How to Summarize a PowerPoint Presentation: A Step-by-Step Guide

Summarizing a PowerPoint presentation is a skill that can come in handy in various situations. Maybe you’ve just watched a colleague’s presentation and need to report back to your team, or perhaps you’re studying for an exam and want to condense the material. To summarize a PowerPoint effectively, you’ll need to identify the key points, understand the presentation’s purpose, and distill the information into a concise format. By mastering these steps, you’ll be able to communicate the essence of any presentation to your audience efficiently.

Once you’ve summarized the PowerPoint presentation, you’ll have a handy reference that captures the main ideas and supporting details without the fluff. This summary can serve as a study aid, a quick refresher, or a tool to brief others who may not have the time to go through the entire presentation.


Let’s face it, sitting through a lengthy PowerPoint presentation can sometimes feel like a chore, especially when all you need are the highlights. Maybe you’re a busy professional with back-to-back meetings, a student juggling multiple assignments, or just someone who values efficiency. Whatever the case, being able to summarize a PowerPoint presentation is a valuable skill that can save you time and keep you informed.

Why is this ability so important? For starters, it helps you to quickly sift through information and focus on what’s essential. In our fast-paced world, time is of the essence, and being able to distill a lengthy presentation into a few key points can be a game-changer. Moreover, it’s not only about personal convenience; summarizing skills are crucial when you have to convey the gist of a presentation to others. Whether you’re briefing a colleague, preparing notes for a study group, or delivering a report to a client, a well-crafted summary can make all the difference. So, let’s dive into the how-to of summarizing a PowerPoint presentation, shall we?

Step by Step Tutorial: How to Summarize a PowerPoint Presentation

Before we jump into the steps, let’s establish what we’re aiming for. A good summary of a PowerPoint presentation should capture the main ideas, the supporting details, and the presenter’s intended message, all while being brief and easy to understand.

Step 1: Review the Entire Presentation

Start by going through the entire PowerPoint presentation.

Reviewing the presentation in its entirety allows you to get a sense of the overall flow and the key themes. Pay attention to the title slides and the concluding slides, as they often contain the main message and summary points.

Step 2: Identify the Key Points

Look for the main ideas in each slide.

Each slide usually focuses on a single main idea. Look for bullet points, bolded text, or headings as clues to what the presenter considers important. Make note of these points as they will form the backbone of your summary.

Step 3: Understand the Purpose

Determine the purpose of the presentation.

Understanding why the presentation was created helps to frame your summary. Was it to inform, persuade, or instruct? Knowing the intent will guide you in deciding what details are crucial for your summary.

Step 4: Condense the Information

  • Condense the information into a concise format.

Now that you have the key points and the purpose, start writing your summary. Aim to express the ideas as simply and clearly as possible, without losing the original meaning. If a slide’s content can be said in one sentence instead of three, do it.

Step 5: Review and Edit

Review your summary and refine it.

Go through your summary to ensure it’s coherent and that it accurately reflects the presentation’s content and purpose. Edit out any redundancies or unclear statements.

Additional Information

When summarizing a PowerPoint presentation, it’s essential to keep the audience in mind. Who will be reading your summary? What do they need to know? Tailoring the summary to the needs of your audience can make it more effective. Additionally, consider using visual aids from the original presentation, such as charts or graphs, if they help illustrate a point more clearly.

Remember, a good summary is not just a list of points but a coherent mini-version of the presentation. It should flow logically and be engaging to read. Lastly, practice makes perfect. The more you practice summarizing presentations, the better you’ll become at capturing the essence of the content. So next time you sit through a PowerPoint, why not give it a try?

  • Review the entire PowerPoint presentation.
  • Identify the key points in each slide.
  • Understand the purpose of the presentation.
  • Review and edit your summary.

Frequently Asked Questions

What if the powerpoint presentation is very long.

Start by breaking it down into sections, and summarize each section before attempting to summarize the whole presentation. This will make the task more manageable.

Can I include quotes from the presentation in my summary?

Yes, but use them sparingly and only if they emphasize a key point effectively.

Should I use the same slide titles in my summary?

You can, but it’s not necessary. The aim is to capture the main ideas, not to replicate the presentation’s structure.

Is it okay to leave out examples used in the presentation?

If the examples are used to illustrate key points, briefly mention them. Otherwise, focus on the main ideas and leave out specific examples.

How long should my summary be?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer, but a good rule of thumb is to make it as brief as possible while still covering all key points.

Summarizing a PowerPoint presentation is an art and a skill that can be honed with practice. Whether you’re a student, a professional, or simply someone who values brevity, being able to condense information efficiently is incredibly valuable. Remember, the goal is to capture the essence of the presentation, not to replicate it.

Use your judgment to determine what’s essential and what can be left out. With the steps and tips outlined in this article, you’re well on your way to becoming an expert summarizer. So next time you’re faced with a lengthy presentation, don’t despair. Embrace the challenge and flex those summarizing muscles!

Matthew Burleigh Solve Your Tech

Matthew Burleigh has been writing tech tutorials since 2008. His writing has appeared on dozens of different websites and been read over 50 million times.

After receiving his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Computer Science he spent several years working in IT management for small businesses. However, he now works full time writing content online and creating websites.

His main writing topics include iPhones, Microsoft Office, Google Apps, Android, and Photoshop, but he has also written about many other tech topics as well.

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How to write an effective executive summary like a mckinsey or bcg consultant.

Alexandra Hazard Kampmann

Table of contents

Key components of an effective executive summary, an in-depth look at each component of the executive summary (with examples), some practical tips and tricks, the bottom line.

Management consultants at firms like McKinsey, BCG, and Bain are renowned for their ability to present complex ideas in a clear, concise manner that is easy to digest and understand. A key component of this process is the executive summary slide – often presented as the first part of a presentation deck on a given topic or problem. 

An executive summary aims to provide the audience with an overview of the subject at hand or a snapshot of the key points that will be discussed in greater depth. It should serve to quickly get the main messages and conclusions across and motivate audiences to dive deeper into the details.

In this post, we will outline the essential components of an effective executive summary using techniques from McKinsey, BCG, and Bain. We will also provide tips on how to craft a compelling executive summary in practice and give examples of best practices.

For a broader view on how to create consultant-style presentations take a look at our blog post 'How McKinsey Consultants Make PowerPoint Presentations' .

A good executive summary provides all the key information in one slide. The goal is to communicate as much information in as few words as possible.

To achieve this goal, you should focus on the following key components when crafting an executive summary slide: 

  • [optional] Objective: Clearly state the purpose and objective of the presentation.
  • Situation: Provide relevant background information to set the context for the problem or opportunity being addressed.
  • Complication: Define the complication (problem or opportunity) the presentation addresses in simple, to-the-point sentences. This includes identifying the root cause of the problem or opportunity and its implications for the organization.
  • Resolution: Present the recommended solution or solutions to the complication in a clear and concise manner. This should be based on data-driven insights and analysis.
  • [optional] Benefits: Articulate the benefits of implementing the recommended solution. These benefits should be linked to the organization's strategic objectives.
  • Call to Action: Provide a clear call to action outlining what the organization needs to do to implement the recommended solution. This should be actionable and linked to the organization's strategic objectives.

This structure is similar to the SCQA (situation-complication-question-answer) framework.

Craft effective executive summaries for your consulting presentations .

Let's take a closer look at each component of the executive summary and how it can be used to craft an effective executive summary deck using the McKinsey/BCG/Bain methodology.

1. Objective

The objective of the executive summary should succinctly define the purpose of the presentation and why it is important for the audience to understand the key points.

To craft an effective objective, you should consider the following: 

  • Who is the target audience?
  • What are the key points that the audience needs to understand?
  • What is the purpose of the presentation?
  • Why is it important for the audience to understand the key points?

An effective objective should be brief, clear, and focused on the needs of the audience. It should be written to clearly communicate what the presentation will cover and why it matters.

 Example: "This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of the industry and highlight key trends and opportunities for growth."

2. Situation

The background or situation section of the executive summary provides relevant context to the audience to help them better understand the problem or opportunity being addressed. 

This section should include:

  • Relevant background information on the industry, market, or organization.
  • Any key trends or developments that are important to the problem or opportunity being addressed.
  • Any relevant historical information that helps to explain the current situation.

Some questions to ask when crafting the background section include:

  • What is the context for the problem or opportunity being addressed?
  • What are the key factors that have led to the current situation?
  • What are the relevant historical or industry-specific factors that are important to understanding the problem or opportunity?

An effective background section should be concise and focused on the most important information. It should provide enough context for the audience to understand the problem or situation being addressed without overwhelming them with unnecessary information.

Here are some examples from McKinsey and BCG:

Executive Summary example from McKinsey presentation

3. Complication

The complication section of the executive summary clearly and concisely defines the reason the situation requires action, either because there is a serious problem or there is a good opportunity. This includes identifying the root cause of the problem or opportunity and its implications for the organization.

  • What is the problem or opportunity that the presentation is addressing?
  • What are the root causes of the problem or opportunity?
  • What are the implications of the problem or opportunity for the organization?

 An effective complication section should be short and to-the-point, focusing on the most important aspects of the problem or opportunity. The root cause of the complication should be clearly identified, along with the most relevant data or evidence that supports this analysis. In addition, the implications of the problem or opportunity for the organization should be clearly articulated, highlighting why it is important for the audience to understand the problem/opportunity and its impact and why it requires action.

Executive Summary example - complication

Enhance your proposal writing with our Consulting Proposal template , or explore our collection of 10 Real Consulting Proposals .

4. Resolution

The resolution section of the executive summary presents the proposed solution or strategy for addressing the complication. This should include a brief overview of the approach and any relevant supporting information or evidence.

  • What is the proposed approach for addressing the problem or opportunity?
  • What are the key elements of the strategy?
  • What are the expected benefits or outcomes of the approach?
  • What evidence is there to support the proposed solution or strategy?

An effective resolution section should provide enough detail for the audience to understand what is being proposed and why without overwhelming them with unnecessary detail. The proposed approach and any relevant supporting information or evidence should be clearly outlined. In addition, the expected benefits or outcomes of the approach should be highlighted, as this helps to emphasize why it is important for the audience to understand and support the proposed solution.

Executive Summary example BCG - Resolution

5. Benefits

The benefits section of the executive summary presents a brief overview of any expected benefits or outcomes from implementing the proposed solution. This section is optional, and sometimes included as a bullet point under the resolution section.

  • What are the primary benefits or outcomes of implementing the proposed solution?
  • What are the secondary benefits or outcomes?
  • How will these benefits impact the organization and its stakeholders?

An effective benefits section should provide a clear and concise overview of any expected benefits or outcomes from implementing the proposed solution. The primary benefits should be highlighted, as well as any secondary benefits that are relevant to the audience. Emphasis should be on quantifiable benefits.

In addition, the impact of these benefits on the organization and its stakeholders should be emphasized, highlighting why it is important for the audience to understand and support the proposed solution. 

Example: "The proposed approach will generate an incremental $10 million in revenue, reduce costs by 5%, and increase customer satisfaction by 10%. This will help to improve profitability, create new growth opportunities, and strengthen our competitive position in the sector."

6. Call to Action

The call to action section of the executive summary presents a brief overview of key proposed actions or decisions that need to be taken by the audience in order to implement the proposed solution. This section is also sometimes a bullet point under the resolution section.

  • What are the proposed actions or decisions that need to be taken?
  • Who needs to take these actions or make these decisions?
  • What is the timeline for implementing the proposed solution?

An effective call to action/recommendation section should provide a clear and concise overview of any proposed actions or decisions that need to be taken by the audience. The proposed actions or decisions and who needs to take these actions or make these decisions should be clearly outlined. 

In addition, the timeline for implementing the proposed solution should be highlighted, ensuring that the audience understands when and how these actions or decisions need to be taken.

Executive Summary example McKinsey - Call to action

Apply these summary techniques in your Business Strategy template .

  • Consultants typically communicate in a 'top down' or pyramid fashion, starting with the conclusion and then providing the supporting information.
  • Write the most important takeaway of each section as the bolded text and follow with numbers and other supporting facts as bullet points.
  • Read through the bolded text and see if the story makes sense.  
  • Spend the majority of the executive summary focusing on the solution/recommendation, rather than the situation and supporting analysis.
  • The executive summary is not a play-by-play summary of a project. Instead, it is a decision document for your audience to understand the proposed solutions they have to decide on, and just enough information to set the solution in context and grasp the expected outcomes.
  • Read through your executive summary and remove anything that is not directly relevant to deciding/agreeing with your proposed solution.  
  • Try to keep the executive summary as a single slide (sometimes two).
  • Eliminate unnecessary words and sentences, and make sure that each sentence adds value to the overall message.

