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How to Write a Bachelor’s Thesis: A Step-by-Step Guide

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The bachelor’s degree is an important milestone in your academic life, and creating a successful bachelor’s thesis is an essential part of this process.

Although it can be a challenge, with a structured approach and a clear timetable, a well-researched, informed, and organized bachelor’s thesis can be created.

In this article, we explain how to write a bachelor’s thesis.

11 Facts About Bachelor’s Theses

  • The average length of a bachelor’s thesis is about 30-60 pages.
  • Most bachelor’s theses are written in the field of economics.
  • The average processing time for a bachelor’s thesis is 3-6 months.
  • Typically, bachelor’s theses are supervised by a professor or lecturer.
  • Most bachelor’s theses are still written and submitted on paper.
  • A bachelor’s thesis is always written within the framework of a study program and is an important part of the degree completion.
  • The topic selection for a bachelor’s thesis is usually free, as long as it falls within the field of study.
  • Adherence to citation rules and source references is an important part of a bachelor’s thesis.
  • Submission of a bachelor’s thesis is usually combined with an oral examination.
  • The bachelor’s thesis is the first longer scientific work that a student writes during their studies and therefore represents an important hurdle.
  • In 2021, approximately 260,000 students achieved their bachelor’s degree.

Scientific Formulations in Minutes Seconds

11 Tips for Academic Writing (Bachelor’s Theses)

  • Start your bachelor’s thesis early to have enough time for research, writing, and revision.
  • Choose an interesting and relevant topic that fits well with your field of study.
  • Create a detailed work plan to keep track of your steps and deadlines.
  • Use trustworthy and current sources to underpin your work.
  • Write clearly and precisely, avoid using unnecessarily complicated sentences.
  • Use a consistent citation style and pay attention to the correct source citation.
  • Logically structure your bachelor’s thesis and ensure that the common thread is recognizable.
  • Revise and polish your work multiple times to ensure that it is free from spelling and grammar errors.
  • Have your work read by others and seek feedback to recognize areas for improvement.
  • Consider publishing your bachelor’s thesis to make it accessible to others and to present your work.
  • Have your text scientifically rephrased by Mimir. Sample input : Potatoes are healthy… ➔ Result : Potatoes are rich in vitamins and minerals and can contribute to a balanced diet.

The Process of Writing a Bachelor’s Thesis: Step by Step Guide

The writing process of a bachelor’s thesis is a challenge for many students. In this section, we give an overview of the most important steps and tips to successfully master the process.

  • Determine the topic of the bachelor’s thesis and discuss it with the supervisor.
  • Conduct comprehensive research and collect relevant sources.
  • Create an outline and divide the topic into individual sections.
  • Write the main part of the paper by processing and summarizing the insights gained from the research.
  • Compose the concluding part, summarizing the main findings of the work and outlining possible further steps or implications.
  • Proofread the work and check for formal requirements.
  • Submit and defend the bachelor’s thesis.

Choosing a Topic: How to Find the Perfect Topic for Your Bachelor’s Thesis

The first step in creating a bachelor’s thesis is selecting the topic. It’s important that your topic is specific and answers a clear research question. If your topic is too general, it will be harder to achieve meaningful results.

Why is the topic important?

An interesting and relevant topic not only captivates your readers but also gives you the motivation to successfully complete the work.

The topic of your bachelor’s thesis is crucial for the success of your work.

A difficult or boring topic, on the other hand, can lead to you finding the writing process frustrating and ultimately not successfully completing the work. Therefore, it’s important to think carefully about which topic you choose for your bachelor’s thesis.

If you have difficulty finding a topic, you can turn to your supervisors and present your ideas to them.

Research & Study: The Right Way to the Perfect Bachelor’s Thesis

Once the topic is set, it’s time to collect the necessary information. This can be done by searching through libraries and databases, reading specialist literature, and interviewing experts. It’s important to carefully organize and document the collected information so that it’s easily accessible when writing the work.

It’s also important that your sources are current, as research and opinions in your subject area are constantly changing.

Possible Sources

  • Academic Publications
  • Professional Journals
  • Reputable Websites (you should consult your supervisor beforehand)

Structure: Setup and Organization of the Bachelor Thesis

It is important to have a clear structure for your bachelor thesis. This should include an introduction, a main part, and a conclusion. Within the main part, you can divide your arguments into different sections. This helps you to structure your thought process and ensure a smooth and logical flow.

Introduction

  • Summary of the research thesis
  • Definition of the main terms
  • Explanation of the research question and area of interest
  • Conduct literature research
  • Develop arguments and hypotheses
  • Draw conclusions and results
  • Cite sources
  • Summary of the results
  • Comparison of hypotheses and results
  • Explanation of the implications of the results
  • Recommendations for further research

Writing: Tips and Tricks for the Writing Process

After you have completed your research and established your structure, it is time to write.

It is important that you write your work in simple, academic German/English.

Avoid using too many technical terms and ensure that each sentence conveys a clear thought.

Compose a clear introduction that explains your topic and presents your argumentation. In the main part of your work, you should provide your arguments and examples to prove your thesis. Make sure that your arguments are logical and understandable.

  • Write a simple and clear introduction
  • Compose the main part of your work
  • Ensure that each sentence conveys a clear thought
  • Provide your arguments and examples to prove your thesis
  • Ensure logical and understandable argumentation
  • Avoid too many technical terms
  • Avoid vague formulations
  • Avoid subjective opinions

Tip: Let Mimir formulate your bullet point ( Example input : Running is great ➔ Result (1/3) : Running is a healthy and effective form of physical activity that can contribute to improving cardiovascular fitness, mobility, and mental health.)

Formatting: How to Properly Format Your Bachelor Thesis

It is important that you adhere to your university’s guidelines when formatting your bachelor thesis. Check the requirements for margins, line spacing, font size, and font type prescribed by your university.

It is also important to format your work consistently to achieve a professional look.

  • Adhere to your university’s guidelines
  • Check margins, line spacing, font size, and font type
  • Consistently format your work
  • Create a professional layout

Citing and Referencing: Rules for Citing and Referencing in the Bachelor Thesis

When referring to the ideas of other authors in your work, it is important to cite and reference them correctly. There are various citation styles you can use, but most universities use the Harvard or APA style.

Make sure to properly cite and reference all sources you refer to, to avoid plagiarism.

  • Use the Harvard or APA style
  • Cite and reference all sources you refer to
  • Avoid plagiarism

Proofreading: Error Sources and Tips for a Flawless Bachelor Thesis

After you have written your bachelor thesis, it is important to thoroughly review it. Check the content for correct grammar, spelling, and structure. Also ensure that your arguments are clear and logical and that your statements are supported by your research.

It is important to proofread and edit your work several times. Make sure to correct all spelling and grammar errors so that your work looks professional.

  • Read your work aloud to detect errors in grammar, sentence structure, and pronunciation.
  • Use a dictionary or an online proofreading program to find errors in spelling and punctuation.
  • Have someone else read your work and ask for feedback to gain additional perspectives and suggestions for improvement.
  • Carefully review and revise your work to improve its quality and content. This can be done by adding examples, removing unnecessary information, or refining arguments.

Tip: Have your text checked by Mimir (Unscientific words, gender conformity, and more…)

Submission: How to Safely Submit and Defend Your Bachelor Thesis

Writing a bachelor thesis can be a challenging task, but if you follow the steps mentioned above, you will complete your work in a professional manner.

Don’t forget to adhere to the guidelines of your university.

Once you have reviewed and revised your bachelor’s thesis, it’s time to submit it. Make sure your work meets the requirements of your examiner and contains the correct information. If possible, have a friend or family member review it before you submit it.

Earning a bachelor’s degree is a great achievement, and creating a successful bachelor’s thesis is an essential part of this process. Remember, choosing a topic, conducting research, and writing a bachelor’s thesis can be a laborious process. However, if you have a clear schedule and follow the steps mentioned above, you can create a well-researched, informed, and organized bachelor’s thesis.

And last but not least: Congratulations!

Two Practical Examples of the Process

To better understand the steps and tips mentioned above, here are two examples from different academic areas:

  • A psychology student writes a bachelor’s thesis on the effects of social media on the mental health of adolescents. She chooses this topic because it combines her personal interest and her expertise in psychology. She gathers information by reading textbooks and conducting interviews with adolescents and experts. She creates an outline consisting of an introduction, three main chapters, and a conclusion, and writes her paper accordingly. She makes sure to use quotes and references and to adhere to the APA formatting requirements. Finally, she carefully corrects her work and has it read by her teacher and a fellow student for improvement suggestions.
  • A computer science student writes a bachelor’s thesis on the development of a new algorithm for machine learning. He chooses this topic because it reflects his expertise in computer science and his curiosity about new technologies. He gathers information by reading academic articles and communicating with other experts in his field. He creates an outline consisting of an introduction, three main chapters, a section on results, and a conclusion, and writes his paper accordingly. He makes sure to use citations and references and to adhere to the IEEE formatting requirements. Finally, he carefully corrects his work and has it read by his supervisor and a reviewer from a professional journal for improvement suggestions.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you start writing a bachelor’s thesis.

Before you start writing your bachelor’s thesis, you should first plan the topic and structure of the paper. This also includes researching relevant sources and creating an outline. Once you have an overview of the structure of the paper, you can start writing.

How quickly can you write a bachelor’s thesis?

The duration of writing a bachelor’s thesis can vary greatly and depends on various factors, such as the complexity of the topic, the size of the paper, and the time spent on research. However, you should generally plan several weeks or even months for the actual writing of a bachelor’s thesis.

How do you properly write a bachelor’s thesis?

1. Start by selecting an interesting and relevant topic for your bachelor’s thesis. 2. Create a clear and detailed research plan that outlines the goals, methods, and timeline for your work. 3. Gather comprehensive and reliable sources to support your arguments and substantiate your theses. 4. Compose a clear and structured introduction that highlights the topic and significance of your work. 5. Develop your arguments in the main chapters of your bachelor’s thesis and use examples and evidence to support your statements. 6. Conclude your findings and conclusion in a conclusive and detailed section that summarizes the significance and implications of your work. 7. Thoroughly correct and revise your bachelor’s thesis to ensure it is logical, coherent, and error-free.

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HOW TO WRITE A THESIS: Steps by step guide

doing bachelor thesis

Introduction

In the academic world, one of the hallmark rites signifying mastery of a course or academic area is the writing of a thesis . Essentially a thesis is a typewritten work, usually 50 to 350 pages in length depending on institutions, discipline, and educational level which is often aimed at addressing a particular problem in a given field.

While a thesis is inadequate to address all the problems in a given field, it is succinct enough to address a specialized aspect of the problem by taking a stance or making a claim on what the resolution of the problem should be. Writing a thesis can be a very daunting task because most times it is the first complex research undertaking for the student. The lack of research and writing skills to write a thesis coupled with fear and a limited time frame are factors that makes the writing of a thesis daunting. However, commitment to excellence on the part of the student combined with some of the techniques and methods that will be discussed below gives a fair chance that the student will be able to deliver an excellent thesis regardless of the subject area, the depth of the research specialization and the daunting amount of materials that must be comprehended(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

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What is a thesis?

