Essays Essay linking words is an integral part of academic writing.

  13. 50 linking words to use in academic writing

    50 linking words to use in academic writing 4 February 2016 by Elite Editing It's very common for students to use long words they don't understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and convoluted, and uses a lot of jargon.

  14. Linking Words for Essay Writing: Useful Paragraph Phrases

    1. Flow of order and sequence An essay needs flow of texts, ideas and thoughts otherwise it will lose its quality. Therefore, writers need to make huge efforts and use the right linking words that will bring a sequence of order in the essay. Such words include next, then, firstly, secondly, afterwards, finally and afterwards.

  15. PDF Strategies for Essay Writing

    When you write an essay for a course you are taking, you are being asked not only to create a product (the essay) but, more importantly, to go through a process of thinking more deeply about a question or problem related to the course. By writing about a source or collection of sources, you will have the chance to wrestle with some of the

  16. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

    Without linking words, your writing can feel disjointed and confusing. Some common examples of linking words include "however," "therefore," "in addition," "moreover," "nevertheless," and "consequently.". These words can be used to show contrast, add information, provide examples, or indicate a cause and effect ...

  17. Linking Words for Essays: How to Link Those Paragraphs and Sentences

    When using these words or phrases, you should be connecting paragraphs that show evidence that is contrary to the prior material or pointing out alternatives. This will show your readers that the essay has shifted to a different line of reasoning. Below are some words you can use to connect your paragraphs of this type.

  18. Common linking words

    RTO Code: 3046. Open Universities Australia. All sentences in a paragraph need to relate to the main idea in the topic sentence. The reader should be able to see how each sentence flows from the previous one and how each is connected to the topic sentence. Linking words and phrases weave sentences together to create a cohesive paragraphs.

  19. Academic Phrasebank

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  20. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

    36256 Linking words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join two or more sentences or clauses. We can use linking words to give a result, add information, summarize, give illustrations, emphasize a point, sequence information, compare or to contrast idea. Contents Useful Linking Words and Phrases

  21. Transition Words & Phrases

    Archaic transition words. Words like "hereby," "therewith," and most others formed by the combination of "here," "there," or "where" with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  22. Linking Words, Connecting Words: Full List and Useful Examples

    Linking Words to Add more Information. These words simply add additional information to your sentence or paragraph to show that two ideas are similar. Here are some examples: It started to rain and I got soaked - 'and' is the linking word that connects the two ideas of the individual being in the rain and getting soaked.

  23. Linking Words To Use In An Essay

    Linking words serves as a means of connecting the ideas or thoughts expressed in essays. Moreover, the use of linking words makes your writing look more logical. Thus, you should use proper linking words to reduce the reading efforts of the readers. Your essay shouldn't cause readers mental strain to understand it.

  24. How to begin a new paragraph. Useful linking words and phrases

    It is a good idea to occasionally use linking words and phrases at the start of a new paragraph. They can help to link what you have said in the previous paragraph to what you are about to say in your new paragraph. These link words and phrases are often referred to as signposts.