Creating executive summary slides like a McKinsey consultant can have a significant impact on the success of your communication and decision-making efforts. Although it seems simple and many people treat the executive summary like an after-thought, it should in fact be one of the slides you spend the most time on in any presentation.

A well-crafted executive summary helps you structure your entire presentation by making you focus on the solution you are proposing and only keeping in analyses and arguments that help explain the why, what, and how of that solution.

By following the essential components and strategies outlined above you can create a clear, concise, and compelling executive summary that effectively communicates complex ideas and drives action. 

Cheat sheet

What is an executive summary exactly?

A short summary of the key messages and conclusions in a longer presentation, focused on actionable solutions or recommendations. In McKinsey and BCG consulting presentations the executive summary is typically one or two slides, but sometimes executive summary can also refer to a short deck.

What does an executive summary include and how do I write one?

See our 'How to' guide in this post.

Does an executive summary come before or after the table of contents? 

Typically before the table of contents, as the first (or one of the first) slides after a title page.

Is there a good executive summary slide example?

Yes, you can download some examples from McKinsey and BCG here . You can also see full presentations from BCG and McKinsey here and here .

Or take a look at our full Business Strategy template or our Business Case template for real-life client examples.

Should I include visuals? 

Generally McKinsey and BCG executive summaries do not include visuals, except perhaps icons to make the summary more visually appealing.

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Home Blog Business Executive Summary: A Guide to Writing and Presentation

Executive Summary: A Guide to Writing and Presentation

Executive Summary: A Guide to Writing and Presentation

Executive summaries precede nearly every type of business document. Despite being the shortest part, they often leave the biggest impression on the reader. Yet, many writers choose to treat an executive summary as an afterthought. (And some presenters too!). Why? Because writing an executive summary is a seemingly hard task. But our mission is to prove otherwise! 

What is an Executive Summary?

An executive summary is a preface to a larger business document such as an annual report, business plan, or whitepaper, succinctly summarizing the key discussion points. Effectively, an executive summary offers a preview of the content, so that the reader could form a baseline opinion about the contents prior to diving into a deep reading session. 

Example of a simple Executive Summary slide for presentations

The University of Arizona offers a more elaborated executive summary definition which also notes that an executive summary should:

  • Restate the purpose of the follow-up document
  • Highlight the key discussion points and most notable facts 
  • Relay any notable results, conclusions, or recommendations

Though an executive summary is just a foreword to a bigger report, it’s one of the most labor-intensive items as you have to condense a lot of information into a high-level summary. Oftentimes, an executive summary also gets prominent placement in the follow-up presentation, done on the report.  

Executive Summary Examples

Nearly every type of business document will have an executive summary. Some are better structured and presented than others. But it’s not just limited to business documents. Executive summaries are also used in scientific projects, articles, and education. Below are several admirable executive summary examples you may want to use as an inspiration for writing. 

Accenture: Gaming: The Next Super Platform 

Executive Summary Slide Presentation in a business document

This executive summary for an industry report opens with some big quantifiable claims, clearly communicating the main agenda — describing the size and state of the global gaming market. The gaming industry is a huge market. The pullout texts on the sidebar further detail the scope of the document. Plus clarify for whom this report is intended. 

IBM: Cost of a Data Breach Report 2020 

Executive Summary Report Example Presentation PDF

IBM conducts an annual joint report on cybersecurity with Ponemon Institute. They open the executive summary with a brief recap of their mission and past research. Then dwell on this year’s findings and methodology. If you are writing an executive summary for a similarly massive original research, it’s worth focusing more on your techniques for obtaining data and arriving at the conclusions as IBM did. 

Deloitte Digital: Exploring the value of emotion-driven engagement

Executive Summary Design Slide Deloitte

Deloitte selected a more narrative style for this executive summary, mixing some key data points and methodology with the core messaging of the report. This is a good example of structured data presentation . On one hand, you have an engaging narration flow. On the other, the summary covers all the important discussion points. 

Executive Summary Format

As the above executive summary examples illustrated, there is no one fit-it-all format for writing an executive study. The best approach depends on your report type, purpose, and contents. 

That being said, an executive summary needs to fulfill several earlier mentioned criteria — offer a preview, provide key information at glance, showcase any results, recommendations. That’s what most readers expect to see on the first page after all. 

The easiest way to approach writing is to draft a preliminary executive summary outline featuring the following subsections:

  • General introduction, explaining the key problems discussed 
  • Main problem statement(s)
  • Selected findings or recommendations 
  • The importance of discussed points 

Since you’d also be likely working on presenting the executive summary to other stakeholders , it helps you keep the above structured as bullet points at first. So that you could easily transfer the main ideas to your executive summary PowerPoint slide . 

How Long Should an Executive Summary Be?

As a rule of thumb, an executive summary should not go longer than one vertical page. That is an equivalent of 300-500 words, depending on the typeface. For longer reports, two pages (a horizontal split) may be acceptable. But remember, brevity is key. You are working on a trailer for a movie (the full report). 

How to Write an Executive Summary: a 3-Step Framework 

You can start with the aforementioned loose format and then adapt it to your document type. Remember, you don’t need to follow all the recommendations to a T. Instead, mix some ideas to make your executive summary sound both professional and engaging. Here are several tips for that:  

How to Write an Executive Summary for a Presentation

1. Start with a Problem Statement 

Think of the first paragraph as if of an opening slide for a presentation : you need to make a big compelling statement that immediately communicates your agenda. Set the scene for the reader. There are several ways to do so:

  • Answer the “why now” question in the opening paragraph 
  • Address the urgency of the matter 
  • Highlight the importance of the discussed issue 

Alternatively, you can also go for a more traditional opening and explain the background of the research and discussed issue. For example, if you have conducted a go-to-market strategy evaluation for the team you can start by saying that “This report analyzed online furniture brand performance in 5 target EMEA markets in terms of market share, local brand recall, brand preference, and estimated online sales volumes.” Afterward, briefly communicate the main aim of the report. 

2. Present the Main Discussion Points 

Next, flesh out what’s included in the scope of this report to properly manage the reader’s expectations. You can use the report’s section subheads as key discussion points or come up with snappier, more descriptive statements. 

Here are several good writing practices to follow: 

  • Use bullet points and numbered lists to break down text blocks. 
  • Quantify the biggest findings when possible. Style them as “call-outs”. 
  • Mention the limitations of your report and what it does not account for. 
  • Discuss the used research methods and data sources. 

Finally, summarize the findings in one concluding paragraph if you have space. Or style it as a featured quote to draw the reader’s eye towards crucial information. 

3. List the Recommendations or Next Steps 

The bottom part of the page, around 100-150 words should be allocated towards underlining the results, conclusions, and follow-up action expected from the reader. Summarize what you have found during the course of your research. Mention if you have identified any specific type of solution or a type of recommended action. 

Once you are done, send over an executive summary draft to a team member who hasn’t seen the complete report. Ask for their feedback. Can they tell what the report content is after reading the summary? Does the summary intrigue them? Is it descriptive enough for someone without any other context into the matter? Use the critique to further improve the document. 

Meeting Illustration - A woman and a man presenting an Executive Summary

How to Prepare an Executive Summary Presentation 

High chances are that you’ll also be asked to write the copy for the executive summary presentation, and perhaps even design it too. So let’s get you up to speed on this aspect as well.

How Does an Executive Summary Slide Look Like in PPT?

There’s no ultimate look for an executive summary slide as most presenters customize it to best reflect the content they’d want to showcase. But if you want some universal example, here’s our executive summary slide template : 

Executive Summary Slide Template for Presentations

You can build an entire slide deck tailored for an executive summary or business presentation by using our AI Presentation Maker . Fill the topic, analyze & edit the proposed outline, and select a design. That’s it! You can create an engaging executive summary slide deck with any number of slides.

What Makes a Good Executive Summary Slide?

A good executive summary slide visually communicates all the important information from the full report. Typically, it’s an even more condensed version of the written executive summary, prefacing the document. Thus to create a good executive summary slide, be prepared to do some ruthless editing.

Include a condensed version of the: 

  • Main problem statement or report agenda 
  • Key findings. Prioritize quantifiable ones
  • Recommendations and next steps.

Also, you will need some PowerPoint design mastery to ensure that an executive summary in your PowerPoint presentation looks compelling, but not cluttered. Prioritize white space. Here is where a good executive summary template can make your life easier. To minimize the number of texts, add icons and other simple visualizations. Trim headers and subheads to give the slide even more breathing room.

For those looking to create an engaging and visually appealing presentation, consider utilizing professional presentation templates to enhance the visuals of your executive summary slide. These templates are specifically designed to help presenters convey their message effectively and with style, ensuring that your audience remains captivated and fully understands the key points of your report.

How to Write an Executive Summary for a Presentation

Most likely you won’t need to write a brand new copy for this slide, but rather adapt the text at hand. That already makes your job a lot easier when summarizing a presentation into an executive summary slide. Still, you don’t want to mess anything up. So stick with the executive summary template you’ve chosen and fill in the gaps using our tips. 

1. Keep the Tone Consistent 

Use the same tone of voice and word choices in your slide deck as you’ve adopted in the report. If the tone of your presentation speech differs too much with terms used on the slide and in the report copy, some audience members may get confused, and then disengaged. 

2. Focus on Telling a Story 

Stakeholders will have the extra time to read the “dry” report. During the presentation, your main goal is to draw their attention to the most important issue, showcase the value-packed inside the report, and make them eager to learn more by actually flipping the full copy afterward. 

3. Chop Full Sentences into Bullet Points 

Go snappy and present information in a snackable manner. Remember, our brain can only keep 3-5 items at once in the working memory. So you shouldn’t try to overload the audience with a long list of “very important points” in one sitting.  

Also, per a recent presentation survey, among the 3 things that annoy audiences most about presentations are slides that include full sentences of text. So, when working on your presentation summary slide, trim those lengthy texts and move on some of the other points to separate slides. 

4. Don’t Go Data Galore 

Including numbers and data visualizations is a great way to present your executive summary. However, overloading your data slides with data nuggets makes your presentation less impactful. 

As presentation design expert Nancy Duarte explains : 

“Data slides aren’t really about the data. They’re about the meaning of the data. It’s up to you to make that meaning clear before you click away. Otherwise, the audience won’t process — let alone buy — your argument.”

It’s a good idea to spotlight 3 main data points on your executive summary slide. Then use some extra minutes to comment on why you’ve chosen to present these. 

To Conclude

An executive summary is the first page and/or slide a reader will see. That’s why the stakes are high to make it look just right. Granted, that shouldn’t be an issue. Since you now know how to write, design, and present a compelling executive summary to others! 

1. Project Summary PowerPoint Template

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Use This Template

2. Simple Executive Summary Slide Template for PowerPoint

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3. One Page Strategy Summary PowerPoint Template

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4. Executive Summary PowerPoint Template

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5. Executive Business PowerPoint Template

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How to Summarize a Presentation with AI

How to Summarize a Presentation with AI

Saving time and effort with Notta, starting from today!

Over the past ten years, I've created hundreds of presentations on PowerPoint (and sometimes on Google Slides) — and I know how important these are for different uses. Whether you want to give a speech, present a product, or share finances in a board meeting, everything is typically possible with a PowerPoint presentation. 

But there's no point in watching a two-hour-long presentation only to know it does not contain any relevant information, right? Thankfully, that's where summarizing a presentation can help. It's like creating a short description that reveals what the viewers can expect from the long slideshow. 

So, how to summarize a presentation , especially when you don't have enough time for it? In this guide, I'll reveal my tried and tested tips to create a short summary. 

What is a Presentation Summary? 

A presentation summary is a short, sweet, and meaningful version of the long video in which you introduce the different components of the presentation and a few key points that you’re talking about. 

In other words, it typically includes the main points or key takeaways that'll provide you with the gist of the presentation — without you having to watch the presentation from start to end. 

Here, you're not trying to convey the entire business strategy or selling points — instead, your goal here is to help the attendees understand the core concept of the presentation. 