A thesis is a statement, theory, argument, proposal or proposition, which is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved. It explains the stand someone takes on an issue and how the person intends to justify the stand. It is always better to pick a topic that will be able to render professional help, a topic that you will be happy to talk about with anybody, a topic you have personal interest and passion for, because when writing a thesis gets frustrating personal interest, happiness and passion coupled with the professional help it will be easier to write a great thesis (see you through the thesis). One has to source for a lot of information concerning the topic one is writing a thesis on in order to know the important question, because for you to take a good stand on an issue you have to study the evidence first.

Qualities of a good thesis

A good thesis has the following qualities

  • A good thesis must solve an existing problem in the society, organisation, government among others.
  • A good thesis should be contestable, it should propose a point that is arguable which people can agree with or disagree.
  • It is specific, clear and focused.
  •   A good thesis does not use general terms and abstractions.  
  • The claims of a good thesis should be definable and arguable.
  • It anticipates the counter-argument s
  • It does not use unclear language
  • It avoids the first person. (“In my opinion”)
  • A strong thesis should be able to take a stand and not just taking a stand but should be able to justify the stand that is taken, so that the reader will be tempted to ask questions like how or why.
  • The thesis should be arguable, contestable, focused, specific, and clear. Make your thesis clear, strong and easy to find.
  • The conclusion of a thesis should be based on evidence.

Steps in writing a Thesis

  • First, think about good topics and theories that you can write before writing the thesis, then pick a topic. The topic or thesis statement is derived from a review of existing literature in the area of study that the researcher wants to explore. This route is taken when the unknowns in an area of study are not yet defined. Some areas of study have existing problems yearning to be solved and the drafting of the thesis topic or statement revolves around a selection of one of these problems.
  • Once you have a good thesis, put it down and draw an outline . The outline is like a map of the whole thesis and it covers more commonly the introduction, literature review, discussion of methodology, discussion of results and the thesis’ conclusions and recommendations. The outline might differ from one institution to another but the one described in the preceding sentence is what is more commonly obtainable. It is imperative at this point to note that the outline drew still requires other mini- outlines for each of the sections mentioned. The outlines and mini- outlines provide a graphical over- view of the whole project and can also be used in allocating the word- count for each section and sub- section based on the overall word- count requirement of the thesis(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).
  • Literature search. Remember to draw a good outline you need to do literature search to familiarize yourself with the concepts and the works of others. Similarly, to achieve this, you need to read as much material that contains necessary information as you can. There will always be a counter argument for everything so anticipate it because it will help shape your thesis. Read everything you can–academic research, trade literature, and information in the popular press and on the Internet(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).
  • After getting all the information you need, the knowledge you gathered should help in suggesting the aim of your thesis.

Remember; a thesis is not supposed to be a question or a list, thesis should specific and as clear as possible. The claims of a thesis should be definable and also arguable.

  • Then collecting and analyzing data, after data analysis, the result of the analysis should be written and discussed, followed by summary, conclusion, recommendations, list of references and the appendices
  • The last step is editing of the thesis and proper spell checking.

Structure of a Thesis

A conventional thesis has five chapters – chapter 1-5 which will be discussed in detail below. However, it is important to state that a thesis is not limited to any chapter or section as the case may be. In fact, a thesis can be five, six, seven or even eight chapters.  What determines the number of chapters in a thesis includes institution rules/ guideline, researcher choice, supervisor choice, programme or educational level. In fact, most PhD thesis are usually more than 5 chapters(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

Preliminaries Pages: The preliminaries are the cover page, the title page, the table of contents page, and the abstract.

The introduction: The introduction is the first section and it provides as the name implies an introduction to the thesis. The introduction contains such aspects as the background to the study which provides information on the topic in the context of what is happening in the world as related to the topic. It also discusses the relevance of the topic to society, policies formulated success and failure. The introduction also contains the statement of the problem which is essentially a succinct description of the problem that the thesis want to solve and what the trend will be if the problem is not solved. The concluding part of the statement of problem ends with an outline of the research questions. These are the questions which when answered helps in achieving the aim of the thesis. The third section is the outline of research objectives. Conventionally research objectives re a conversion the research questions into an active statement form. Other parts of the introduction are a discussion of hypotheses (if any), the significance of the study, delimitations, proposed methodology and a discussion of the structure of the study(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The main body includes the following; the literature review, methodology, research results and discussion of the result, the summary, conclusion and recommendations, the list of references and the appendices.

The literature review : The literature review is often the most voluminous aspects of a thesis because it reviews past empirical and theoretical literature about the problem being studied. This section starts by discussing the concepts relevant to the problem as indicated in the topic, the relationship between the concepts and what discoveries have being made on topic based on the choice of methodologies. The validity of the studies reviewed are questioned and findings are compared in order to get a comprehensive picture of the problem. The literature review also discusses the theories and theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the problem, the gaps that are evident in literature and how the thesis being written helps in resolving some of the gaps.

The major importance of Literature review is that it specifies the gap in the existing knowledge (gap in literature). The source of the literature that is being reviewed should be specified. For instance; ‘It has been argued that if the rural youth are to be aware of their community development role they need to be educated’ Effiong, (1992). The author’s name can be at the beginning, end or in between the literature. The literature should be discussed and not just stated (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The methodology: The third section is a discussion of the research methodology adopted in the thesis and touches on aspects such as the research design, the area, population and sample that will be considered for the study as well as the sampling procedure. These aspects are discussed in terms of choice, method and rationale. This section also covers the sub- section of data collection, data analysis and measures of ensuring validity of study. It is the chapter 3. This chapter explains the method used in data collection and data analysis. It explains the methodology adopted and why it is the best method to be used, it also explains every step of data collection and analysis. The data used could be primary data or secondary data. While analysing the data, proper statistical tool should be used in order to fit the stated objectives of the thesis. The statistical tool could be; the spearman rank order correlation, chi square, analysis of variance (ANOVA) etc (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The findings and discussion of result : The next section is a discussion of findings based on the data collection instrumentation used and the objectives or hypotheses of study if any. It is the chapter 4. It is research results. This is the part that describes the research. It shows the result gotten from data that is collected and analysed. It discusses the result and how it relates to your profession.

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation: This is normally the chapter 5. The last section discusses the summary of the study and the conclusions arrived at based on the findings discussed in the previous section. This section also presents any policy recommendations that the researcher wants to propose (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

References: It cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own. It is acceptable to put the initials of the individual authors behind their last names. The way single author is referenced is different from the way more than one author is referenced (RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).

The appendices; it includes all data in the appendix. Reference data or materials that is not easily available. It includes tables and calculations, List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. If a large number of references are consulted but all are not cited, it may also be included in the appendix. The appendices also contain supportive or complementary information like the questionnaire, the interview schedule, tables and charts while the references section contain an ordered list of all literature, academic and contemporary cited in the thesis. Different schools have their own preferred referencing styles(RE: write a thesis or writing a thesis).   

Follow the following steps to achieve successful thesis writing

Start writing early. Do not delay writing until you have finished your project or research. Write complete and concise “Technical Reports” as and when you finish each nugget of work. This way, you will remember everything you did and document it accurately, when the work is still fresh in your mind. This is especially so if your work involves programming.

Spot errors early. A well-written “Technical Report” will force you to think about what you have done, before you move on to something else. If anything is amiss, you will detect it at once and can easily correct it, rather than have to re-visit the work later, when you may be pressured for time and have lost touch with it.

Write your thesis from the inside out. Begin with the chapters on your own experimental work. You will develop confidence in writing them because you know your own work better than anyone else. Once you have overcome the initial inertia, move on to the other chapters.

End with a bang, not a whimper. First things first, and save the best for last. First and last impressions persist. Arrange your chapters so that your first and last experimental chapters are sound and solid.

Write the Introduction after writing the Conclusions. The examiner will read the Introduction first, and then the Conclusions, to see if the promises made in the former are indeed fulfilled in the latter. Ensure that your introduction and Conclusions match.

“No man is an Island”. The critical review of the literature places your work in context. Usually, one third of the PhD thesis is about others’ work; two thirds, what you have done yourself. After a thorough and critical literature review, the PhD candidate must be able to identify the major researchers in the field and make a sound proposal for doctoral research. Estimate the time to write your thesis and then multiply it by three to get the correct estimate. Writing at one stretch is very demanding and it is all too easy to underestimate the time required for it; inflating your first estimate by a factor of three is more realistic.

Punctuating your thesis

Punctuation Good punctuation makes reading easy. The simplest way to find out where to punctuate is to read aloud what you have written. Each time you pause, you should add a punctuation symbol. There are four major pause symbols, arranged below in ascending order of “degree of pause”:

  • Comma. Use the comma to indicate a short pause or to separate items in a list. A pair of commas may delimit the beginning and end of a subordinate clause or phrase. Sometimes, this is also done with a pair of “em dashes” which are printed like this:
  • Semi-colon. The semi-colon signifies a longer pause than the comma. It separates segments of a sentence that are “further apart” in position, or meaning, but which are nevertheless related. If the ideas were “closer together”, a comma would have been used. It is also used to separate two clauses that may stand on their own but which are too closely related for a colon or full stop to intervene between them.
  • Colon. The colon is used before one or more examples of a concept, and whenever items are to be listed in a visually separate fashion. The sentence that introduced the itemized list you are now reading ended in a colon. It may also be used to separate two fairly—but not totally—independent clauses in a sentence.
  • Full stop or period. The full stop ends a sentence. If the sentence embodies a question or an exclamation, then, of course, it is ended with a question mark or exclamation mark, respectively. The full stop is also used to terminate abbreviations like etc., (for et cetera), e.g., (for exempli gratia), et al., (for et alia) etc., but not with abbreviations for SI units. The readability of your writing will improve greatly if you take the trouble to learn the basic rules of punctuation given above.

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While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence) 

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim 

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim 

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis 

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
  • picture_as_pdf Thesis

Grad Coach

Dissertation Structure & Layout 101: How to structure your dissertation, thesis or research project.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Reviewed By: David Phair (PhD) | July 2019

So, you’ve got a decent understanding of what a dissertation is , you’ve chosen your topic and hopefully you’ve received approval for your research proposal . Awesome! Now its time to start the actual dissertation or thesis writing journey.

To craft a high-quality document, the very first thing you need to understand is dissertation structure . In this post, we’ll walk you through the generic dissertation structure and layout, step by step. We’ll start with the big picture, and then zoom into each chapter to briefly discuss the core contents. If you’re just starting out on your research journey, you should start with this post, which covers the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis .

Dissertation structure and layout - the basics

*The Caveat *

In this post, we’ll be discussing a traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout, which is generally used for social science research across universities, whether in the US, UK, Europe or Australia. However, some universities may have small variations on this structure (extra chapters, merged chapters, slightly different ordering, etc).