Conducting a presentation with a summary

How to Summarize a Presentation  

As a freelance writer who wears all the hats of the business, I try to save as much time as I can. As much as I value my time, I look for ways to save energy and effort for my audience. Writing a summary of lengthy videos , articles, documents, interviews , and presentations is one method to help everyone get all the important information in a clear and concise way. However, condensing all information into a few paragraphs (or one page) isn't an easy task. 

Here's the process I follow to summarize presentations in a few paragraphs. 

Identify the Main Goal 

People love free stuff — but only if it's useful. Nobody wants to waste their time and/or effort watching a presentation that does not have the information they need. That's why your first step is to identify the main goal or objective . Here, you'll need to tell them what the presentation is about, what it includes, and what the key takeaways are. 

Write the Summary 

Your ultimate goal is to write the key points in the most concise, easy-to-read way possible. Before you're tempted to include everything in the summary, know that viewers are looking for specific information before they watch the presentation. Tell them why they should spend time on the presentation and fearlessly let them know who the presentation is not meant for. 

Use Visual Aids

While summarizing the presentation, write as though you're talking to someone whose attention you don't want to lose. Get your ideas with the fewest, most effective words possible — but don't forget to add visual aids that keep the audience engaged. It's a great practice for every writer to help their audience not feel overwhelmed with a wall of texts. 

Use visual aids during the presentation

Include Examples and Quotations 

Any presentation is incomplete if you don't include proper examples and quotations. When you write the summary, allot some space for writing examples (two examples per page). Remember, holding onto the reader's attention is very important — and quotations can help you do just that. 

Example of a Presentation Summary 

The presentation summary begins with a hook that draws the audience in, helps them understand the value you offer, provides some proof, and finally ends with a strong CTA. It's relatively easy to incorporate these elements and create a summary. But if you're still finding it hard, here's a real-life presentation summary example for inspiration. 

Today, we are excited to share with you our new Product X — the future of eyewear technology. At Company X, glasses aren't just for style — but it's a combination of comfort, innovation, and productivity.  That's why we developed Product X, which combines two top technologies — AI and AR. The users reported a 20% boost in productivity and a 40% reduction in eye fatigue. It's now available for everyone — and anyone can place their orders on the website. 

Tips for Summarizing a Presentation 

Summaries can be incredibly effective for both hosts and audiences — only if you know how to craft attention-grabbing ones. Here, I'll show you how I summarize a presentation that gets positive responses from almost all the attendees. 

Use Simple Language 

The best presentation summary should be clear, concise, direct, and descriptive . Your main aim is to use simple language and give the attendees what they want. 

My best tip is to: write for your audience, not yourself — and, for this, you need to put yourself in the shoes of a specific audience as you write. 

Use simple language while summarizing the presentation

Be Scannable 

Use bullet points, numbers, and/or bolding to make your summary skimmable and digestible — that emphasizes the key points. The success of the summary will depend upon making the presentation's key takeaways easy for your readers to quickly process the main points. 

Use AI Presentation Summarizer 

If you struggle to condense information into a basic, short summary, give Notta a try. Unlike nearly all other AI presentation summarizer apps on the market, Notta is a more accurate transcriber and summarizer that can condense long audio/video files into an informative summary. 

What I really found useful is Notta's ability to structure a summary into an overview, key chapters, and action items. You can even share this summarized version with the presentation attendees once the meeting is over — helping them understand what was covered in the presentation and what the next steps are. 

Notta AI templates

Try Notta - the best online transcription & summarization tool. Transcribe and summarize your conversations and meetings quickly with high accuracy.

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How to Do a Good Summary on PowerPoint? 

PowerPoint has become synonymous with presentations — it's a free tool where you can make a slide deck and collaborate with your team. A good summary on PowerPoint can attract more audience to your presentation and even help the attendees get more clarity. Here, I'll reveal the three pillars of writing a good summary. 

Include Key Points: The first thing is to write the key (or main) points in a concise and focused way. You can even use bullet points or some visual aids to keep things clear and uncluttered on slides. 

Identify & Summarize Each Section: If you're giving a lengthy presentation, I'm assuming you've categorized it into different sections. While summarizing, you'll need to focus on each section and identify the key takeaway from it. 

Highlight the Main Takeaway: If the presentation focuses on any problem and offers a solution, it's time to highlight it. As a presenter, you'll need to introduce the problem in the first line, followed by the solution that's offered in the presentation. 

Is There an AI that Summarizes PowerPoint Slides? 

Yes, there are many AI online summarizers that can summarize PowerPoint slides. Copilot in PowerPoint, for example, can read through the slides and provide a bulleted summary with key points. If you've pre-recorded presentation recordings, you are probably searching for a dedicated way to summarize the slides. 

Notta is one powerful and popular AI note-taking application — and, that too, for a good reason. There's a summarizing feature for almost imaginable purposes: just upload the presentation audio/video, and Notta will automatically transcribe the spoken words and then summarize the content. 

Key Takeaways 

Once you discover the power of summaries, the temptation to create summaries for everything is real. But this can leave you with a new problem: a lot of manual work. So, how to summarize a presentation without much time and effort? That's where the third-party AI summary generators make it easy for you.

Notta is an AI note-taking and AI presentation summarizer tool, especially for people who are not making presentations for fun. It comes with a free generous plan and affordable paid plans that help you record, transcribe, and then summarize media files (including presentations) — with high accuracy.

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How to structure, design, write, and finally present executive summary presentation?

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How to structure, design, write, and finally present executive summary presentation?

What is a powerpoint executive summary.

An executive summary is a much shorter version of a longer document, while an executive summary in PowerPoint is a visual summary with facts from an extensive piece of content. If you have a 30-40 page presentation, what is the one page that summarizes your key message? Sounds small, but this amount keeps you within boundaries and up to a point.

You might have a bunch of data and really interesting information, but the executives you present to are limited in time, so they will appreciate your concise and professional presentation design to grasp data easily. Remember that every time you cannot summarize your presentation’s takeaway in a couple of seconds, you look unprofessional and unable to share with your audience specific things.

What Is the Value of Presentation for Businesses/Students?

1. it clarifies your thinking.

Some presenters pull together different slides with plenty of charts, tables, and quotes but do not compile a cohesive story within executive summary ppt slides. Thus, your exam or report has no clear and concise message. If you only have 30 seconds with this audience, what do you want to convey or deliver?

2. It gives your audience what they’re looking for

The purpose of the executive summary ppt is to move your audience from point A to point B with attractive visuals that grasp and retain their attention.

3. It provides flexibility

By presenting your whole presentation on the executive summary, you can easily skip certain sections and jump directly to slides that are of value for the specific moment, question, or audience generally.

What Are the Features of Executive Summary Presentation?

The executive summary presentation is directed at executives like the top-level managers and decision-making parties, so the included facts must be relevant.

Executives use the summary to decide whether or not to move forward on the proposal, so the presentation must be convincing.

The executive summary for the PowerPoint presentation contains the same slides as sections of the full proposal, so it reads like the longer proposal, but each section must be condensed to main points and key evidence.

The 10% rule applies here, so a summary must not exceed 10% of the actual proposal length. If your proposal has 20 sections, the word document should be 2 pages. And the presentation should include no more than 20 slides (better 10).

What Should Be Included in Executive Summary Slides and What Should Not?

1. the most important slide.

The executive summary can be one slide in the presentation. When preparing, e.g., a 10 slides presentation for executives, make sure to include a 1-page opening slide. Sometimes, it becomes not possible to present the whole material. Thus, it’s better to present key takeaways.

2. Purpose of report

This slide or slides should state the investigated problem and purpose of the report in a concise format using the present tense. We advise using bullet points, heading/subheadings, SmartArt figures, and other graphic elements to design the text attractively .

This slide should report data only in summary form. There is no need to include dozens of tables even though they are so well-made. Provide key findings from each report table or appendices.

4. Findings and conclusion

This section is also summarized without reference to supporting tables or appendices.

5. Recommendations

Recommendation or advice for a specific proposal is better presented in bullet-list format.

How to Design and Present Executive Summary Slides?

Put minimum text.

We advise a maximum of five first-level bullets and sub-bullets. If you put too much information on one slide in a great room, people won’t remember or even see anything. You lose their attention whenever they do not see or understand the text.

Focus on insights

Every slide, no… EVERY SLIDE must include the answer, results, insights, and other ‘so what’s’ that add impeccable and fundamental value. For instance, you can provide one context sentence at the top of each slide.

Choose neutral colors and background

The executive summary slide design has to be attractive and visible from every room angle. Also, don’t waste space on your slides with unnecessary background messages that make it impossible to read the text. Choose neutral and calm colors that do not drag audiences’ attention from words. If you hesitate on your design choices, feel free to contact professional pitch deck design services and get top-notch assistance.

A good summary presentation summarizes or synthesizes what you want your audience to leave with on one slide. Your presentation’s success isn’t measured by the number of slides you’ve designed and presented. The only purpose of the executive summary ppt is to give the audience the key messages you want them to leave with. Having all on one or few slides makes conveying all information attractive and ensures that your audience hears your messages.

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  • Presenting techniques
  • 50 tips on how to improve PowerPoint presentations in 2022-2023 [Updated]

Keynote VS PowerPoint

  • Types of presentations
  • Present financial information visually in PowerPoint to drive results

Keynote VS PowerPoint

  • Design Tips

How to start and end a presentation: top tips and tricks from professionals (+ special focus)

How to start and end a presentation: top tips and tricks from professionals (+ special focus)

The importance of visual storytelling in presentations (+ effective tips to consider)

The importance of visual storytelling in presentations (+ effective tips to consider)

How To Write Consulting Executive Summary Slides [BCG Example]

Table of contents.

If you’re anything like me, then y ou build all of the main body slides in your slide decks, sharpen the text , perfect your visualizations … and then quickly throw together an executive summary slide.

The problem?  The executive summary slide is the first impression of your deck and the only place that the reader can get a complete overview of your argument.

Therefore, executive summary slides shouldn’t be an afterthought. In fact, it’s important to spend significant time writing a strong executive summary that clearly articulates your argument and inspires your reader to act.

What is an executive summary slide?

An executive summary is a written overview of the main points or arguments of a larger document, memo or other report.

Strategy consultants also write executive summaries for their presentations or slide decks.

An executive summary slide is the first slide in your presentation that fully summarizes the argument, storyline, and supporting evidence of the body slides.

what is a presentation summary

Download 120+ strategy consulting presentations for free

Looking for slide inspiration? Download 120+ consulting slide decks from top strategy consulting firms, such as McKinsey, BCG and Bain!

Why do you need executive summary slides?

As a reader, it’s so easy to get lost in a PowerPoint slide deck. You need to keep previous slides and messages in your mind, follow the line of argument, and somehow put everything together into a coherent story that you can make sense of.

Executive summary slides help the reader “follow along” with your slide deck. There are a few main benefits:

  • Executive summaries provide context to help the reader understand why the topic of the slide deck is important.
  • Executive summaries communicate the high-level argument before the reader gets into the body of the slide deck. This helps the reader understand your more detailed body slides.
  • Executive summaries are a “map” that the reader can reference back to if they start losing the line of argument in the body of the deck.

How to write executive summary slides

To understand the best practices of writing executive summary slides, we’re going to break down a BCG executive summary.

In doing so, we’re going to learn the simple framework for writing executive summary slides that is used by strategy consultants, such as McKinsey & Co, Bain, and BCG.

Below you can see an example of a BCG executive summary.  This slide deck is a BCG report on “Melbourne as a Global Cultural Destination” and can be downloaded here .

Here are the two main executive summary slides:

BCG Executive Summary Slides

These BCG executive summary slides are a great example of an executive summary done well. So we’ll use them to describe best practices.

Best practice #1: Bold text for summary sentences, bullet points for supporting data

One of the first things you’ll notice about the BCG executive summary is the bold-bullet structure.

The bold sentences denote key statements or claims, and the bullet points support those statements (usually with data).

If there was no evidence to support their claims — or if the evidence was buried deep in the slide deck — then the reader could quite easily doubt the validity of the claim, and ultimately the end conclusion of the slide deck.

So one of the key aspects of strategy consulting slide decks is that no claim is made without evidence. And that includes the executive summary.

Let’s zoom in on one example:

BCG Executive Summary Example

The key statement in this part of the executive summary is “there are weaknesses in Melbourne’s cultural and creative offer”.

This claim is supported by a bunch of data points, such as 90% of agencies and thought leaders believe the cultural offer is not clearly articulated.