So, always check with your university if they have a prescribed structure or layout that they expect you to work with. If not, it’s safe to assume the structure we’ll discuss here is suitable. And even if they do have a prescribed structure, you’ll still get value from this post as we’ll explain the core contents of each section.  

Overview: S tructuring a dissertation or thesis

  • Acknowledgements page
  • Abstract (or executive summary)
  • Table of contents , list of figures and tables
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Literature review
  • Chapter 3: Methodology
  • Chapter 4: Results
  • Chapter 5: Discussion
  • Chapter 6: Conclusion
  • Reference list

As I mentioned, some universities will have slight variations on this structure. For example, they want an additional “personal reflection chapter”, or they might prefer the results and discussion chapter to be merged into one. Regardless, the overarching flow will always be the same, as this flow reflects the research process , which we discussed here – i.e.:

  • The introduction chapter presents the core research question and aims .
  • The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question.
  • The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
  • The conclusion chapter (attempts to) answer the core research question .

In other words, the dissertation structure and layout reflect the research process of asking a well-defined question(s), investigating, and then answering the question – see below.

A dissertation's structure reflect the research process

To restate that – the structure and layout of a dissertation reflect the flow of the overall research process . This is essential to understand, as each chapter will make a lot more sense if you “get” this concept. If you’re not familiar with the research process, read this post before going further.

Right. Now that we’ve covered the big picture, let’s dive a little deeper into the details of each section and chapter. Oh and by the way, you can also grab our free dissertation/thesis template here to help speed things up.

The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. But what makes for a good title? A strong title needs to be 3 things:

  • Succinct (not overly lengthy or verbose)
  • Specific (not vague or ambiguous)
  • Representative of the research you’re undertaking (clearly linked to your research questions)

Typically, a good title includes mention of the following:

  • The broader area of the research (i.e. the overarching topic)
  • The specific focus of your research (i.e. your specific context)
  • Indication of research design (e.g. quantitative , qualitative , or  mixed methods ).

For example:

A quantitative investigation [research design] into the antecedents of organisational trust [broader area] in the UK retail forex trading market [specific context/area of focus].

Again, some universities may have specific requirements regarding the format and structure of the title, so it’s worth double-checking expectations with your institution (if there’s no mention in the brief or study material).

Dissertations stacked up

Acknowledgements

This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey. Generally, it’s optional (and won’t count towards your marks), but it is academic best practice to include this.

So, who do you say thanks to? Well, there’s no prescribed requirements, but it’s common to mention the following people:

  • Your dissertation supervisor or committee.
  • Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies.
  • Any tutors, mentors or advisors.
  • Your family and friends, especially spouse (for adult learners studying part-time).

There’s no need for lengthy rambling. Just state who you’re thankful to and for what (e.g. thank you to my supervisor, John Doe, for his endless patience and attentiveness) – be sincere. In terms of length, you should keep this to a page or less.

Abstract or executive summary

The dissertation abstract (or executive summary for some degrees) serves to provide the first-time reader (and marker or moderator) with a big-picture view of your research project. It should give them an understanding of the key insights and findings from the research, without them needing to read the rest of the report – in other words, it should be able to stand alone .

For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points (at a minimum):

  • Your research questions and aims – what key question(s) did your research aim to answer?
  • Your methodology – how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question(s)?
  • Your findings – following your own research, what did do you discover?
  • Your conclusions – based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question(s)?

So, in much the same way the dissertation structure mimics the research process, your abstract or executive summary should reflect the research process, from the initial stage of asking the original question to the final stage of answering that question.

In practical terms, it’s a good idea to write this section up last , once all your core chapters are complete. Otherwise, you’ll end up writing and rewriting this section multiple times (just wasting time). For a step by step guide on how to write a strong executive summary, check out this post .

Need a helping hand?

doing bachelor thesis

Table of contents

This section is straightforward. You’ll typically present your table of contents (TOC) first, followed by the two lists – figures and tables. I recommend that you use Microsoft Word’s automatic table of contents generator to generate your TOC. If you’re not familiar with this functionality, the video below explains it simply:

If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Oftentimes, this can be done without detracting from the usefulness of the TOC.

Right, now that the “admin” sections are out of the way, its time to move on to your core chapters. These chapters are the heart of your dissertation and are where you’ll earn the marks. The first chapter is the introduction chapter – as you would expect, this is the time to introduce your research…

It’s important to understand that even though you’ve provided an overview of your research in your abstract, your introduction needs to be written as if the reader has not read that (remember, the abstract is essentially a standalone document). So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions:

  • What will you be investigating (in plain-language, big picture-level)?
  • Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original?
  • What are your research aims and research question(s)? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review (next chapter).
  • What is the scope of your study? In other words, what will and won’t you cover ?
  • How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt?
  • How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them?

These are just the bare basic requirements for your intro chapter. Some universities will want additional bells and whistles in the intro chapter, so be sure to carefully read your brief or consult your research supervisor.

If done right, your introduction chapter will set a clear direction for the rest of your dissertation. Specifically, it will make it clear to the reader (and marker) exactly what you’ll be investigating, why that’s important, and how you’ll be going about the investigation. Conversely, if your introduction chapter leaves a first-time reader wondering what exactly you’ll be researching, you’ve still got some work to do.

Now that you’ve set a clear direction with your introduction chapter, the next step is the literature review . In this section, you will analyse the existing research (typically academic journal articles and high-quality industry publications), with a view to understanding the following questions:

  • What does the literature currently say about the topic you’re investigating?
  • Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement?
  • How does your research fit into the bigger picture?
  • How does your research contribute something original?
  • How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own?

Depending on the nature of your study, you may also present a conceptual framework towards the end of your literature review, which you will then test in your actual research.

Again, some universities will want you to focus on some of these areas more than others, some will have additional or fewer requirements, and so on. Therefore, as always, its important to review your brief and/or discuss with your supervisor, so that you know exactly what’s expected of your literature review chapter.

Dissertation writing

Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research. Enter the methodology chapter – the most “science-ey” of the chapters…

In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions:

  • Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?
  • Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?

Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills . Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.

Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.

In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. Its natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!

You’ve now collected your data and undertaken your analysis, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. In this chapter, you’ll present the raw results of your analysis . For example, in the case of a quant study, you’ll present the demographic data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics , etc.

Typically, Chapter 4 is simply a presentation and description of the data, not a discussion of the meaning of the data. In other words, it’s descriptive, rather than analytical – the meaning is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some universities will want you to combine chapters 4 and 5, so that you both present and interpret the meaning of the data at the same time. Check with your institution what their preference is.

Now that you’ve presented the data analysis results, its time to interpret and analyse them. In other words, its time to discuss what they mean, especially in relation to your research question(s).

What you discuss here will depend largely on your chosen methodology. For example, if you’ve gone the quantitative route, you might discuss the relationships between variables . If you’ve gone the qualitative route, you might discuss key themes and the meanings thereof. It all depends on what your research design choices were.

Most importantly, you need to discuss your results in relation to your research questions and aims, as well as the existing literature. What do the results tell you about your research questions? Are they aligned with the existing research or at odds? If so, why might this be? Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English.

The final chapter – you’ve made it! Now that you’ve discussed your interpretation of the results, its time to bring it back to the beginning with the conclusion chapter . In other words, its time to (attempt to) answer your original research question s (from way back in chapter 1). Clearly state what your conclusions are in terms of your research questions. This might feel a bit repetitive, as you would have touched on this in the previous chapter, but its important to bring the discussion full circle and explicitly state your answer(s) to the research question(s).

Dissertation and thesis prep

Next, you’ll typically discuss the implications of your findings? In other words, you’ve answered your research questions – but what does this mean for the real world (or even for academia)? What should now be done differently, given the new insight you’ve generated?

Lastly, you should discuss the limitations of your research, as well as what this means for future research in the area. No study is perfect, especially not a Masters-level. Discuss the shortcomings of your research. Perhaps your methodology was limited, perhaps your sample size was small or not representative, etc, etc. Don’t be afraid to critique your work – the markers want to see that you can identify the limitations of your work. This is a strength, not a weakness. Be brutal!

This marks the end of your core chapters – woohoo! From here on out, it’s pretty smooth sailing.

The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.g. APA , Harvard, etc.

It’s essential that you use reference management software for your dissertation. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually – its far too error prone. On a reference list of multiple pages, you’re going to make mistake. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Both are free and provide a very straightforward interface to ensure that your referencing is 100% on point. I’ve included a simple how-to video for the Mendeley software (my personal favourite) below:

Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same . A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation. So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one.

The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. This is where you’ll include any supporting data and evidence. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here.

Your appendices should provide additional “nice to know”, depth-adding information, which is not critical to the core analysis. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count (see this post which covers how to reduce word count ). In other words, don’t place content that is critical to the core analysis here, just to save word count. You will not earn marks on any content in the appendices, so don’t try to play the system!

Time to recap…

And there you have it – the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows:

  • Acknowledgments page

Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process (asking, investigating and answering your research question). Moreover, the research question(s) should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. Everything should revolve around the research questions, and as you’ve seen, they should form both the start point (i.e. introduction chapter) and the endpoint (i.e. conclusion chapter).

I hope this post has provided you with clarity about the traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the  Grad Coach Blog .

doing bachelor thesis

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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36 Comments

ARUN kumar SHARMA

many thanks i found it very useful

Derek Jansen

Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation.

Sue

Such clear practical logical advice. I very much needed to read this to keep me focused in stead of fretting.. Perfect now ready to start my research!

hayder

what about scientific fields like computer or engineering thesis what is the difference in the structure? thank you very much

Tim

Thanks so much this helped me a lot!

Ade Adeniyi

Very helpful and accessible. What I like most is how practical the advice is along with helpful tools/ links.

Thanks Ade!

Aswathi

Thank you so much sir.. It was really helpful..

You’re welcome!

Jp Raimundo

Hi! How many words maximum should contain the abstract?

Karmelia Renatee

Thank you so much 😊 Find this at the right moment

You’re most welcome. Good luck with your dissertation.

moha

best ever benefit i got on right time thank you

Krishnan iyer

Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions .

I guess Great researcher = great ideas + knowledge + great and fast data collection and modeling + great writing + high clarity on all these

You have given immense clarity from start to end.

Alwyn Malan

Morning. Where will I write the definitions of what I’m referring to in my report?

Rose

Thank you so much Derek, I was almost lost! Thanks a tonnnn! Have a great day!

yemi Amos

Thanks ! so concise and valuable

Kgomotso Siwelane

This was very helpful. Clear and concise. I know exactly what to do now.

dauda sesay

Thank you for allowing me to go through briefly. I hope to find time to continue.

Patrick Mwathi

Really useful to me. Thanks a thousand times

Adao Bundi

Very interesting! It will definitely set me and many more for success. highly recommended.

SAIKUMAR NALUMASU

Thank you soo much sir, for the opportunity to express my skills

mwepu Ilunga

Usefull, thanks a lot. Really clear

Rami

Very nice and easy to understand. Thank you .