Best practice #2: Bold summary sentences can be read alone to tell a story

Executives are busy people and many of them aren’t interested in diving into the supporting bullet points. They will simply read through your bolded summary sentences to understand the high-level argument and recommendations.

This means that  your executive summary should be “skimmable by design”.

In other words,  your bolded summary sentences should tell a complete and logical story without requiring the supporting data in the bullet points below.

Let’s read just the bolded sentences in our BCG executive summary:

Melbourne has a compelling creative and cultural offer; the city attracted >10m Australian and international visitors in 2015. Cultural visitors and creative industries drive significant economic benefits; cultural tourism projected to grow further. However, Melbourne’s position as Australia’s cultural and creative capital is being challenged. On a global index of cultural and creative cities, Melbourne ranks first in Australia, third in Asia and 12th globally. Melbourne has clear strengths to build on as a cultural and creative city. However, there are some weaknesses to address to further improve Melbourne’s cultural and creative offer. These findings suggest five strategic priorities to improve Melbourne’s position as a global cultural and creative destination, which may lift Melbourne’s position on the Performance Index.

It reads just like a narrative!

Despite ignoring all the bullet points, we can still fully understand the argument that BCG is making in their executive summary (which is also reflected in the body of the slide deck).

Best practice #3: The executive summary should reflect the ‘SCR storyline’ structure of the slide deck

It’s not good enough to just “tell a story”, you need a tell the story using a particular structure.

The structure used by strategy consulting firms, such as McKinsey & Co, Bain, and BCG, is the ‘situation, complication, resolution’ structure.

As an aside, you can learn more about how to craft a compelling argument and SCR storyline for your slide deck in our Complete Guide To Building Strategy Presentations . If you haven’t read that guide, you should check it out.

Let’s take a look at how the SCR storyline applies to your slide deck:

  • What baseline knowledge do people need to have before they understand our argument?
  • How did this problem come about?


  • What is the problem we need to solve?
  • Why is this particular problem important to solve?
  • How do we respond / solve the problem?
  • What are the specific recommendations and/or next steps?

Your executive summary slide should communicate the complete storyline in your slide deck. And thus it should also follow the situation, complication, resolution structure.

In our BCG example, you can clearly see the SCR structure in action:

BCG Executive Summary: Situation, Complication, Resolution

It’s important to set the context with the situation, as there’s no guarantee that all of you readers will have the background knowledge to understand your argument. It also gives you the opportunity to explain the causes of the problem that you’re addressing in the slide deck.

Then, in the complication section, you should succinctly define the problem and why it is important to solve. Some people suggest that you use a question format, for example “How can Melbourne improve its position as a global cultural and creative destination?”, although that’s really just a matter of style.

Finally, you need to clearly articulate your proposed resolution or “answer” to the problem. You’ll note that most of the executive summary real-estate is spent on the resolution component. From a reader’s perspective, the recommendations are the most important part of the slide deck.

Executive summary slide examples

Below you’ll find examples of executive summary slides from consulting firms like Bain & Co, BCG, L.E.K. Consulting, Oliver Wyman, and others.

Bain executive summary slide

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Presentation Design Guide: How to Summarize Information for Presentations

By Midori Nediger , May 15, 2023

presentation design

Bad presentations. We’ve all had to sit through them.  Heck, we’ve probably all given one or two. I know I have.

You know the type: twice as long as they need to be, slides chock-full of text, no visuals in sight. 

How can you ensure you don’t fall victim to these presentation faux-pas when designing your next presentation for your team, class, or clients?

In this blog, I’ll walk you through tips on how to design an impactful presentation and how you can deliver it with style to leave a lasting impression.

Let’s get started:

  • Include less text and more visuals in your presentation design
  • Identify one core message to center your presentation design around
  • Eliminate any information that doesn’t immediately support the core message
  • Create a strong presentation outline to keep you focused
  • Use text to reinforce, not repeat, what you’re saying
  • Design your presentation with one major takeaway per slide
  • Use visuals to highlight the key message on each slide
  • Use scaffolding slides to orient your audience and keep them engaged
  • Use text size, weight, and color for emphasis
  • Apply design choices consistently to avoid distraction
  • Split a group presentation by topic
  • Use a variety of page layouts to maintain your audience’s interest
  • Use presentation templates to help you get started
  • Include examples of inspiring people
  • Dedicate slides to poignant questions
  • Find quotes that will inspire your audience
  • Emphasize key points with text and images
  • Label your slides to prompt your memory

Watch: How to design a presentation [10 ESSENTIAL TIPS]

Tips for designing and delivering an impactful presentation

What makes a presentation memorable?

It usually comes down to three things:

  • The main idea.
  • The presenter.
  • The visuals.

All three elements work together to create a successful presentation. Just like how different presentation styles serve different purposes, having a good presentation idea will give the audience a purpose for listening. A good presenter communicates the main idea so that the audience cares about it. And compelling visuals help clarify concepts and illustrate ideas.

But how the presenter delivers their presentation and what visuals they use can vary drastically while still being effective. There is no perfect presentation style or presentation design.

Here are some top tips to consider to help you design and deliver an impactful presentation:

Tip #1: Include less text and more visuals in your presentation design

According to David Paradi’s annual presentation survey , the 3 things that annoy audiences most about presentations are:

  • Speakers reading their slides
  • Slides that include full sentences of text
  • Text that is too small to read

The common thread that ties all of these presentation annoyances is text. Audiences are very picky about the text found in presentation slide decks .

In my experiences speaking at conferences and in webinars over the past few years, audiences respond much more positively to presentations that use visuals in place of text.

Audiences are more engaged, ask more questions, and find my talks more memorable when I include lots of visual examples in my slide decks. 

I’m not the only one who has found this. We recently surveyed nearly 400 conference speakers about their presentation designs and found that 84.3% create presentations that are highly visual.

A great example of a high visual presentation is the iconic AirBnB pitch deck design , which includes no more than 40 words per slide. Instead of repeating the speaker’s script on the slides, it makes an impact with keywords, large numbers, and icons:

what is a presentation summary

Learn how to customize this presentation template:

To help you take your presentations to the next level, I’d like to share my process for creating a visually-focused presentation like the one above. I’ll give you my top presentation design tips that I’ve learned over years of presenting:

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You can then apply this process to our professional presentation templates  or pitch decks , creating unique presentation decks with ease! Our user-friendly editor tools make customizing these templates a breeze.

To leave a lasting impression on your audience, consider transforming your slides into an interactive presentation. Here are 15 interactive presentation ideas to enhance interactivity and engagement.

We’ll cover the most important steps for summarizing lengthy text into a presentation-friendly format. Then we’ll touch on some pre sentation design tips to help you get visual with your slide decks. Read on for the best creative presentation ideas.

Tip #2: Identify one core message to center your presentation design around

We know from David Paradi’s survey that audiences are easily overwhelmed with lots of text and data, especially when presentations are long.

confused woman meme

(You when you see a presentation with lots of text and data and it’s long)

So unlike in a white paper , report , or essay , you can’t expect to tackle many complex ideas within a single presentation.

That would be a recipe for disaster.

Instead, identify a single central message that you would like to communicate to your audience. Then build your presentation around that core message.

By identifying that core message, you can ensure that everything you include in your presentation supports the goal of the presentation .

As seen below, a great presentation tells you exactly what you’re going to learn (the core message), then gets right to the facts (the supporting information).

Nutrition Creative Presentation Template

To ensure you create an asset that’s clear, concise, impactful, and easy to follow, design your presentation around a single core message.

Tip #3: Create a strong presentation outline to keep you focused

Think of your outline as a roadmap for your presentation. Creating a strong presentation outline straight away helps make sure that you’re hitting all of the key points you need to cover to convey a persuasive presentation .

Take this presentation outline example:

  • Introduction and hellos
  • Vision and value proposition
  • Financial profit
  • Your investment
  • Thanks and questions

These are all things that we know we need to talk about within the presentation.

Creating a presentation outline makes it much easier to know what to say when it comes to creating the actual presentation slides.

Corporate pitch deck template

You could even include your presentation outline as a separate slide so that your audience knows what to expect:

Topics of discussion presentation outline example template

The opening moments of your presentation hold immense power – check out these 15 ways to start a presentation to set the stage and captivate your audience.

Tip #4: Eliminate any information that doesn’t support the core message

Next, use that core message to identify everything that doesn’t belong in the presentation.

Aim to eliminate everything that isn’t immediately relevant to the topic at hand, and anything remotely redundant. Cut any information that isn’t absolutely essential to understanding the core message.

By cutting these extra details, you can transform forgettable text-heavy slides:

Infographic Presentation Template

Into memorable slides with minimal text:

Infographic Presentation Template

Here’s a quick checklist to help you cut out any extra detail:

Get rid of:

  • Detailed descriptions
  • Background information
  • Redundant statements
  • Explanations of common knowledge
  • Persuasive facts and figures
  • Illustrative examples
  • Impactful quotes

presentation design

This step may seem obvious, but when you’re presenting on a topic that you’re passionate about, it’s easy to get carried away with extraneous detail. Use the recommendations above to keep your text in check.

Clarity is key, especially if you’re presenting virtually rather than in-person. However, Lisa Schneider (Chief Growth Officer at Merriam-Webster) has had plenty of experience making that adjustment. She recently shared her tips for adapting in-person presentations into virtual presentations on Venngage that you can check out. 

Tip #5: Use text to reinforce, not repeat, what you’re saying

According to presentation guru  Nancy Duarte , your audience should be able to discern the meaning of your slides in 6 seconds or less.

Since your audience will tend to read every word you place on each slide, you must keep your text to an absolute minimum. The text on your slides should provide support for what you’re saying without being distracting.

Never write out, word for word, what you’re going to be saying out loud. If you’re relying on text to remember certain points, resist the urge to cram them into your slides. Instead, use a tool like Venngage’s speaker notes to highlight particular talking points. These can be imported into PowerPoint — along with the rest of your presentation — and will only be viewable to you, not your audience.

Speaker notes by Venngage

For the actual slides, text should only be used to reinforce what you’re saying. Like in the presentation design below, paraphrase long paragraphs into short bulleted lists or statements by eliminating adjectives and articles (like “the” and “a”).

what is a presentation summary

Pull out quotes and important numbers, and make them a focus of each slide.

what is a presentation summary

Tip #6: Design your presentation with one major takeaway per slide

As I mentioned above, audiences struggle when too much information is presented on a single slide.

To make sure you don’t overwhelm your audiences with too much information, spread out your content to cover one major takeaway per slide.

By limiting each slide to a single simple statement, you focus your audience’s attention on the topic at hand.

My favorite way to do this is to pick out the core message of whatever I’m talking about and express it in a few keywords, as seen in this presentation slide below.

what is a presentation summary

This helps ensure that the visuals remain the focus of the slide.

what is a presentation summary

Using the text in this way, to simply state a single fact per slide, is a sure-fire way to make an impact in your presentation.

Alternatively, pull out a significant statistic that you want to stick in your audience’s minds and make it a visual focus of the slide, as seen in this popular presentation by Officevibe .

presentation design

This might mean you end up with a slide deck with a ton of slides. But that’s totally ok!

I’ve talked to many professionals who are pressured by their management teams to create presentations with a specific number of slides (usually as few as 10 or 15 slides for a 30-minute presentation).

If you ask me, this approach is completely flawed. In my mind, the longer I spend sitting on a single slide, the more likely I am to lose the interest of my audience.

How many slides should I use for a 10 minute presentation?

A good rule of thumb is to have at least as many slides as minutes in your presentation. So for a 10 minute presentation you should have at least 10 slides .

Use as many slides as you need, as long as you are presenting a single message on each slide, (as seen in the lengthy presentation template below). This is especially important if you’re presenting your business, or delivering a product presentation. You want to wow your audience, not bore them.

what is a presentation summary

Tip #7: Use visuals to highlight the key message on each slide

As important as having one major takeaway per slide is having visuals that highlight the major takeaway on each slide.

Unique visuals will help make your message memorable.

Visuals are a great way to eliminate extra text, too.

You can add visuals by creating a timeline infographic to group and integrate information into visual frameworks like this:

what is a presentation summary

Or create a flowchart  and funnels:

what is a presentation summary

Or by representing simple concepts with icons, as seen in the modern presentation design below. Using the same color for every icon helps create a polished look.