Chrisogonas Odhiambo

That was incredibly useful. Thanks Grad Coach Crew!

Luke

My stress level just dropped at least 15 points after watching this. Just starting my thesis for my grad program and I feel a lot more capable now! Thanks for such a clear and helpful video, Emma and the GradCoach team!

Judy

Do we need to mention the number of words the dissertation contains in the main document?

It depends on your university’s requirements, so it would be best to check with them 🙂

Christine

Such a helpful post to help me get started with structuring my masters dissertation, thank you!

Simon Le

Great video; I appreciate that helpful information

Brhane Kidane

It is so necessary or avital course

johnson

This blog is very informative for my research. Thank you

avc

Doctoral students are required to fill out the National Research Council’s Survey of Earned Doctorates

Emmanuel Manjolo

wow this is an amazing gain in my life

Paul I Thoronka

This is so good

Tesfay haftu

How can i arrange my specific objectives in my dissertation?

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How to Structure a Thesis: A Complete Guide

Writing a thesis can be an overwhelming task for many college and graduate students. Managing all the elements associated with a thesis while ensuring that the quality is not compromised can be challenging. However, what is even more strenuous is deciding on a thesis's layout. "How to structure a thesis" is a question that several final-year students struggle to answer. And understandably so, as all colleges and universities have their guidelines for drafting a thesis. However, there is an immutable structure that's common for every thesis. In this brief guide, we will take a look at this structure and analyze each of its components.

doing bachelor thesis

This guide discusses how to structure a thesis effectively. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.  

A thesis or dissertation is a long academic document that a master's or doctoral candidate writes to obtain a relevant academic degree. Hence, writing a quality thesis is crucial for college and university students. A good thesis demonstrates a student's academic prowess in their field of study as well as helps hone their analytical and research skills. Writing a thesis can be an overwhelming task for many college and graduate students. Managing all the elements associated with a thesis while ensuring that the quality is not compromised can be challenging. However, what is even more strenuous is deciding on a thesis's layout.

"How to structure a thesis" is a question that several final-year students struggle to answer. And understandably so, as all colleges and universities have their guidelines for drafting a thesis. However, there is an immutable structure that's common for every thesis. In this brief guide, we will take a look at this structure and analyze each of its components. If you are also struggling to initiate the writing process for your thesis, follow this guide and get over your writer’s block.

How to Structure a Thesis: Examining the Constituents of a Thesis Structure

Here we have a list of all major sections that a thesis structure generally comprises. The entire thesis structure is segregated into 3 sections, with each section comprising its relevant subsections to facilitate greater legibility.

Front/Preliminary Matter of a Thesis Structure

1. abstract.

An abstract is a concise summary of an entire thesis and consists of the condensation of your entire thesis. A good abstract  is precise, concise (usually not more than 250 words) and emphasizes the importance of the document. When writing an abstract, make sure you explicitly mention the crux of your thesis. Also, avoid reiterating what you have mentioned in the title of your document.

Body of a Thesis Structure

2. introduction/preface.

The introduction chapter of your thesis outlines its core arguments, hypotheses, and results. It is longer than the abstract and contains adequate background information on your topic of interest. Furthermore, it establishes the relevance of your thesis by highlighting its contribution to the knowledge base of its topic. Writing a gripping introduction helps the readers understand the context of your thesis. According to USNSW Sydney, the introduction of a thesis should have the following stages:

State the general topic and give some background

Provide a review of the literature related to the thesis subject

Define the terms and scope of the thesis topic

Outline the existing situation

Evaluate the current situation and identify the gap in the literature

Identify the importance of the proposed research

State the main research questions

State the purpose of the study and/or research objectives

State the study hypotheses

Outline the order of information in the thesis

Outline the methodology.

3. Literature review

The literature review chapter sets the premise of your thesis. It examines and evaluates the research works that’s been conducted so far on your thesis topic and passively highlights the contributions of your thesis.

A literature review is a survey of academic sources on a specific subject, providing an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to discuss relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. Writing a literature review contains finding relevant publications, critically analyzing the sources, and explaining your findings in the literature. A well-written literature review doesn’t only summarize sources, it also aims to analyze, synthesize, and critically evaluate to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the topic.

To write an impeccable literature review, consult a plethora of sources and mention the canon related to your thesis topic. Also, put forward your review in a logical, chronological, and structured manner to better outline the knowledge gaps in your field of study and how your thesis will fill them.

How structure a thesis

The following simple and straightforward tips can act as the exhaustive rubric and offer meaningful insight to prospective authors on how to formulate a flawless literature review:

Step 1. Probe similar works for a well-structured literature review

Step 2. Analyze, not just synthesize: Authors should provide a detailed critique of the subject

Step 3. Organize your literature review systematically

Step 4. Establish the purview: Authors should specify the scope of the literature review

Step 5. Abstain from plagiarism

Step 6 . Be mindful of the language

4. Methodology

As the name suggests, the methodology section of a thesis consists of all methods and procedures you have used in your thesis. A well-written methodology accentuates the plausibility of your research methods. In addition, it enables your readers to understand why you chose specific methods and how they are justified for your research.

To garner more credibility, you can include the pitfalls and difficulties associated with your choice of research methods. The methodology section is an unavoidable part of a thesis or a research paper. Considering errors in the methodology section enervates the entire thesis.

Follow the steps below to write a perfect methodology for a thesis: 

a. Give an outline of the research design

b. Don’t forget to define the philosophy behind the research

c. Mention the research approach

d. Introduce the research methods

e. Note the following points to highlight in the methodology. No matter what methodology you have chosen, you have to focus on the following points:

Explain sampling strategy.

Clearly state the procedure of the research paper.

Mention how you collect the data. (Data collection)

Explain how data are analyzed for your research. (Data analysis). Suppose you have written in qualitative strategy like thematic analysis, mention the researcher you have followed.

Mention the validity of the data and result.

Discuss all ethical aspects of your research paper.

f. Avail professional proofreading and editing services

g. Most important tips to compose an impactful methodology for a dissertation

Don’t drift from your objective and the purpose of your dissertation.

Explore scholarly research papers and their methodology sections to have a better idea.

Plan a proper writing structure.

Understand your audience and target group.

Don’t make mistakes in citing relevant sources. You may use  APA  and  MLA citation

Refer to all the hurdles you have experienced while writing your dissertation.

Make sure to rectify grammatical and punctuation errors.

Ensure that the section is readable and doesn’t consist of long and complex sentences. Long sentences can hamper the tone of the methodology.

This section comprises the outcomes of your research work. It includes all the observations you made and the answers to all your hypotheses in the thesis. When writing the “results” chapter, include only factual data and format it to be distinguishable. Use tables, graphs, subheadings, and generic comments for the results. The aim is to enable your readers to discern the result of your research.

6. Discussion

The discussion chapter of your thesis should begin with a brief summarization of the outcome of your research work. It should explain how your results address your hypotheses and highlight any repetitions in your observations. You can also add comments on how you want the readers to interpret your results and about your agreements and disagreements with the available research work in your field. 

Writing a flawless thesis requires much more than only subject matter expertise. It requires expertise, experience, and in-depth thinking, along with sharp intelligence. Though most students add a discussion chapter in their thesis or dissertation, many of them end up messing up the essay or missing out on the central issues.

A discussion chapter in a thesis is a place where you have the chance to delving into the analysis, importance, and relevance of your research. This section focuses on explaining and analyzing what you have researched, presenting how it is associated with the existing literature. It is also a place for argument supporting your entire discussion.

We often find that people seek thesis writing help from experienced editing and proofreading services to prepare a flawless discussion chapter. However, the following helpful tips can help you design a perfect master's or Ph.D.. thesis with an excellent discussion chapter: 

Understand the objective of your thesis

Determine a clear structure

Usage of grammar and tense

Refer to hypotheses and literature review

Evaluate your results and compare them with existing studies

Understand the limitation of your research

Don’t be afraid to be unique

Don’t forget to avail a professional thesis editing and proofreading service 

Click here to review the details of the aforementioned tips. 

The following 5 questions might be helpful to write a sound discussion section: 

How well do you understand the objective of your study? 

What message is conveyed by your results? 

How do your findings compare to findings in literature? 

Why should your findings matter? 

In what light should your findings be viewed?

7. Conclusion

The final section of your document consists of a precise answer to your hypothesis. In addition, the “conclusion” chapter of your thesis should stress the achievement of the aims of your thesis. You should also include certain limitations of your research to convey the fact that there is still scope for further research in your field. 

The end matter of a thesis structure

The components of this section include an acknowledgment, a bibliography, and (occasionally) an appendix. 

Parting words

The first step to writing a thesis is to chalk out its layout. Doing so not only helps you deal with the writing process one step at a time but also enables you to better attend to each component of a thesis structure.

Also, before you follow this thesis structure, make sure to check with your university for “how to structure a thesis” guidelines. If the guidelines offered by your institution deviate slightly from what’s mentioned in this guide, then make sure to prioritize the former.

If you need us to make your thesis shine, contact us unhesitatingly!

Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering papers with proper tone, content, and style of  academic writing,  and also provide an upscale  editing and proofreading service  for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.

How structure a thesis

English formatting service for theses and dissertations

You can also avail of our assistance if you are looking for editors who can format your manuscript, or just check on the  particular styles  for the formatting task as per the guidelines provided to you, e.g.,  APA,  MLA, or Chicago/Turabian styles. Best Edit & Proof editors and proofreaders provide all sorts of academic writing help, including editing and proofreading services, using our user-friendly website, and a streamlined ordering process.

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Our pricing is based on the type of service you avail of here, be it editing or proofreading. We charge on the basis of the word count of your manuscript that you submit for editing and proofreading and the turnaround time it takes to get it done. If you want to get an instant price quote for your project, copy and paste your document or enter your word count into our  pricing calculator.

How structure a thesis

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They Also Read

doing bachelor thesis

A good part of any research depends on the right questions asked. If you are asking wrong questions, your entire research may go off track. Therefore, understanding what questions you need to ask is essential for your research. If you are on the way to your research but don’t know how to start framing the right research questions, we have just the right information for you. This article discusses the process of formulating research questions.

doing bachelor thesis

Being a proofreading and editing service provider, we often find researchers making common citation mistakes in their research papers. Well, making mistakes is normal, but repeating the same mistakes is not accepted. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, we here bring the list of common errors students and researchers make while citing sources.

doing bachelor thesis

After writing your manuscript, you may likely decide on an editor to perform the final checks on your document. Mostly, authors make the mistake of sending their manuscripts to their editors, without providing adequate information about specifications on the service they seek. With such limited information, your editor may produce an unsatisfactory job with limited information at his/her disposal. Thus, to ensure that your editors provide the best possible service, which will prevent journals from rejecting your manuscripts on the grounds of noncompliance to journal requirements, the following information should be provided beforehand.

The Thesis Process

The thesis is an opportunity to work independently on a research project of your own design and contribute to the scholarly literature in your field. You emerge from the thesis process with a solid understanding of how original research is executed and how to best communicate research results. Many students have gone on to publish their research in academic or professional journals.