Using visuals in this way is perfect for when you have to convey messages quickly to audiences that you aren’t familiar with – such as at conferences. This would also make the ideal interview presentation template.

what is a presentation summary

You can alternatively use icons in different colors, like in the presentation templates below. Just make sure the colors are complimentary, and style is consistent throughout the presentation (i.e. don’t use sleek, modern icons on one slide and whimsically illustrated icons on another). In this example, presentation clipart style icons have been used.

what is a presentation summary

Any time you have important stats or trends you want your audience to remember, consider using a chart or data visualization to drive your point home. Confident public speaking combined with strong visualizations can really make an impact, encouraging your audience to act upon your message.

One of my personal favorite presentations (created by a professional designer) takes this “key message plus a visual” concept to the extreme, resulting in a slide deck that’s downright irresistible.

presentation design

When applying this concept, don’t fall into the trap of using bad stock photos . Irrelevant or poorly chosen visuals can hurt you as much as they help you.

Below is an example of how to use stock photos effectively. They are more thematic than literal and are customized with fun, bright icons that set a playful tone.

what is a presentation summary

The content and visual design of a presentation should be seamless.

It should never seem like your text and visuals are plopped onto a template. The format and design of the slides should contribute to and support the audience’s understanding of the content.

Impactful presenation templates

Tip #8: Use scaffolding slides to orient your audience and keep them engaged

It’s easy for audiences to get lost during long presentations, especially if you have lots of slides. And audiences zone out when they get lost.

To help reorient your audience every once in a while, you can use something I like to call scaffolding slides. Scaffolding slides appear throughout a presentation to denote the start and end of major sections.

The core scaffolding slide is the agenda slide, which should appear right after the introduction or title slide. It outlines the major sections of the presentation.

At the beginning of each section, you should show that agenda again but highlight the relevant section title, as seen below.

what is a presentation summary

This gives audiences the sense that you’re making progress through the presentation and helps keep them anchored and engaged.

Alternatively, you can achieve a similar effect by numbering your sections and showing that number on every slide. Or use a progress bar at the bottom of each slide to indicate how far along you are in your presentation. Just make sure it doesn’t distract from the main content of the slides.

what is a presentation summary

You can imagine using this “progress bar” idea for a research presentation, or any presentation where you have a lot of information to get through.

Leila Janah, founder of Sama Group, is great at this. Her  Innovation and Inspire  talk about Sama Group is an example of a presentation that is well organized and very easy to follow.

Her presentation follows a logical, steady stream of ideas. She seems comfortable talking in front of a crowd but doesn’t make any attempts to engage directly with them.

Tip #9: Use text size, weight and color for emphasis

Every slide should have a visual focal point. Something that immediately draws the eye at first glance.

That focal point should be whatever is most important on that slide, be it an important number, a keyword, or simply the slide title.

presentation design

We can create visual focal points by varying the size, weight, and color of each element on the slide. Larger, brighter, bolder elements will command our audience’s attention, while smaller, lighter elements will tend to fade into the background.

what is a presentation summary

As seen in the presentation template above, this technique can be especially useful for drawing attention to important words within a long passage of text. Consider using this technique whenever you have more than 5 words on a slide.

And if you really want your audience to pay attention, pick a high-contrast color scheme like the one below.

presentation design

When picking fonts for your presentation, keep this technique in mind. Pick a font that has a noticeable difference between the “bold” font face and the “regular” font face. Source Sans Pro, Times New Roman, Montserrat, Arvo, Roboto, and Open Sans are all good options.

Presentation Fonts

The last thing to remember when using size, weight, and color to create emphasis on a slide: don’t try to emphasize too many things on one slide.

If everything is highlighted, nothing is highlighted.

Tip #10: Apply design choices consistently to avoid distraction

Audiences are quick to pick out, and focus on, any inconsistencies in your presentation design. As a result, messy, inconsistent slide decks lead to distracted, disengaged audiences.

Design choices (fonts and colors, especially), must be applied consistently across a slide deck. The last thing you want is for your audience to pay attention to your design choices before your content.

To keep your design in check, it can be helpful to create a color palette and type hierarchy before you start creating your deck, and outline it in a basic style guide like this one:

what is a presentation summary

I know it can sometimes be tempting to fiddle around with text sizes to fit longer bits of text on a slide, but don’t do it! If the text is too long to fit on a slide, it should be split up onto multiple slides anyway.

And remember, a consistent design isn’t necessarily a boring one. This social media marketing presentation applies a bright color scheme to a variety of 3-column and 2-column layouts, remaining consistent but still using creative presentation ideas.

what is a presentation summary

Tip #11: Split a group presentation by topic

When giving a group presentation it’s always difficult to find the right balance of who should present which part.

Splitting a group presentation by topic is the most natural way to give everybody the chance to attempt without it seeming disjointed.

what is a presentation summary

When presenting this slide deck to investors or potential clients, the team can easily take one topic each. One person can discuss the business model slide, and somebody else can talk about the marketing strategy.

Top tips for group presentations:

  • Split your group presentation by topic
  • Introduce the next speaker at the end of your slide
  • Become an ‘expert’ in the slide that you are presenting
  • Rehearse your presentation in advance so that everybody knows their cue to start speaking

Tip #12: Use a variety of page layouts to maintain your audience’s interest

Page after page of the same layout can become repetitive and boring. Mix up the layout of your slides to keep your audience interested.

In this example, the designer has used a variety of combinations of images, text, and icons to create an interesting and varied style.

Yellow start up pitch deck presentation template

There are hundreds of different combinations of presentation layers and presentation styles that you can use to help create an engaging presentation . This style is great for when you need to present a variety of information and statistics, like if you were presenting to financial investors, or you were giving a research presentation.

Using a variety of layouts to keep an audience engaged is something that Elon Musk is an expert in. An engaged audience is a hyped audience. Check out this Elon Musk presentation revealing a new model Tesla for a masterclass on how to vary your slides in an interesting way:

Tip #13: Use presentation templates to help you get started

It can be overwhelming to build your own presentation from scratch. Fortunately, my team at Venngage has created hundreds of professional presentation templates , which make it easy to implement these design principles and ensure your audience isn’t deterred by text-heavy slides.

Using a presentation template is a quick and easy way to create professional-looking presentation skills, without any design experience. You can edit all of the text easily, as well as change the colors, fonts, or photos. Plus you can download your work in a PowerPoint or PDF Presentation format.

After your presentation, consider summarizing your presentation in an engaging manner to r each a wider audience through a LinkedIn presentation .

Tip #14: Include examples of inspiring people

People like having role models to look up to. If you want to motivate your audience, include examples of people who demonstrate the traits or achievements, or who have found success through the topic you are presenting.

Tip #15: Dedicate slides to poignant questions

While you might be tempted to fill your slides with decorative visuals and splashes of color, consider that sometimes simplicity is more effective than complexity. The simpler your slide is, the more you can focus on one thought-provoking idea.

what is a presentation summary

Tip #16: Find quotes that will inspire your audience

A really good quote can stick in a person’s mind for weeks after your presentation. Ending your presentation with a quote can be a nice way to either begin or finish your presentation.

A great example of this is Tim Ferriss’ TED talk:

tim ferriss inspiration presentation example

Check out the full talk below.

Tip #17: Emphasize key points with text and images

When you pair concise text with an image, you’re presenting the information to your audience in two simultaneous ways. This can make the information easier to remember, and more memorable.

Use your images and text on slides to reinforce what you’re saying out loud.

Doing this achieves two things:

  • When the audience hears a point and simultaneously read it on the screen, it’s easier to retain.
  • Audience members can photograph/ screencap the slide and share it with their networks.

Don’t believe us? See this tip in action with a presentation our Chief Marketing Officer Nadya gave recently at Unbounce’s CTA Conference . The combination of text and images on screen leads to a memorable presentation.

Nadya Unbounce Presentation Example

Tip #18: Label your slides to prompt your memory

Often, presenters will write out an entire script for their presentation and read it off a teleprompter. The problem is, that can often make your presentation seem  too  rehearsed and wooden.

But even if you don’t write a complete script, you can still put key phrases on your slides to prompt jog your memory. The one thing you have to be wary of is looking back at your slides too much.

A good presentation gets things moving! Check out the top qualities of awesome presentations and learn all about how to make a good presentation to help you nail that captivating delivery.

Audiences don’t want to watch presentations with slide decks jam-packed with text. Too much text only hurts audience engagement and understanding. Your presentation design is as important as your presentation style. 

By summarizing our text and creating slides with a visual focus, we can give more exciting, memorable and impactful presentations.

Give it a try with one of our popular presentation templates:

presentation design

Want more presentation design tips? This post should get you started:

120+ Best Presentation Ideas, Design Tips & Examples

presentation design

what is a presentation summary

How To Summarize A Presentation

  • Success Team
  • December 14, 2022

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what is a presentation summary

Presentations are a great way to share information and ideas with an audience. But when you’re done presenting, it’s important to summarize the key points and takeaways. Summarizing a presentation is a crucial step in ensuring that your audience has a clear understanding of the information you shared.

Why Summarizing Is Important

Summarizing a presentation is important for a few reasons. First, it helps to reinforce the key points and takeaways that you want your audience to remember. Second, it helps to ensure that your audience understands the information you shared. Third, it helps to ensure that everyone is on the same page and that everyone has the same understanding of the information. Finally, summarizing a presentation helps to provide closure and helps to ensure that everyone leaves with a clear understanding of the information you shared.

Tips For Summarizing A Presentation

Summarizing a presentation can be a challenge, but there are a few tips that can help make it easier.

1. Identify The Main Points

The first step in summarizing a presentation is to identify the main points. Take a few moments to review the presentation and identify the key points and takeaways. This will help you to ensure that you don’t miss any important information.

2. Use Simple Language

When summarizing a presentation, it’s important to use simple language. Avoid using jargon or technical terms that your audience may not understand. Instead, use language that is easy to understand and that everyone can follow.

3. Focus On The Big Picture

When summarizing a presentation, it’s important to focus on the big picture. Don’t get bogged down in the details. Instead, focus on the main points and takeaways that you want your audience to remember.

4. Ask Questions

Asking questions is a great way to ensure that everyone understands the information. Ask questions to make sure that everyone is on the same page and that everyone has the same understanding of the information.

5. Provide Examples

Providing examples is a great way to help your audience understand the information. Examples can help to illustrate the main points and takeaways and can help to ensure that everyone has a clear understanding of the information.

6. Use Visual Aids

Using visual aids is a great way to help your audience understand the information. Visual aids can help to illustrate the main points and takeaways and can help to ensure that everyone has a clear understanding of the information.

7. Give A Summary

Finally, give a summary of the presentation. This will help to reinforce the key points and takeaways and will help to ensure that everyone has a clear understanding of the information.

Summarizing a presentation is an important step in ensuring that your audience has a clear understanding of the information you shared. By following the tips outlined above, you can ensure that your audience has a clear understanding of the information you shared and that everyone is on the same page.

How To Summarize A Presentation With Speak

what is a presentation summary

Step 1: Create Your Speak Account

To start your transcription and analysis, you first need to create a Speak account . No worries, this is super easy to do!

Get a 7-day trial with 30 minutes of free English audio and video transcription included when you sign up for Speak.

To sign up for Speak and start using Speak Magic Prompts, visit the Speak app register page here .

what is a presentation summary

Step 2: Upload Your Language Data

We typically recommend MP4s for video or MP3s for audio.

However, we accept a range of audio, video and text file types.

You can upload your file for transcription in several ways using Speak:

Accepted Audio File Types

Accepted video file types, accepted text file types, csv imports.

You can also upload CSVs of text files or audio and video files. You can learn more about CSV uploads and download Speak-compatible CSVs here .

With the CSVs, you can upload anything from dozens of YouTube videos to thousands of Interview Data.

Publicly Available URLs

You can also upload media to Speak through a publicly available URL.

As long as the file type extension is available at the end of the URL you will have no problem importing your recording for automatic transcription and analysis.

YouTube URLs

Speak is compatible with YouTube videos. All you have to do is copy the URL of the YouTube video (for example, ).

Speak will automatically find the file, calculate the length, and import the video.

If using YouTube videos, please make sure you use the full link and not the shortened YouTube snippet. Additionally, make sure you remove the channel name from the URL.

Speak Integrations

As mentioned, Speak also contains a range of integrations for Zoom , Zapier , Vimeo and more that will help you automatically transcribe your media.

This library of integrations continues to grow! Have a request? Feel encouraged to send us a message.

what is a presentation summary

Step 3: Calculate and Pay the Total Automatically

Once you have your file(s) ready and load it into Speak, it will automatically calculate the total cost (you get 30 minutes of audio and video free in the 7-day trial - take advantage of it!).

If you are uploading text data into Speak, you do not currently have to pay any cost. Only the Speak Magic Prompts analysis would create a fee which will be detailed below.

Once you go over your 30 minutes or need to use Speak Magic Prompts, you can pay by subscribing to a personalized plan using our real-time calculator .

You can also add a balance or pay for uploads and analysis without a plan using your credit card .

what is a presentation summary

Step 4: Wait for Speak to Analyze Your Language Data

If you are uploading audio and video, our automated transcription software will prepare your transcript quickly. Once completed, you will get an email notification that your transcript is complete. That email will contain a link back to the file so you can access the interactive media player with the transcript, analysis, and export formats ready for you.

If you are importing CSVs or uploading text files Speak will generally analyze the information much more quickly.

what is a presentation summary

Step 5: Visit Your File Or Folder

Speak is capable of analyzing both individual files and entire folders of data.

When you are viewing any individual file in Speak, all you have to do is click on the "Prompts" button.

what is a presentation summary

If you want to analyze many files, all you have to do is add the files you want to analyze into a folder within Speak.

You can do that by adding new files into Speak or you can organize your current files into your desired folder with the software's easy editing functionality.

what is a presentation summary

Step 6: Select Speak Magic Prompts To Analyze Your Data

What are magic prompts.

Speak Magic Prompts leverage innovation in artificial intelligence models often referred to as "generative AI".

These models have analyzed huge amounts of data from across the internet to gain an understanding of language.

With that understanding, these "large language models" are capable of performing mind-bending tasks!

With Speak Magic Prompts, you can now perform those tasks on the audio, video and text data in your Speak account.

what is a presentation summary

Step 7: Select Your Assistant Type

To help you get better results from Speak Magic Prompts, Speak has introduced "Assistant Type".

These assistant types pre-set and provide context to the prompt engine for more concise, meaningful outputs based on your needs.

To begin, we have included:

Choose the most relevant assistant type from the dropdown.

what is a presentation summary

Step 8: Create Or Select Your Desired Prompt

Here are some examples prompts that you can apply to any file right now:

  • Create a SWOT Analysis
  • Give me the top action items
  • Create a bullet point list summary
  • Tell me the key issues that were left unresolved
  • Tell me what questions were asked
  • Create Your Own Custom Prompts

A modal will pop up so you can use the suggested prompts we shared above to instantly and magically get your answers.

If you have your own prompts you want to create, select "Custom Prompt" from the dropdown and another text box will open where you can ask anything you want of your data!

what is a presentation summary

Step 9: Review & Share Responses

Speak will generate a concise response for you in a text box below the prompt selection dropdown.

In this example, we ask to analyze all the Interview Data in the folder at once for the top product dissatisfiers.

You can easily copy that response for your presentations, content, emails, team members and more!

Speak Magic Prompts As ChatGPT For Interview Data Pricing

Our team at Speak Ai continues to optimize the pricing for Magic Prompts and Speak as a whole.

Right now, anyone in the 7-day trial of Speak gets 100,000 characters included in their account.

If you need more characters, you can easily include Speak Magic Prompts in your plan when you create a subscription.

You can also upgrade the number of characters in your account if you already have a subscription.

Both options are available on the subscription page .

Alternatively, you can use Speak Magic Prompts by adding a balance to your account. The balance will be used as you analyze characters.

Completely Personalize Your Plan 📝

Here at Speak, we've made it incredibly easy to personalize your subscription.

Once you sign-up, just visit our custom plan builder and select the media volume, team size, and features you want to get a plan that fits your needs.

No more rigid plans. Upgrade, downgrade or cancel at any time.

Claim Your Special Offer 🎁

When you subscribe, you will also get a free premium add-on for three months!

That means you save up to $50 USD per month and $150 USD in total.

Once you subscribe to a plan, all you have to do is send us a live chat with your selected premium add-on from the list below:

  • Premium Export Options (Word, CSV & More)
  • Custom Categories & Insights
  • Bulk Editing & Data Organization
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what is a presentation summary

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Creating an Executive Summary PowerPoint Presentation in 2024: Expert Tips and Techniques

What is an executive summary in powerpoint presentations.

A n executive summary slide gives a quick peek into a more extended presentation, usually found at the start of a slide deck. Its job is to summarize the main points so readers don’t have to go through the whole thing. These slides often have more text than regular slides because they’re meant to be read, not presented live. It’s important to keep live presentations engaging by avoiding too much text on slides.

Think of an executive summary as a short version of a big document, giving important info in an easy-to-understand way. Even though it’s short, an excellent executive summary must focus on the main message. Executives and decision-makers, who are often busy, like presentations that get to the point quickly and professionally. If you can’t do that, you might seem unprepared or unable to communicate well.

An executive summary PPT slide makes presenting vital info from a bigger report or business plan easier. It usually includes a title slide, an agenda or outline slide, and a few summary slides. This helps quickly share critical details like the problem you’re addressing, solutions, expected outcomes, and budget plans.

An executive summary template condenses a more extended presentation into crucial points. It aims to catch readers’ interest, clarify the presentation’s goals, and prepare the audience for the discussion. A good executive summary grabs attention and sets the stage for a complete understanding of the topic.

What are the Benefits of an Executive Summary in Slide Presentations?

In slide presentations, a business plan executive summary is a crucial connection between the presenter and the audience, giving a quick look into what’s coming up. Stakeholders often need to understand proposals, project details, or research quickly, especially in business. Creating a well-organized executive summary ensures that essential points are easy to see, setting the stage for deeper exploration if needed.

In the midst of a PowerPoint slide deck, it’s easy for readers to get lost, trying to remember earlier slides and the main story. Executive summary slides help guide readers through the presentation. They have a few main jobs:

1. Providing Context: Executive summaries provide background information, explaining why the slide deck’s topic is important, which helps the audience understand better.

2. Showing the Main Argument: Executive summaries help readers understand the main idea of the presentation before getting into the details by summarizing the central argument right away.

3. Acting as a Guide: These summaries work like maps for readers, helping them stay on track with the presentation’s story.

Executive summaries, especially in PowerPoint, are handy in the business world. They’re the first thing the audience sees, grabbing attention and making people curious by summarizing long and potentially dull content. The benefits of using an executive summary PowerPoint template include:

1. Saving Time: Executive summaries save presenters and audience members time by condensing important points from long reports or presentations.

2. Clear Organization Overview: These summaries give a quick and optimistic overview of the organization, showing its successes and goals, which makes the audience want to learn more about it.

Executive summaries in slide presentations are crucial for smoother communication and ensuring everyone can easily understand important information. By guiding the audience to deeper insights, they make engagement and understanding easier, moving the story along with clarity and purpose.

How To Write an Effective Executive Summary Slide

How To Write an Effective Executive Summary Slide

To ensure clarity and engagement, crafting a compelling executive summary for slide templates involves several key steps.

1. Start with a Clear Problem Statement: Think of your first paragraph as the opening slide of a presentation. You need to make a strong statement that immediately communicates the agenda. Address the urgency of the issue, highlight its importance, or provide background information to set the scene. Clearly outline the chief goals of the report or document.

2. Present the Main Discussion Points: Expand on the points or scope of the report to meet audience expectations. Break down large blocks of text into bullet points for easier digestion. Use figures to highlight key findings and quantify significant results. Discuss the research methods and data sources, and mention any report limitations. Summarize the conclusions in a paragraph or as a featured quote to highlight critical information.

3. List Recommendations or Next Steps: Allocate a section at the bottom of the summary to emphasize outcomes, conclusions, and follow-up actions expected from the reader. Summarize the research findings and identify any recommended solutions or actions. Seek feedback from team members who have not seen the full report to ensure the summary effectively conveys the document’s content and piques interest without additional context.

By following these steps, you can create an executive summary that effectively communicates the main points of your presentation and encourages audience engagement. 

How To Make an Executive Summary Engaging

How To Make an Executive Summary Engaging

A creative executive summary presentation involves several vital strategies to capture your audience’s attention and convey the main points effectively.

1. Create an Engaging Slide Title: The title of your slide is the first thing your audience will see. Make it count by clearly stating the main takeaway and setting the tone for the rest of the slide.

2. Use Basic Story Structure: Your summary should provide a complete presentation overview, including a clear beginning, middle, and end. Many summaries focus solely on insights or data without providing a proper introduction or conclusion.

3. Ensure Scannability: Executive summary slides often contain lots of information, making them dense and challenging to navigate. Make it easier for your audience by organizing information into easily discernible sections. Group related text and graphs together, and include text headers for each section so even those scanning will understand the main points.

4. Maintain Consistent Tone: Ensure that the tone and language used in your slide match those of the primary document. Consistency in tone prevents confusion and keeps the audience engaged.

5. Focus on The Story: While stakeholders may have time to read the full report later, your goal during the presentation is to draw their attention to the most critical issues and highlight the value within the report, enticing them to delve deeper.

6. Use Bullet Points: Present information in bullet points to keep it concise and easily digestible. Avoid overloading your audience with long lists or full sentences, as this can overwhelm them and diminish the impact of your presentation.

7. Limit Data Overload: While data is essential, too much of it can overwhelm your audience. Choose three main data points to highlight on your executive summary slide and provide context for why these points are significant.

8. Utilize Professional Presentation Templates: Consider using presentation templates designed specifically for executive summaries. These help you create visually appealing slides that enhance your message and engage your audience. Prioritize white space and use icons and simple visualizations to minimize clutter and make your slides visually appealing.

By incorporating these strategies, you can create an executive summary slide that conveys important information and keeps your audience curious and engaged.

Crafting a compelling executive summary in slide presentations is essential for conveying critical information concisely and engagingly. 

By following strategies such as creating an engaging slide title, using basic story structure, ensuring scannability, maintaining a consistent tone, focusing on the story, using bullet points, limiting data overload, and utilizing professional presentation templates, presenters can captivate their audience’s attention and communicate their main points effectively. 

An engaging executive summary sets the stage for a deeper exploration of the topic and facilitates smoother communication, ultimately leading to better stakeholder understanding and engagement.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the purpose of an executive summary slide in a presentation?

An executive summary PPT slide gives a quick overview of a more extended presentation, usually at the beginning of a slide deck. It summarizes the main points so readers don’t have to review the entire presentation. These slides are more text-heavy because they’re meant to be read, not presented live.

2. Why is it essential to have an executive summary in slide presentations?

Executive summaries are a crucial connection between presenters and audiences, offering a glance into the content ahead. They help stakeholders quickly understand proposals, project details, or research findings. By guiding readers through the presentation and providing context, they ensure that important points are easily grasped, setting the stage for deeper exploration if needed.

3. What are the key sections typically included in an executive summary?

An executive summary usually includes sections such as introduction, problem statement, outcomes/recommendations, and importance. These sections help readers understand the document quickly. It’s common to organize them into a clear outline using bullet points to make them easier to turn into slides for a PowerPoint presentation.

4. How can I make an executive summary slide engaging?

Crafting a creative executive summary slide involves:

  • Creating an engaging slide title.
  • Using basic story structure.
  • Ensuring scannability.
  • Maintaining a consistent tone.
  • Focusing on the story.
  • Using bullet points.
  • Limiting data overload.
  • Utilizing professional presentation templates.

Presenters can capture their audience’s attention by incorporating these strategies and effectively communicate their main points.

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Whether you need a stellar deck delivered by tomorrow morning or expert guidance on transforming ideas into captivating slides, Prezentium has you covered. Don’t settle for mediocre presentations—join the ranks of satisfied clients who trust Prezentium to deliver excellence every time.

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Working with sources
  • How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Published on November 23, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on May 31, 2023.

Summarizing , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

  • Read the text
  • Break it down into sections
  • Identify the key points in each section
  • Write the summary
  • Check the summary against the article

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or evaluating the source . You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

Table of contents

When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about summarizing.

There are many situations in which you might have to summarize an article or other source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
  • To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
  • To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyze or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarizing is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

  • Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
  • Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
  • Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.

There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

  • Start by reading the abstract . This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
  • Pay attention to headings and subheadings . These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
  • Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?

To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organized into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction , methods , results , and discussion .

Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

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what is a presentation summary

Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Examples of article summaries

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.”