To ensure affordability, the per-credit tuition rate for the 8-credit thesis is the same as our regular course tuition. There are no additional fees (regular per-credit graduate tuition x 8 credits).

Below are the steps that you need to follow to fulfill the thesis requirement. Please know that through each step, you will receive guidance and mentorship.

1. Determine Your Thesis Topic and Tentative Question

When you have completed between 24 and 32 credits, you work with your assigned research advisor to narrow down your academic interests to a relevant and manageable thesis topic. Log in to MyDCE , then ALB/ALM Community to schedule an appointment with your assigned research advisor via the Degree Candidate Portal.

Thesis Topic Selection

We’ve put together this guide  to help frame your thinking about thesis topic selection.

Every effort is made to support your research interests that are grounded in your ALM course work, but faculty guidance is not available for all possible projects. Therefore, revision or a change of thesis topic may be necessary.

  • The point about topic selection is particularly pertinent to scientific research that is dependent upon laboratory space, project funding, and access to private databases. It is also critical for our candidates in ALM, liberal arts fields (English, government, history, international relations, psychology, etc.) who are required to have Harvard faculty direct their thesis projects. Review Harvard’s course catalog online ( my.harvard.edu ) to be sure that there are faculty teaching courses related to your thesis topic. If not, you’ll need to choose an alternative topic.
  • Your topic choice must be a new area of research for you. Thesis work represents thoughtful engagement in new academic scholarship. You cannot re-purpose prior research. If you want to draw or expand upon your own previous scholarship for a small portion of your thesis, you need to obtain the explicit permission of your research advisor and cite the work in both the proposal and thesis. Violations of this policy will be referred to the Administrative Board.

2. Prepare Prework for the Crafting the Thesis Proposal (CTP) Course or Tutorial

The next step in the process is to prepare and submit Prework in order to gain registration approval for the Crafting the Thesis Proposal (CTP) tutorial or course. The Prework process ensures that you have done enough prior reading and thinking about your thesis topic to benefit from the CTP.

The CTP provides an essential onramp to the thesis, mapping critical issues of research design, such as scope, relevance to the field, prior scholarly debate, methodology, and perhaps, metrics for evaluating impact as well as bench-marking. The CTP identifies and works through potential hurdles to successful thesis completion, allowing the thesis project to get off to a good start.

In addition to preparing, submitting, and having your Prework approved, to be eligible for the CTP, you need to be in good standing, have completed a minimum of 32 degree-applicable credits, including the statistics/research methods requirement (if pertinent to your field). You also need to have completed Engaging in Scholarly Conversation (if pertinent to your field). If you were admitted after 9/1/2023 Engaging in Scholarly Conversation (A and B) is required, if admitted before 9/1/2023 this series is encouraged.

Advising Note for Biology, Biotechnology, and Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Candidates : Thesis projects in these fields are designed to support ongoing scientific research happening in Harvard University, other academic institutions, or life science industry labs and usually these are done under the direction of a principal investigator (PI). Hence, you need to have a thesis director approved by your research advisor  prior  to submitting CTP prework. Your CTP prework is then framed by the lab’s research. Schedule an appointment with your research advisor a few months in advance of the CTP prework deadlines in order to discuss potential research projects and thesis director assignment.

CTP Prework is sent to our central email box:  [email protected]  between the following firm deadlines:

  • April 1 and June 1 for fall CTP
  • September 1 and November 1 for spring CTP.  
  • August 1 and October 1 for the three-week January session (ALM sustainability candidates only)
  • International students who need a student visa to attend Harvard Summer School should submit their prework on January 1, so they can register for the CTP on March 1 and submit timely I-20 paperwork. See international students guidelines for more information.

Your research advisor will provide feedback on your prework submission to gain CTP registration approval.  If your prework is not approved after 3 submissions, your research advisor cannot approve your CTP registration.  If not approved, you’ll need to take additional time for further revisions, and submit new prework during the next CTP prework submission time period for the following term (if your five-year degree completion deadline allows).

3. Register and Successfully Complete the Crafting the Thesis Proposal Tutorial or Course

Once CTP prework is approved, you register for the Crafting the Thesis Proposal (CTP) course or tutorial as you would any other course. The goal of the CTP is to produce a complete, well-written draft of a proposal containing all of the sections required by your research advisor. Creating an academically strong thesis proposal sets the foundation for a high-quality thesis and helps garner the attention of a well-respected thesis director. The proposal is normally between 15 to 25 pages in length.

The CTP  tutorial  is not a course in the traditional sense. You work independently on your proposal with your research advisor by submitting multiple proposal drafts and scheduling individual appointments. You need to make self-directed progress on the proposal without special prompting from the research advisor. You receive a final grade of SAT or UNSAT (failing grade).

The CTP for sustainability is a three-week course in the traditional sense and you receive a letter grade, and it must be B- or higher to receive degree credit for the course.

You are expected to incorporate all of your research advisor’s feedback and be fully committed to producing an academically strong proposal leading to a thesis worthy of a Harvard degree. If you are unable to take advice from your research advisor, follow directions, or produce an acceptable proposal, you will not pass the CTP.

Successful CTP completion also includes a check on the proper use of sources according to our academic integrity guidelines. Violations of our academic integrity policy will be referred to the Administrative Board.

Maximum of two attempts . If you don’t pass that CTP, you’ll have — if your five-year, degree-completion date allows — just one more attempt to complete the CTP before being required to withdraw from the program. If you fail the CTP just once and have no more time to complete the degree, your candidacy will automatically expire. Please note that a WD grade counts as an attempt.

If by not passing the CTP you fall into poor academic standing, you will need to take additional degree-applicable courses to return to good standing before enrolling in the CTP for your second and final time, only if your five-year, degree-completion date allows. If you have no more time on your five-year clock, you will be required to withdraw.

Human Subjects

If your thesis, regardless of field, will involve the use of human subjects (e.g., interviews, surveys, observations), you will need to have your research vetted by the  Committee on the Use of Human Subjects  (CUHS) of Harvard University. Please review the IRB LIFECYCLE GUIDE located on the CUHS website. Your research advisor will help you prepare a draft copy of the project protocol form that you will need to send to CUHS. The vetting process needs to be started during the CTP tutorial, before a thesis director has been assigned.

4. Thesis Director Assignment and Thesis Registration

We expect you to be registered in thesis soon after CTP completion or within 3 months — no later. You cannot delay. It is critical that once a research project has been approved through the CTP process, the project must commence in a timely fashion to ensure the academic integrity of the thesis process.

Once you (1) successfully complete the CTP and (2) have your proposal officially approved by your research advisor (RA), you move to the thesis director assignment phase. Successful completion of the CTP is not the same as having an officially approved proposal. These are two distinct steps.

If you are a life science student (e.g., biology), your thesis director was identified prior to the CTP, and now you need the thesis director to approve the proposal.

The research advisor places you with a thesis director. Do not approach faculty to ask about directing your thesis.  You may suggest names of any potential thesis directors to your research advisor, who will contact them, if they are eligible/available to direct your thesis, after you have an approved thesis proposal.

When a thesis director has been identified or the thesis proposal has been fully vetted by the preassigned life science thesis director, you will receive a letter of authorization from the Assistant Dean of Academic Programs officially approving your thesis work and providing you with instructions on how to register for the eight-credit Master’s Thesis. The letter will also have a tentative graduation date as well as four mandatory thesis submission dates (see Thesis Timetable below).

Continuous Registration Tip: If you want to maintain continued registration from CTP to thesis, you should meet with your RA prior to prework to settle on a workable topic, submit well-documented prework, work diligently throughout the CTP to produce a high-quality proposal that is ready to be matched with a thesis director as soon as the CTP is complete.

Good academic standing. You must be good academic standing to register for the thesis. If not, you’ll need to complete additional courses to bring your GPA up to the 3.0 minimum prior to registration.

Thesis Timetable

The thesis is a 9 to 12 month project that begins after the Crafting the Thesis Proposal (CTP); when your research advisor has approved your proposal and identified a Thesis Director.

The date for the appointment of your Thesis Director determines the graduation cycle that will be automatically assigned to you:

Once registered in the thesis, we will do a 3-month check-in with you and your thesis director to ensure progress is being made. If your thesis director reports little to no progress, the Dean of Academic Programs reserves the right to issue a thesis not complete (TNC) grade (see Thesis Grading below).

As you can see above, you do not submit your thesis all at once at the end, but in four phases: (1) complete draft to TA, (2) final draft to RA for format review and academic integrity check, (3) format approved draft submitted to TA for grading, and (4) upload your 100% complete graded thesis to ETDs.

Due dates for all phases for your assigned graduation cycle cannot be missed.  You must submit materials by the date indicated by 5 PM EST (even if the date falls on a weekend). If you are late, you will not be able to graduate during your assigned cycle.

If you need additional time to complete your thesis after the date it is due to the Thesis Director (phase 1), you need to formally request an extension (which needs to be approved by your Director) by emailing that petition to:  [email protected] .  The maximum allotted time to write your thesis, including any granted extensions of time is 12 months.

Timing Tip: If you want to graduate in May, you should complete the CTP in the fall term two years prior or, if a sustainability student, in the January session one year prior. For example, to graduate in May 2025:

  • Complete the CTP in fall 2023 (or in January 2024, if a sustainability student)
  • Be assigned a thesis director (TD) in March/April 2024
  • Begin the 9-12 month thesis project with TD
  • Submit a complete draft of your thesis to your TD by February 1, 2025
  • Follow through with all other submission deadlines (April 1, April 15 and May 1 — see table above)
  • Graduate in May 2025

5. Conduct Thesis Research

When registered in the thesis, you work diligently and independently, following the advice of your thesis director, in a consistent, regular manner equivalent to full-time academic work to complete the research by your required timeline.

You are required to produce at least 50 pages of text (not including front matter and appendices). Chapter topics (e.g., introduction, background, methods, findings, conclusion) vary by field.

6. Format Review — Required of all Harvard Graduate Students and Part of Your Graduation Requirements

All ALM thesis projects must written in Microsoft Word and follow a specific Harvard University format. A properly formatted thesis is an explicit degree requirement; you cannot graduate without it.

Your research advisor will complete the format review prior to submitting your thesis to your director for final grading according to the Thesis Timetable (see above).

You must use our Microsoft Word ALM Thesis Template or Microsoft ALM Thesis Template Creative Writing (just for creative writing degree candidates). It has all the mandatory thesis formatting built in. Besides saving you a considerable amount of time as you write your thesis, the preprogrammed form ensures that your submitted thesis meets the mandatory style guidelines for margins, font, title page, table of contents, and chapter headings. If you use the template, format review should go smoothly, if not, a delayed graduation is highly likely.

Format review also includes a check on the proper use of sources according to our academic integrity guidelines. Violations of our academic integrity policy will be referred directly to the Administrative Board.