Davis et al. (2015) set out to empirically test the popular saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Apples are often used to represent a healthy lifestyle, and research has shown their nutritional properties could be beneficial for various aspects of health. The authors’ unique approach is to take the saying literally and ask: do people who eat apples use healthcare services less frequently? If there is indeed such a relationship, they suggest, promoting apple consumption could help reduce healthcare costs.

The study used publicly available cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized as either apple eaters or non-apple eaters based on their self-reported apple consumption in an average 24-hour period. They were also categorized as either avoiding or not avoiding the use of healthcare services in the past year. The data was statistically analyzed to test whether there was an association between apple consumption and several dependent variables: physician visits, hospital stays, use of mental health services, and use of prescription medication.

Although apple eaters were slightly more likely to have avoided physician visits, this relationship was not statistically significant after adjusting for various relevant factors. No association was found between apple consumption and hospital stays or mental health service use. However, apple eaters were found to be slightly more likely to have avoided using prescription medication. Based on these results, the authors conclude that an apple a day does not keep the doctor away, but it may keep the pharmacist away. They suggest that this finding could have implications for reducing healthcare costs, considering the high annual costs of prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples.

However, the authors also note several limitations of the study: most importantly, that apple eaters are likely to differ from non-apple eaters in ways that may have confounded the results (for example, apple eaters may be more likely to be health-conscious). To establish any causal relationship between apple consumption and avoidance of medication, they recommend experimental research.

An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

For example, in a literature review or meta analysis you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

Using national survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” and did not find statistically significant evidence to support this hypothesis. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables.

Citing the source you’re summarizing

When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

  • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
  • You haven’t missed any essential information
  • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.

If you’re summarizing many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

If you want to know more about ChatGPT, AI tools , citation , and plagiarism , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • ChatGPT vs human editor
  • ChatGPT citations
  • Is ChatGPT trustworthy?
  • Using ChatGPT for your studies
  • What is ChatGPT?
  • Chicago style
  • Paraphrasing


  • Types of plagiarism
  • Self-plagiarism
  • Avoiding plagiarism
  • Academic integrity
  • Consequences of plagiarism
  • Common knowledge

A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words. Want to make your life super easy? Try our free text summarizer today!

A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.

You might have to write a summary of a source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
  • For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
  • To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
  • In a paper , to summarize or introduce a relevant study

To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Cite the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarize the whole text, not just introduce it.

An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarize a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.

All can be done within seconds with our free text summarizer .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

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Design Ideas for your Presentation Summary Slide

November 7, 2017 - Dom Barnard

As mentioned in  this article , a summary slide will be more beneficial to your audience than a ‘Thank You’ slide. It gives the audience a chance to recap on the main points of the presentation and gives them areas to think about for any audience questions.

What should be included in the summary slide?

A summary slide should include the main points of your presentation which support the message you are trying to get across. You can also add your contact details, such as email address, as people are likely to photograph this slide which their mobiles to remind them of the presentation. Keep the summary slide up when you are going through the questions and answers session.

When going through the summary, briefly explain each point and if possible, highlight the summary point in a different colour when you are talking about it. This keeps it as simple as possible for the audience as their attention span will have reduced by  end of your presentation .

Design and content tips

MS PowerPoint offers  different well designed layouts for your summary slide, go to  Home  –  Slides Panel  –  Layout  and choose a suitable layout.

Another tip is to hyperlink the points in your summery slide, in case you are asked a question about one of the points and you want to quickly refer to that slide in more detail.

You can also include visual images in the summary if they were used earlier in the presentation. People are much better at remembering images than verbal information. When talking about a summary point, you can bring up an image from that section of the presentation to jog the audiences memory.

Some simple examples

Example summary slide for a presentaiton with contact information

Basic summary slide with main points and contact information on it. The key message of the presentation is highlighted on the right hand side.

Example summary slide for a presentaiton with an image

This summary slide is a little more visual, with the key points still mentioned on the slide.

Example summary slide for a presentaiton with a diagram

This diagram gives the audience a little more context to the information around it. The audience can see how this information leads to improving skills.

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How To Write An Executive Summary Plus Examples Templates

Learn how to capture the essence of your business plan or proposal in a concise and compelling manner. Find the key elements to include, such as the problem statement, solution, market analysis, and financial projections. Enhance your communication skills and leave a lasting impression on busy executives with a winning executive summary.

How To Write An Executive Summary Plus Examples Templates

Nowadays, it is becoming challenging to grab the attention of business executives. With jam-packed schedules, quick decisions to make, and not much time to spare, the executives are always looking for value for their time. Hence the need for the Executive Summary to capture the attention of the busy audience by providing the gist of the entire presentation engagingly.

What Is An Executive Summary?

An executive summary is a vital part of any business presentation. In the broader sense, the executive summary is the brief that precedes a more extended report or presentation and outlines the essence of the entire report.

In business environments, an executive summary presentation summarizes the intent of the entire business deck in a concise form.

The purpose of an executive summary is to pique the reader’s curiosity by presenting facts from the larger piece of content. A robust executive summary creates value for the reader as a first impression and generates interest in viewing the rest of the content.

How To Write An Executive Summary

After dealing with several professional clients, we have found many things to keep in mind while writing an executive summary format. These tips will help you build a winning executive summary.

Begin with a bang

The opening statement of your executive summary needs to be effective. Use the most differentiating plus point of your company and present it as the lead sentence. A few examples:

  • List the unique problem you are solving, and the impact your solution has.
  • Highlight if you have a huge market size, growth opportunity, or high potential investor return.
  • Drop known names in the industry if they have collaborated, invested, or endorsed you.

Keep it Simple and Short

The executive summary template should only be 5% – 10% of the length of the entire presentation. Putting too many details in the executive summary is contradicting to its purpose. Make the executive summary focused and simple, by using short paragraphs or bullets, and subheadings.

Placement of the Summary

The executive summary slide should be the last thing you should write when  making the presentation . With every revision, the summary needs an update. However, it should be placed right after the  table of contents PowerPoint template , and before the introduction of the presentation so that the audience knows what to expect.

The Interest of the Audience

Do your research and consider the mindset of your audience. Tailor the summary to intrigue them with your study and proposal, convincing them to invest more effort in your presentation, and read further.

Good Examples Of Executive Summary For Different Business Scenarios

SlideUpLift has an extensive collection of PowerPoint &  Google slide templates  to whip up a compelling executive summary instantly. The templates cater to building an executive summary for different types of business presentations. Below are a few executive summary examples:

Strategic Initiatives Executive Summary Template

In this business summary example, you can showcase the snapshot of the strategic initiatives you are proposing in your plan. In a single executive summary slide, you can convey the current facts about the market, market trends, key milestones you wish to achieve, and further how you plan to reach milestones through your initiatives.

The template is perfect to showcase your executive in one single slide. The effective use of icons and shapes makes this template a good executive summary template.

Executive Summary PPT

Business Proposal Executive Summary Template

This executive summary sample gives a snapshot of the size and expertise of your organization, conveying how you are qualified to take on the prospective client’s business.

An effective executive summary design format that showcases all important aspects can increase your chances to impress your client or prospect.

what is a presentation summary

Customer Journey Executive Summary Template

This Executive Summary example showcases a customer’s journey with a brand, company, or organization using creative infographics. This framework allows the brands to summarize factors such as – a customer’s tenure, activity status, demographics, and customer spread across the world.

By using an Executive Summary Template to exhibit a customer’s journey, brands can improve their sales efficiency.

Customer Journey Executive Summary

Business Review Executive Summary Template

The following sample of executive summary summarizes the major points an executive need to know for a business review. The slide covers, key milestones, market share and growth, product profile, company strategy, revenue, and profit, all in a structured way.

what is a presentation summary

Project Executive Summary Template

This project executive summary example is used to outline a project plan in a business presentation. Using this executive summary of a project template, you can give a quick overview of a project plan with a focus on Team Members, key highlights, and the background of the project. This framework also allows you to compare actions taken and measure the results of a project plan.

what is a presentation summary

Project Launch Executive Summary Template

This project executive summary template allows you to give a quick overview of the context of your project planning.

what is a presentation summary

Sales Executive Summary Template

This is a marketing plan executive summary example that can be used to summarize your marketing and sales plan.

Sales Executive Summary Template

Financial Plan Executive Summary Template

This executive summary sample can help summarize financials in your presentation.

Finance Executive Summary Template

Resume Executive Summary Template

This is the best executive summary example that helps you highlight your career experiences and achievements and allows you to showcase the reasons that make you a suitable candidate.

Best Executive Summary Templates Collection

This collection of executive summary templates that cover most of the summarization of business professionals is available in PowerPoint Themes and Google Slides themes .

Building An Executive Summary Template For A Startup

Now that we know what an executive summary is and learn the tips on how to write an effective Executive Summary. An executive summary example for a startup should be a lean abbreviated version of a business plan with no extra fat. It is like a business plan executive summary example that is crisp. The goal of the startup executive summary presentation is to get a meeting with venture capitalists however the objective of a great executive summary format for a business proposal may include a company profile, existing client information, rich media like charts, graphs, images, projections, and more to keep the readers hooked.

The Punch Statement

The first statement or paragraph should make your audience stop everything else and focus on you. Lead with the most convincing statement and tell why your idea is huge and worthy of your audience’s time. If possible, throw in names that impress the room, like world-class advisors, famous companies you are already working with, or renowned investors you have.

The Problem

Emphasize how the problem you aim to solve is big and impacts a large demographic.

The Solution

What specifically are you offering to whom? Software, hardware, service, combination? Use commonly used terms to state concretely what you have, or what you do, that solves the problem you’ve identified.

The Opportunity

Briefly describe your target customer, size of the market, growth opportunities, market dynamics, and plan for the market.

Your competitive advantage

Describe the competitive position of your company over your competitors, the possible opportunities in the future, plans for growth, and overcoming possible competitor threats.

The Business Model

How specifically are you going to generate revenues, and from whom? Why is your model leverageable and scalable? Why will it be capital efficient?

Why is your team uniquely qualified to win? Don’t just add a shortened form of each founder’s resume; explain why the background of each team member fits.

Detail the exact amount you want to raise, and the key areas where you will invest the funds. Use this section to highlight the growth and add perspective for the reader by showing relevant numbers.

what is a presentation summary

In short, having a good executive summary is crucial to capturing the attention and excitement of your audience. An effective executive summary template captures the core message of your presentation and successfully raises your audience’s intrigue to read further into your presentation.

Build an excellent executive summary to convey to the business executives how you value their time and are worthy of the same, increasing the likelihood of the success of your business presentation . Get ideas from 100+ creative ways of building executive summaries from SlideUpLift Library.

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How to write an executive summary, with examples

Julia Martins contributor headshot

The best way to do that is with an executive summary. If you’ve never written an executive summary, this article has all you need to know to plan, write, and share them with your team.

What is an executive summary?

An executive summary is an overview of a document. The length and scope of your executive summary will differ depending on the document it’s summarizing, but in general an executive summary can be anywhere from one to two pages long. In the document, you’ll want to share all of the information your readers and important stakeholders need to know.

Imagine it this way: if your high-level stakeholders were to only read your executive summary, would they have all of the information they need to succeed? If so, your summary has done its job.

You’ll often find executive summaries of:

Business cases

Project proposals

Research documents

Environmental studies

Market surveys

Project plans

In general, there are four parts to any executive summary:

Start with the problem or need the document is solving.

Outline the recommended solution.

Explain the solution’s value.

Wrap up with a conclusion about the importance of the work.

What is an executive summary in project management?

In project management, an executive summary is a way to bring clarity to cross-functional collaborators, team leadership, and project stakeholders . Think of it like a project’s “ elevator pitch ” for team members who don’t have the time or the need to dive into all of the project’s details.

The main difference between an executive summary in project management and a more traditional executive summary in a business plan is that the former should be created at the beginning of your project—whereas the latter should be created after you’ve written your business plan. For example, to write an executive summary of an environmental study, you would compile a report on the results and findings once your study was over. But for an executive summary in project management, you want to cover what the project is aiming to achieve and why those goals matter.

The same four parts apply to an executive summary in project management:

Start with the problem or need the project is solving.  Why is this project happening? What insight, customer feedback, product plan, or other need caused it to come to life?

Outline the recommended solution, or the project’s objectives.  How is the project going to solve the problem you established in the first part? What are the project goals and objectives?

Explain the solution’s value.  Once you’ve finished your project, what will happen? How will this improve and solve the problem you established in the first part?