7. Mandatory Thesis Archiving — Required of all Harvard Graduate Students and Part of Your Graduation Requirements

Once your thesis is finalized, meaning that the required grade has been earned and all edits have been completed, you must upload your thesis to Harvard University’s electronic thesis and dissertation submission system (ETDs). Uploading your thesis ETDs is an explicit degree requirement; you cannot graduate without completing this step.

The thesis project will be sent to several downstream systems:

  • Your work will be preserved using Harvard’s digital repository DASH (Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard).
  • Metadata about your work will be sent to HOLLIS (the Harvard Library catalog).
  • Your work will be preserved in Harvard Library’s DRS2 (digital preservation repository).

By submitting work through ETDs @ Harvard you will be signing the Harvard Author Agreement. This license does not constrain your rights to publish your work subsequently. You retain all intellectual property rights.

For more information on Harvard’s open access initiatives, we recommend you view the Director of the Office of Scholarly Communication (OSC), Peter Suber’s brief introduction .

Thesis Grading

You need to earn a grade of B- or higher in the thesis. All standard course letter grades are available to your thesis director. If you fail to complete substantial work on the thesis, you will earn a grade of TNC (thesis not complete). If you have already earned two withdrawal grades, the TNC grade will count as a zero in your cumulative GPA.

If you earn a grade below B-, you will need to petition the Administrative Board for permission to attempt the thesis for a second and final time. The petition process is only available if you are in good academic standing and your five-year, degree-completion deadline allows for more time. Your candidacy will automatically expire if you do not successfully complete the thesis by your required deadline.

If approved for a second attempt, you may be required to develop a new proposal on a different topic by re-enrolling in the CTP and being assigned a different thesis director. Tuition for the second attempt is calculated at the current year’s rate.

If by not passing the thesis you fall into poor academic standing, you’ll need to take additional degree-applicable courses to return to good standing before re-engaging with the thesis process for the second and final time. This is only an option if your five-year, degree-completion deadline allows for more time.

The Board only reviews cases in which extenuating circumstances prevented the successful completion of the thesis.

Harvard Division of Continuing Education

The Division of Continuing Education (DCE) at Harvard University is dedicated to bringing rigorous academics and innovative teaching capabilities to those seeking to improve their lives through education. We make Harvard education accessible to lifelong learners from high school to retirement.

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Search the site, search suggestions, to thesis or not to thesis.

doing bachelor thesis

For many students at Harvard, whether or not to write a thesis is a question that comes up at least once during our four years.

For some concentrations, thesising is mandatory – you know when you declare that you will write a senior thesis, and this often factors into the decision-making process when it comes to declaring that field. For other concentrations, thesising is pretty rare – sometimes slightly discouraged by the department, depending on how well the subject lends itself to independent undergraduate research. 

In my concentration, Neuroscience on the Neurobiology track, thesising is absolutely optional. If you want to do research and writing a thesis is something that interests you, you can totally go for it, if you like research but just don’t want to write a super long paper detailing it, that’s cool too, and if you decide that neither is for you, there’s no pressure. 

plot graph

Some Thesis Work From My Thesis That Wasn't Meant To Be

This is from back when I thought I was writing a thesis! Yay data! Claire Hoffman

While this is super nice from the perspective that it allows students to create the undergraduate experiences that work best for them, it can be really confusing if you’re someone like me who can struggle a little with the weight of such a (seemingly) huge decision. So for anyone pondering this question, or thinking they might be in the future, here’s Claire’s patented list of advice:

1.    If you really want to thesis, thesis.

If it’s going to be something you’re passionate about, do it! When it comes to spending that much time doing something, if you’re excited about it and feel like it’s something you really want to do, it will be a rewarding experience. Don’t feel discouraged, yes it will be tough, but you can absolutely do this!

2.    If you really don’t want to write one, don’t let anyone tell you you should.  This is more the camp I fell into myself. I had somehow ended up writing a junior thesis proposal, and suddenly found myself on track to thesis, something I hadn’t fully intended to do. I almost stuck with it, but it mostly would have been because I felt guilty leaving my lab after leading them on- and guilt will not write a thesis for you. I decided to drop at the beginning of senior year, and pandemic or no, it was definitely one of the best decisions I made.

3.    This is one of those times where what your friends are doing doesn’t matter. I’m also someone who can (sometimes) be susceptible to peer pressure. Originally, I was worried because so many of my friends were planning to write theses that I would feel left out if I did not also do it. This turned out to be unfounded because one, a bunch of my friends also dropped their theses (senior year in a global pandemic is hard ok?), and two, I realized that even if they were all writing them and loved it, their joy would not mean that I could not be happy NOT writing one. It just wasn’t how I wanted to spend my (limited) time as a senior! On the other hand, if none of your friends are planning to thesis but you really want to, don’t let that stop you. Speaking from experience, they’ll happily hang out with you while you work, and ply you with snacks and fun times during your breaks.

Overall, deciding to write a thesis can be an intensely personal choice. At the end of the day, you just have to do what’s right for you! And as we come up on thesis submission deadlines, good luck to all my amazing senior friends out there who are turning in theses right now.  

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doing bachelor thesis

Info about Bachelor and Master theses

if anything in this article is outdated or a link does not work, please contact Hopo: hopo ät vis.ethz.ch

Short information

  • Regulations: https://inf.ethz.ch/de/studium/dokumente.html
  • List of all research groups: https://inf.ethz.ch/studies/semester-and-master-theses.html
  • Mailing list: [email protected], subscribe via: https://lists.vis.ethz.ch/sympa/info/thesis (login required)

The Bachelor and Master thesis is part of the Computer Science Bachelor and Master program at ETH. The goal of both theses is to learn independent structured and scientific work methods.

The most important information about the Bachelor's and Master's thesis can be found in the study regulations and the information sheets of the respective study program. These documents are listed on the following page of the D-INFK: https://inf.ethz.ch/de/studium/dokumente.html In the following we summarize the most important points.

Both theses take 6 months to complete. The bachelor thesis is worth 10 KP and the master thesis 30 KP. The bachelor thesis can be written over 6 months in a part-time workload or as a full-time workload in a shorter time frame. The master's thesis is written over 6 months in a 100% workload.

Under certain conditions, the Bachelor thesis can also be written in a group (see Bachelor regulations Art 36.6). However, this is not common.

In order to be admitted for the Master thesis, sufficient credit points must have been acquired from some categories: see Master regulations 2020 Art 35.2 and the regulations of 2009 Art 32.2. In order to be admitted for the Bachelor thesis, 5 basic subjects must have been passed, see information sheet Bachelor thesis. If these conditions are fulfilled, you can start the thesis at any time. But note that the submission date is before the end of your study deadline and the start date must also be convenient for your supervisors.

The Bachelor thesis is supervised by one or more professors. From our experience (HoPo-Team) this supervision can vary a lot:

  • The supervision can be done directly by the professor or by PhD students or PostDocs of the respective group.
  • Supervision can be very time intensive (meetings at least once a week) or only as needed (if questions arise, they are clarified).

Both theses are completed with a written report and a presentation. The form of this presentation (audience, duration) may vary from group to group. The standard of the written work also varies.

The work can also be done externally, i.e. in industry or at another university. However, the work must still be supervised by an ETH professor. This professor also assigns the grade at the end and, depending on the project, also takes over part of the supervision. For the Data Science and Cyber Security Master there are some additional regulations regarding external master theses: See section 3 of the Data Science Master thesis leaflet, section 4 of the Cyber Security leaflet or Data Science study regulations art. 28.2. or Cyber Security study regulations art. 33.4.

For more and detailed information, check out the documents linked above.

How to find a topic:

Take your time to find a topic and a group. You should expect at least one month from your first mail to the start of your work. This process may also take longer. So if you want to start on a fixed date, you should start looking early enough. For some groups, half a year before the start is too early. This varies from group to group.

Subscribe to the mailing list: Once you are looking, you should subscribe to the mailing list to get possible proposals from there ( https://lists.vis.ethz.ch/sympa/info/thesis ). When you have found a thesis, you can unsubscribe.

Find a subject: First of all, you should think about what field you are interested in. Especially for the bachelor thesis, you probably don't have very concrete ideas yet. It can help to think about which lectures you were interested in and which you enjoyed. And then look at the field of the professorship.

Find a group: The department lists all professorships and their research groups at the following link https://inf.ethz.ch/studies/semester-and-master-theses.html . The links sometimes point to the general website of the research group, then you can get an idea of their work, or to a page for writing papers in the respective group. Such pages often contain possible topics or already prepared proposals, requirements to you and email addresses of the contact persons. It is worthwhile to study such pages. It should be noted, however, that the lists of proposals are usually not complete and often not up to date. However, the proposals will give you a good idea of what you can do as work in this group. The new topics will be similar. Even if no concrete proposals are announced, it is worth asking. There is also a new mailing list where topics for papers are advertised. Both from research groups of the department and from externals: https://lists.vis.ethz.ch/sympa/info/thesis

Write to the groups: The above sites often tell you who to contact to find a paper. If you are unsure, write to the professor personally. You can also write to several groups, and then choose the topic that interests you the most. This process can take some time. Professors are very busy and often take 2 days or more to respond. If you don't get an answer within a week, you can ask nicely. Unfortunately, it also happens that emails are ignored completely, then you should look for another group. Even if it sometimes takes a while with the professors; try to write back within 24 hours.

Have a meeting: It's best to set up a meeting where you can talk about possible projects and get to know the potential supervisors. Have them explain the topic and ask questions. Also find out a bit about how the group will supervise you (and if that's right for you) and when you can start working. Additionally, for the bachelor's thesis, clarify whether you will be working on it part-time for 6 months (the normal case) or full-time for a shorter period of time.

Decide: When deciding on a topic, it is certainly important that it interests or even excites you. You have to work intensively on it for 6 months. But it is just as important that the supervision is right for you. Do you prefer intensive collaboration or are infrequent inputs enough for you? Can you imagine working together with the supervisor? Are the expectations realistic? Also, exchange ideas with friends or stop by the VIS office, someone may already know the group you want to learn about.

Finish in time: If you do the Bachelor thesis and an ETH Computer Science Master: The Bachelor thesis grade must be there at the beginning of the Computer Science Master, so that you can still enroll (Friday second week of the first Master semester at the latest). In case of doubt please ask Denise Spicher (or Hopo). Note that your supervisors need time to give you the grade (up to 4 weeks, in rare cases more).

Other useful links:

  • Latex template: The CADMO provides the following template: https://www.cadmo.ethz.ch/education/thesis/template.html
  • Links from CADMO: On the page of CADMO about master and bachelor theses is a list of useful links: https://www.cadmo.ethz.ch/education/thesis/guidelines.html (at the bottom)
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Bachelor's thesis

Language selector, banner - writing and submitting your bachelor's thesis, writing and submitting your bachelor's thesis, what is a bachelor's thesis, what is a bachelor's thesis.

Illustration of the process with roadsigns saying prepare, write, finalize and submit

The bachelor's thesis is independent work undertaken by the student under the guidance of academic staff as a finalization of a bachelor's degree, usually during the last semester.

You will find more information in the course description .

From preparation to submission

  • Prepare - Some agreements might be required before you start writing. See "Information for your area of study" on this page.
  • Write - See "Help with academic writing" further down the page.
  • Finalize - Before the thesis is delivered, you should validate the pdf-file, and generate both a cover and a title page. This is also where you can order a printed version of your thesis. See " Finalizing the bachelor and master thesis " for details.
  • Submit – At last, your completed thesis is to be submitted. See "Information for your area of study" on this page. If you are going to submit using the exam system Inspera Assessment, see "Submitting bachelor and master thesis - for students" for guidance. See also information on archiving and publishing.

Information for your area of study

Check the course in Blackboard  for information on starting up and submitting your thesis.

  • Exception:  Bachelor programs at the Department of language and literature (Norwegian only)

See also: Guidelines for bachelor in economics and public administration at NTNU Business School (for semester assignments too) (Norwegian only) (pdf)

Help with academic writing

  • How to write a thesis and find information
  • Study techniques
  • Copyright in theses
  • For students with special needs accomodation

Writing for a company or organization?

  • Get in touch with businesses via NTNU Bridge
  • Writing a thesis for a company or organization? Contact your department to get a standard agreement form

Publishing and delayed publication

  • Publishing in NTNU Open
  • Delayed publication
  • Confidential information

Some of the bachelor's theses submitted at NTNU are published in NTNU Open.

Find previous theses

Ethics, privacy, plagiarism, cheating, financial support and field work

Ethics and privacy.

  • Collection of personal data for research projects  (currently only updated version in Norwegian)

Plagiarism and cheating

  • Cheating on exams

Financial support and field work

There are various support schemes  for those writing a thesis, and those doing  field work  (HSE, field card, insurance, visa etc.).

Grading and grades

  • Deadline for announcement of grades
  • Grading scale for master's theses
  • Check Studentweb for your grades
  • The diploma will be sent to you

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Bachelor Joey Graziadei Says Couples' Counseling Made a 'Huge Difference' for Him and Kelsey (Exclusive)

The tennis pro tells PEOPLE counseling "made a world of difference" for him and fiancée Kelsey Anderson, who he proposed to during Monday's 'Bachelor' finale

doing bachelor thesis

After getting engaged at the end of filming his season of The Bachelor , Joey Graziadei and Kelsey Anderson had to keep their relationship under wraps until the finale aired on Monday night.

During that time, which the junior project manager refers to as the “in-between period” to PEOPLE in this week’s issue, the show provided Joey, 28, and Kelsey, 25, with couples’ counseling to help them navigate communication.

“It's definitely not easy because we both do appreciate the physical touch,” Joey tells PEOPLE. “We communicate so much better when we're actually with each other in the same room. But the couples' counseling made a huge difference for us to not only be able to find better ways to communicate, but also learn how each of us communicate differently.”

Yuri Hasegawa

The Philadelphia native says he and Kelsey “learned a lot about each other” from doing virtual counseling and believes “it's made a world of difference.”

“Even though this time has not been the easiest — because who would want to be apart from someone when they get engaged? — I think it's going to help us in the future,” Joey says.

While trying to stay quiet about their engagement, Joey and Kelsey saved each other in their phones under aliases. Kelsey used Faine C. for Joey. “It's fiancé spelled different,” she explains.

Disney/Jan Thijs

Joey calls that “the worst name.”

“It's the dumbest one ever,” he continues. “Have you ever met with a name Faine in your life? Because there's no such person as a Faine.”

For more on The Bachelor , pick up the latest issue of PEOPLE, on newsstands Friday, or subscribe here .

Now, Joey can shed his nickname. “I cannot wait to get to Monday and my name's actually Joey in her phone and not Faine C,” he says. “But our job is to keep this as locked up as possible, so we kept it behind closed doors.”

Joey sees his and Kelsey’s approach to love as “a relationship in reverse” because, at first, “you deal with a lot of getting to know someone on a really deep basis and then, when you're actually together, you start to learn the small things about each other that you usually learn in the beginning part of dating.”

As a result, Joey feels like he and Kelsey created a “really strong foundation.”

“It's ideal, I think, at the end of the day,” he says. “It's just a little different.”

Kelsey admits that nerves kept her from opening up to Joey early on during filming.

“Our first conversation, I was really nervous, so it was hard for me to open up and really get to know him more,” she says. “But on our first group date we did a little workout together and, I was just like, ‘He's really cute. He's funny.’ He was cracking jokes with me. And, I was like, ‘OK, this is easy.’ And the more and more I got to know him, it got easier and easier.”

Disney/John Fleenor

Joey says he first realized Kelsey could be his forever person after the Mrs. Right pageant group date . “Mrs. Right, where she got her group date rose was where the connection really started,” he continues. “I think that was when we realized, ‘OK, there's something here that we're going to see through.’ And it just honestly got better every time after that.”

Joey sensed a connection when Kelsey first stepped out of the limo . “She's so beautiful,” Joey gushes. “When she walked out of them and I was like, "OK, I'm screwed right from the get-go.’ ”

Right after that, Kelsey handed Joey a voodoo doll as a nod to her New Orleans roots. Joey proceeded to carry that doll with him throughout filming. “I took it with me everywhere we went, because I had a pretty good idea that she was going to be around,” he says of Kelsey. “I had to make sure I held onto it.”

Now, Joey plans to hold onto what he has with Kelsey forever.

“That's the most important thing to hold onto,” he says. “She's the only person I was ever fully in love with. She's the only person I'll ever be fully in love with for the rest of my life because she deserves that.”

Never miss a story — sign up for PEOPLE's free daily newsletter to stay up-to-date on the best of what PEOPLE has to offer, from juicy celebrity news to compelling human interest stories.

The Bachelor is streaming now on Hulu.

Related Articles

'Bachelor' finale reveals Joey Graziadei's final choice: Who is he engaged to?

doing bachelor thesis

Spoiler alert: The following contains details from the finale of "The Bachelor" Season 28 .

Season 28 "Bachelor" lead Joey Graziadei has handed out his final rose and gotten down on one knee.

The 28-year-old "teaching tennis pro" proposed to Kelsey Anderson, a 25-year-old junior project manager from New Orleans, Louisiana. "Kelsey Alexandra Anderson, I love you. I want to spend the rest of my life with you," Joey said as the turquoise-blue waters of Tulum crashed in waves behind them. "Will you marry me?"

Monday's finale also ended months-long speculation about what left Joey crying on a Tulum beach by himself.

The engaged couple's happy ending left Daisy Kent, a 25-year-old account executive from Becker, Minnesota, heartbroken but confident in her decision. "The thing is, if I can love the wrong person that much, imagine how much I can love the right person?" she said.

Here's everything else that went down.

What happened during 'The Bachelor' 2024 finale?

Earlier in the finale episode, Daisy and Kelsey – the final two contestants among a cast of 32 eligible women – had tearful meetings with Joey's parents and sisters and expressed their love for him. However, Carly and Ellie, Joey's sisters, expressed their doubts about Kelsey being ready for an engagement.

Joey then embarked on his last dates with his final two contestants.

Despite her doubts about whether Joey would choose her, Daisy professed her love for the first time during the night portion of their final date. The vibes were off, though, and she left the encounter telling producers, "If I'm being 100% honest, I don't think it's me."

Kelsey's date seemed to go better, with the two showing their playful sides as they gave each other spa treatments and massaged one another.

Knowing what she needed to do as she's "really hurting" in her love for Joey and doubting being chosen, Daisy knocked on Kelsey's hotel room door ahead of the proposal.

She asked how her friend's meet-the-family and final date went and shared that her date "felt a little bit off. There was something missing between me and Joey," Daisy told Kelsey.

Joey Graziadei's eyes: 'Bachelor' star says Gilbert syndrome makes his eyes yellow

Daisy realized Joey was 'not my person'

In a first for the show, the women rode over to the proposal platform together, holding hands as they sat in the back of an SUV toward a gray-suited Joey. Daisy stepped out first to face her fate head-on.

"I do love you. But the thing is, you're not going to choose me," Daisy said tearfully. "The last couple days, I realized that you're not my person. And I know that you know. And as much as that hurts, I know you said you want what's best for me. So I'm going to do what's best for me and I'm going to go."

"You don't understand how special you truly are," a crying Joey replied. "It hurts so much that I know I have something more special with someone else, and I know that's where my heart is leading me."

She left with her head held high, embracing Kelsey on her way out.

Who did Joey Graziadei pick during 'Bachelor' finale?

Kelsey, donning a feathery white strapless gown, strode down the beach to meet with her potential fiancé.

With Daisy having already spoiled that she wasn't the final choice, Joey didn't bother with a fake-out before he proposed.

"There's nothing difficult about choosing you. And I can't wait another minute to tell you that I love you," he professed before getting down on one knee.

She agreed to take his hand in marriage — and wouldn't you know it, Kelsey accepted the final rose, too.

Are Joey and Kelsey still together?

Joey admitted there have been difficulties in their relationship since filming ended, but he reassured fans that the couple is at the "strongest we've ever been."

Kelsey revealed Joey will be coming to New Orleans in the interim, and they plan to move to New York in the summer.

Historic first: 'Bachelorette' announces first Asian American lead in franchise's 22-year history

Who is the next 'Bachelorette' in 2024?

Jesse Palmer enlisted the help of the previous bachelorette, Charity Lawson, to announce Jenn Tran as the next "Bachelorette" lead. Jenn will be the first Asian lead in the franchise's 22-year history .

doing bachelor thesis

‘The Bachelor’ 2024 Finale Spoilers: Joey’s Winner And If They’re Still Together

The Bachelor finale just aired, and just as host Jesse Palmer teased *all* season long, it was certainly unprecedented.

After a season filled with twists, turns, and even a Christmas tree farm, viewers finally got their answers. So, who did Joey Graziadei pick? And who is our next Bachelorette ?

Keep reading for all of the spoilers for last night's dramatic season finale.

Who wins ‘The Bachelor’?

Now, as followers of spoilers guru Reality Steve know, the winner of this season was Kelsey Anderson . But this wasn't his initial guidance.

First, Steve projected that runner-up Daisy Kent would be the winner. However, thanks to the work of some internet sleuths , the podcaster realized he was wrong.

"Joey is engaged to Kelsey A. and has been since filming ended,” he says. "He had never picked Daisy, and he’s been with Kelsey the whole time.”

What happens on the season finale of ‘The Bachelor’?

The drama certainly delivered during the Bachelor season finale, which aired last night .

After Daisy's final one-on-one, she realized she wasn't "The One." So, she went to see Kelsey—a move that had never happened before in Bachelor history—and told her that Kelsey and Joey will be together instead. Then, Kelsey and Daisy rode to the proposal together in an adorable show of support.

Fast-forward to the split: Daisy arrived first and told Joey that she knows she's not the winner.

"You're not going to choose me," she said, as Joey gets emotional. "The last couple days, I realized that you're not my person." Daisy said she's going to "do what's best for me" and leave the competition.

Joey said that it's been "unbelievable" to get to know Daisy, even though his heart was "leading" him to Kelsey. When Joey asked to walk her out, Daisy decided to do so on her own.

When she got back to the car, Daisy even gave a moment of reassurance to Kelsey, telling her, "I know your mom's going to be looking down on this moment, and she's going to be so happy."

Ultimately, it was all smiles when Kelsey came down to the beach. "There is nothing difficult about choosing you," he told her. "I can't wait another minute to tell you that I love you."

Joey then proposed with a four-carat, Art Deco-inspired ring featuring an emerald-cut diamond (thanks to jeweler Neil Lane, of course). Cue the happily ever after!

Are Joey and Kelsey still engaged?

Yes! The two are just as loved-up as ever, telling Jesse on After the Final Rose that they're looking forward to moving in together in New York City.

"She is a light," Joey said of his fiancée. "Something about Kelsey—she truly is unique. She gives energy fully, in her own way. I don't know how I'm going to have a boring day of life with her by my side."

Now, the two are looking forward to enjoying life together, with Kelsey suspecting that they're in for a longer engagement (say two or three years, per People ).

"I honestly don't know what I want my wedding to look like," she said. "I definitely want all my close friends and family there. I think I want a very timeless wedding, but where? Not sure. I guess we're going to have to figure that out."

Jenn is the next Bachelorette.

While Steve initially predicted that either Daisy or fan favorite Maria Georgas would be the next lead, it turns out Jenn Tran will be the star of the next season! Here's Jenn:

Jenn and Joey went on the season's second one-on-one, going surfing. But she was sadly eliminated before the Hometowns episode.

The 25-year-old PA student, who lives in Miami, said she's looking for a fun-loving romance during last night's After the Final Rose special. Jenn, who is Vietnamese, will also be the first Asian American woman to lead the series.

"I feel so so grateful and so honored to be the first Asian Bachelorette in this franchise," Jenn said during the episode. "Growing up, I've always wanted to see Asian representation on TV. And I feel like it was really sparse. Any time Asians were in the media, it was to fill a supporting character role, to fulfill some sort of stereotype, and I felt really boxed in by that because I was like, 'I don't see myself on screen. I don't see myself as a main character.'"

The Bachelorette will air sometime this summer, followed by The Golden Bachelorette in the fall, according to ABC .

Here are all ‘The Bachelor’ 2024 finale spoilers, according to Reality Steve. Find out who Joey’s picks as the winner, if they get engaged and are together.

The Bachelorette

Bachelorette Biography

After charming audiences with her bubbly personality on Joey Graziadei's season of "The Bachelor," Jenn Tran will make Bachelor franchise history when her journey to love begins on the upcoming 21st season of "The Bachelorette." The 26-year-old fan favorite will begin handing out roses when the series returns this summer to ABC and Hulu.

Tran is a sweet and compassionate woman who has dedicated her life to helping others and is currently studying to become a physician assistant. The bilingual Vietnamese beauty currently resides in Miami and is ready to find love with a man who's as reliable and thoughtful as she is. When she's not studying, Tran loves reading, paddleboarding and traveling whenever she has the chance.

Meet the Cast

Follow the bachelorette:.

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IMAGES

  1. tips for writing your bachelor's thesis

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  2. Sample Bachelor Thesis Proposal

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  3. Bachelor Thesis Structure Example

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  4. Guide to Writing Your Bachelors’ Thesis & Its Main Components

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  5. How To Write A Bachelor Thesis

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  6. How To Write A Thesis For Masters Degree

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  1. Tips on writing bachelor thesis

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COMMENTS

  1. What Is a Thesis?

    A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master's program or a capstone to a bachelor's degree. Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation, it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete.

  2. Developing A Thesis

    A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay. Steps in Constructing a Thesis. First, analyze your primary sources. Look for tension, interest, ambiguity, controversy, and/or complication.

  3. PDF How to Write a BA Thesis

    18 What to Do If You Get Stuck 283 VI. SCHEDULING AND COMPLETING YOUR THESIS 19 Thesis Schedule 287 20 Tips and Reminders 295 21 Frequently Asked Questions 303 22 What to Do When You're All Done 314 VII. DEALING WITH SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS 23 Thesis Defense and Second Readers: Questions and Answers 323 24 A One- Semer est Thesis 263 VIII.

  4. How to Write a Bachelor's Thesis: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Determine the topic of the bachelor's thesis and discuss it with the supervisor. Conduct comprehensive research and collect relevant sources. Create an outline and divide the topic into individual sections. Write the main part of the paper by processing and summarizing the insights gained from the research.

  5. HOW TO WRITE A THESIS: Steps by step guide

    A strong thesis should be able to take a stand and not just taking a stand but should be able to justify the stand that is taken, so that the reader will be tempted to ask questions like how or why. The thesis should be arguable, contestable, focused, specific, and clear. Make your thesis clear, strong and easy to find.

  6. Thesis

    Thesis. Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore ...

  7. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Step 1: Start with a question. You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis, early in the writing process. As soon as you've decided on your essay topic, you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

  8. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research. Step 3: Make future recommendations. Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field. Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation. Full conclusion example. Conclusion checklist. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

  9. Dissertation Structure & Layout 101 (+ Examples)

    Time to recap…. And there you have it - the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows: Title page. Acknowledgments page. Abstract (or executive summary) Table of contents, list of figures and tables.

  10. How to Structure a Thesis: A Complete Guide

    Considering errors in the methodology section enervates the entire thesis. Follow the steps below to write a perfect methodology for a thesis: a. Give an outline of the research design. b. Don't forget to define the philosophy behind the research. c. Mention the research approach. d. Introduce the research methods.

  11. research process

    For a Bachelor's thesis, you would only expect 1 and 2, that is the student should do something (e.g. solve a well-defined problem) with the knowledge they have aquired during their studies. For Master's thesis, you would want to have a non-trivial amount of 3, that is the student should transfer the competences aquired during studies to new ...

  12. The Thesis Process

    Please note: *For November graduates, if you are facing urgent financial aid or veteran's benefits deadlines, you may request special processing of your thesis registration from July 1 to August 14 (if a thesis director has been identified). TD assignments in mid-summer are challenging to obtain due to faculty availability. Once registered in the thesis, we will do a 3-month check-in with ...

  13. How to write a bachelor thesis?

    6.3 Draft and planning of assessment. At the end of the writing phase, the student hands in a draft thesis. Together with the supervisor, the students plan the dates for handing in the draft, the turnover time needed for the supervisor to hand in the comments and plans the date for the final assessment.

  14. To Thesis or Not to Thesis?

    1. If you really want to thesis, thesis. If it's going to be something you're passionate about, do it! When it comes to spending that much time doing something, if you're excited about it and feel like it's something you really want to do, it will be a rewarding experience. Don't feel discouraged, yes it will be tough, but you can ...

  15. Exploring writing a bachelor's thesis as a tool for students' learning

    In Swedish nursing programs, undergraduate theses have been mandatory since 2007. 1 The completion of a bachelor's thesis (BT) awards a student 15 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) points and the degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Having the status of a quality indicator of higher education, 3 students' theses are expected to demonstrate the ability to critically investigate and ...

  16. PDF Bachelor'S Theses, Master'S Theses, Term Papers

    Prof. Dr. Florian Morath Chair of Economic Policy 1 Guidelines for BACHELOR'S THESES, MASTER'S THESES, TERM PAPERS General information Contribution of your thesis or term paper: Your thesis or term paper constitutes a first step into doing independent research.

  17. word choice

    3. As I understand it, you are the bachelor (or at least the bachelor candidate) by virtue of being on the course, and the thesis is yours, so bachelor's thesis is the correct way to go. On the thesis/dissertation thing, a thesis is your argument or proposition, and a dissertation is the discourse you defend it with. Share.

  18. Info about Bachelor and Master theses

    Both theses take 6 months to complete. The bachelor thesis is worth 10 KP and the master thesis 30 KP. The bachelor thesis can be written over 6 months in a part-time workload or as a full-time workload in a shorter time frame. The master's thesis is written over 6 months in a 100% workload. Under certain conditions, the Bachelor thesis can ...

  19. Bachelor Joey Graziadei, Kelsey A. Want a 'Long Engagement' (Exclusive)

    Joey Graziadei got engaged to Kelsey Anderson on Monday's Bachelor finale, and, as he mentioned earlier in the season, Joey doesn't want to rush to the altar. "We want to promise our lives ...

  20. Doing a bachelor thesis is killing me

    I'm currently doing my bachelor thesis in science and I'm hitting a wall. I have always been good at coursework and I felt like I was really understanding the content in my degree - I got good marks, seemed to be going well. Planning experiments for my thesis does my head in - I get overwhelmed and don't know where to start.

  21. Do I need to make a Bachelor's thesis to apply to a master's degree

    I've never been on an (academic) admissions committee, but I can hardly imagine that, instead of reading the title of still another bachelor thesis, I find "exempted by university from writing bachelor thesis because of my course performance near the top of class," and consider that a negative. So I don't think you should sweat that.

  22. Bachelor's thesis

    Finalize - Before the thesis is delivered, you should validate the pdf-file, and generate both a cover and a title page. This is also where you can order a printed version of your thesis. See "Finalizing the bachelor and master thesis" for details. Submit - At last, your completed thesis is to be submitted. See "Information for your area of ...

  23. All About Joey Graziadei and Kelsey Anderson's Relationship After

    Joey and Kelsey after she accepted his proposal in "The Bachelor.". Though the season may have ended with an engagement, Joey and Kelsey are in no rush to get married. "We want to promise our ...

  24. Joey Graziadei and Kelsey Did Couples' Counseling After 'Bachelor

    Joey Graziadei tells PEOPLE counseling "made a world of difference" for him and fiancée Kelsey Anderson, who he proposed to during Monday's finale of 'The Bachelor'

  25. Is Daisy Kent single? 'The Bachelor' 2024 finale star spills the ...

    'The Bachelor' Season 28 star Daisy Kent surprisingly dumped Joey Graziadei even before the ABC show star announced his final decision. During the finale, Daisy told Joey that she knew he wasn't ...

  26. 'Bachelor' finale recap: Joey Graziadei, Kelsey Anderson get engaged

    Season 28 "Bachelor" lead Joey Graziadei has handed out his final rose and gotten down on one knee. The 28-year-old "teaching tennis pro" proposed to Kelsey Anderson, a 25-year-old junior project ...

  27. 'The Bachelor' 2024 Finale Spoilers: Joey's Winner And If ...

    The Bachelor finale just aired, and just as host Jesse Palmer teased *all* season long, it was certainly unprecedented. After a season filled with twists, turns, and even a Christmas tree farm ...

  28. Jenn Tran

    After charming audiences with her bubbly personality on Joey Graziadei's season of "The Bachelor," Jenn Tran will make Bachelor franchise history when her journey to love begins on the upcoming 21st season of "The Bachelorette." The 26-year-old fan favorite will begin handing out roses when the series returns this summer to ABC and Hulu. Tran ...