Wrap up with a conclusion about the importance of the work.  This is another opportunity to reiterate why the problem is important, and why the project matters. It can also be helpful to reference your audience and how your solution will solve their problem. Finally, include any relevant next steps.

If you’ve never written an executive summary before, you might be curious about where it fits into other project management elements. Here’s how executive summaries stack up:

Executive summary vs. project plan

A  project plan  is a blueprint of the key elements your project will accomplish in order to hit your project goals and objectives. Project plans will include your goals, success metrics, stakeholders and roles, budget, milestones and deliverables, timeline and schedule, and communication plan .

An executive summary is a summary of the most important information in your project plan. Think of the absolutely crucial things your management team needs to know when they land in your project, before they even have a chance to look at the project plan—that’s your executive summary.

Executive summary vs. project overview

Project overviews and executive summaries often have similar elements—they both contain a summary of important project information. However, your project overview should be directly attached to your project. There should be a direct line of sight between your project and your project overview.

While you can include your executive summary in your project depending on what type of  project management tool  you use, it may also be a stand-alone document.

Executive summary vs. project objectives

Your executive summary should contain and expand upon your  project objectives  in the second part ( Outline the recommended solution, or the project’s objectives ). In addition to including your project objectives, your executive summary should also include why achieving your project objectives will add value, as well as provide details about how you’re going to get there.

The benefits of an executive summary

You may be asking: why should I write an executive summary for my project? Isn’t the project plan enough?

Well, like we mentioned earlier, not everyone has the time or need to dive into your project and see, from a glance, what the goals are and why they matter.  Work management tools  like Asana help you capture a lot of crucial information about a project, so you and your team have clarity on who’s doing what by when. Your executive summary is designed less for team members who are actively working on the project and more for stakeholders outside of the project who want quick insight and answers about why your project matters.

An effective executive summary gives stakeholders a big-picture view of the entire project and its important points—without requiring them to dive into all the details. Then, if they want more information, they can access the project plan or navigate through tasks in your work management tool.

How to write a great executive summary, with examples

Every executive summary has four parts. In order to write a great executive summary, follow this template. Then once you’ve written your executive summary, read it again to make sure it includes all of the key information your stakeholders need to know.

1. Start with the problem or need the project is solving

At the beginning of your executive summary, start by explaining why this document (and the project it represents) matter. Take some time to outline what the problem is, including any research or customer feedback you’ve gotten . Clarify how this problem is important and relevant to your customers, and why solving it matters.

For example, let’s imagine you work for a watch manufacturing company. Your project is to devise a simpler, cheaper watch that still appeals to luxury buyers while also targeting a new bracket of customers.

Example executive summary:

In recent customer feedback sessions, 52% of customers have expressed a need for a simpler and cheaper version of our product. In surveys of customers who have chosen competitor watches, price is mentioned 87% of the time. To best serve our existing customers, and to branch into new markets, we need to develop a series of watches that we can sell at an appropriate price point for this market.

2. Outline the recommended solution, or the project’s objectives

Now that you’ve outlined the problem, explain what your solution is. Unlike an abstract or outline, you should be  prescriptive  in your solution—that is to say, you should work to convince your readers that your solution is the right one. This is less of a brainstorming section and more of a place to support your recommended solution.

Because you’re creating your executive summary at the beginning of your project, it’s ok if you don’t have all of your deliverables and milestones mapped out. But this is your chance to describe, in broad strokes, what will happen during the project. If you need help formulating a high-level overview of your project’s main deliverables and timeline, consider creating a  project roadmap  before diving into your executive summary.

Continuing our example executive summary:

Our new watch series will begin at 20% cheaper than our current cheapest option, with the potential for 40%+ cheaper options depending on material and movement. In order to offer these prices, we will do the following:

Offer watches in new materials, including potentially silicone or wood

Use high-quality quartz movement instead of in-house automatic movement

Introduce customizable band options, with a focus on choice and flexibility over traditional luxury

Note that every watch will still be rigorously quality controlled in order to maintain the same world-class speed and precision of our current offerings.

3. Explain the solution’s value

At this point, you begin to get into more details about how your solution will impact and improve upon the problem you outlined in the beginning. What, if any, results do you expect? This is the section to include any relevant financial information, project risks, or potential benefits. You should also relate this project back to your company goals or  OKRs . How does this work map to your company objectives?

With new offerings that are between 20% and 40% cheaper than our current cheapest option, we expect to be able to break into the casual watch market, while still supporting our luxury brand. That will help us hit FY22’s Objective 3: Expanding the brand. These new offerings have the potential to bring in upwards of three million dollars in profits annually, which will help us hit FY22’s Objective 1: 7 million dollars in annual profit.

Early customer feedback sessions indicate that cheaper options will not impact the value or prestige of the luxury brand, though this is a risk that should be factored in during design. In order to mitigate that risk, the product marketing team will begin working on their go-to-market strategy six months before the launch.

4. Wrap up with a conclusion about the importance of the work

Now that you’ve shared all of this important information with executive stakeholders, this final section is your chance to guide their understanding of the impact and importance of this work on the organization. What, if anything, should they take away from your executive summary?

To round out our example executive summary:

Cheaper and varied offerings not only allow us to break into a new market—it will also expand our brand in a positive way. With the attention from these new offerings, plus the anticipated demand for cheaper watches, we expect to increase market share by 2% annually. For more information, read our  go-to-market strategy  and  customer feedback documentation .

Example of an executive summary

When you put it all together, this is what your executive summary might look like:

[Product UI] Example executive summary in Asana (Project Overview)

Common mistakes people make when writing executive summaries

You’re not going to become an executive summary-writing pro overnight, and that’s ok. As you get started, use the four-part template provided in this article as a guide. Then, as you continue to hone your executive summary writing skills, here are a few common pitfalls to avoid:

Avoid using jargon

Your executive summary is a document that anyone, from project contributors to executive stakeholders, should be able to read and understand. Remember that you’re much closer to the daily work and individual tasks than your stakeholders will be, so read your executive summary once over to make sure there’s no unnecessary jargon. Where you can, explain the jargon, or skip it all together.

Remember: this isn’t a full report

Your executive summary is just that—a summary. If you find yourself getting into the details of specific tasks, due dates, and attachments, try taking a step back and asking yourself if that information really belongs in your executive summary. Some details are important—you want your summary to be actionable and engaging. But keep in mind that the wealth of information in your project will be captured in your  work management tool , not your executive summary.

Make sure the summary can stand alone

You know this project inside and out, but your stakeholders won’t. Once you’ve written your executive summary, take a second look to make sure the summary can stand on its own. Is there any context your stakeholders need in order to understand the summary? If so, weave it into your executive summary, or consider linking out to it as additional information.

Always proofread

Your executive summary is a living document, and if you miss a typo you can always go back in and fix it. But it never hurts to proofread or send to a colleague for a fresh set of eyes.

In summary: an executive summary is a must-have

Executive summaries are a great way to get everyone up to date and on the same page about your project. If you have a lot of project stakeholders who need quick insight into what the project is solving and why it matters, an executive summary is the perfect way to give them the information they need.

For more tips about how to connect high-level strategy and plans to daily execution, read our article about strategic planning .

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What is Good Friday? What the holy day means for Christians around the world

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Christians around the world observe Good Friday two days before Easter, but what is it, and why do they commemorate the holy day?

The holiday is part of Holy Week, which leads up to Easter Sunday. Palm Sunday kicks off the series of Christian holy days that commemorate the Crucifixion and celebrate Jesus Christ's resurrection.

"Good Friday has been, for centuries now, the heart of the Christian message because it is through the death of Jesus Christ that Christians believe that we have been forgiven of our sins," Daniel Alvarez, an associate teaching professor of religious studies at Florida International University, told USA TODAY.

What is Holy Saturday? What the day before Easter means for Christians around the world

When is Good Friday?

Good Friday is always the Friday before Easter. It's the second-to-last day of Holy Week.

In 2024, Good Friday will fall on March 29.

What is Good Friday?

Good Friday is the day Christ was sacrificed on the cross. According to Britannica , it is a day for "sorrow, penance, and fasting."

"Good Friday is part of something else," Gabriel Radle, an assistant professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame, previously told USA TODAY. "It's its own thing, but it's also part of something bigger."

Are Good Friday and Passover related?

Alvarez says that Good Friday is directly related to the Jewish holiday, Passover.

Passover , or Pesach, is a major Jewish holiday that celebrates the Israelites’ exodus from Egypt.

"The whole Christian idea of atoning for sin, that Jesus is our atonement, is strictly derived from the Jewish Passover tradition," said Alvarez.

How is that possible?

According to the professor, Passover celebrates the day the "Angel of Death" passed over the homes of Israelites who were enslaved by the Egyptians. He said that the Bible states when the exodus happened, families were told to paint their doors with lamb's blood so that God would spare the lives of their firstborn sons.

Alvarez says this is why Christians call Jesus the "lamb of God." He adds that the symbolism of the "blood of the lamb" ties the two stories together and is why Christians believe God sacrificed his firstborn son. Because, through his blood, humanity is protected from the "wrath of a righteous God that cannot tolerate sin."

He adds that the stories of the exodus and the Crucifixion not only further tie the stories together but also emphasize just how powerful the sacrifice of the firstborn and the shedding of blood are in religion.

"Jesus is the firstborn, so the whole idea of the death of the firstborn is crucial," said Alvarez.

He adds that the sacrifice of the firstborn, specifically a firstborn son, comes from an ancient and "primitive" idea that the sacrifice unleashes "tremendous power that is able to fend off any kind of force, including the wrath of God."

Why Is Good Friday so somber?

Alavarez says people might think this holiday is more depressing or sad than others because of how Catholics commemorate the Crucifixion.

"I think [it's] to a level that some people might think is morbid," said Alvarez.

He said Catholics not only meditate on Jesus' death, but primarily focus on the suffering he faced in the events that led up to his Crucifixion. That's what makes it such a mournful day for people.

But, the professor says that Jesus' suffering in crucial to Christianity as a whole.

"The suffering of Christ is central to the four Gospels," said Alvarez. "Everything else is incidental."

According to the professor, statues that use blood to emphasize the way Jesus and Catholic saints suffered is very common in Spanish and Hispanic Countries, but not as prevalent in American churches.

Do you fast on Good Friday?

Father Dustin Dought, the executive director of the Secretariat of Divine Worship of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, previously told USA TODAY that Good Friday and Ash Wednesday are the two days in the year that Roman Catholics are obliged to fast.

"This practice is a way of emptying ourselves so that we can be filled with God," said Dought.

What do you eat on Good Friday?

Many Catholics do not eat meat on any Friday during Lent. Anything with flesh is off-limits. Dought says this practice is to honor the way Jesus sacrificed his flesh on Good Friday.

Meat that is off limits includes:

Instead, many Catholics will eat fish. According to the Marine Stewardship Council , this is allowed because fish is considered to be a different type of flesh.

Contributing: Jordan Mendoza ; USA TODAY

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By Andy Greenberg and Matt Burgess

The Mystery of ‘Jia Tan,’ the XZ Backdoor Mastermind

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The scourge of software supply chain attacks —an increasingly common hacking technique that hides malicious code in a widely used legitimate program—can take many forms. Hackers can penetrate an update server to seed out their malware, or even break into the network where the software was developed to corrupt it at the source. Or, in the case of one particularly insidious software supply chain attacker known as Jia Tan, they can spend two years politely and enthusiastically volunteering to help.

Padlock with computer motherboard architecture inside

By Dan Goodin, Ars Technica

Over the weekend, the cybersecurity and open source software community was shocked by the news that a relatively new, experimental version of XZ Utils —a compression utility integrated into many popular distributions of Linux—contained a backdoor that would have allowed hackers in possession of a specific private key to connect to the backdoored system and run their own commands as an administrator. Only some chance detective work carried out by a lone Microsoft engineer, Andres Freund—who’d detected a strange delay in how the remote connection protocol SSH was running in a version of the Linux variant Debian—caught the spy trick before it ended up in many millions of systems worldwide.

That XZ Utils backdoor, it’s now clear, was inserted by none other than the lead open source steward of XZ Utils, a developer who went by the name Jia Tan. In the wake of the backdoor's discovery, a mystery percolating through the tech world remains: Who is Jia Tan, and who did he, or she—or very likely they —truly work for?

Jia Tan exploited open source software’s crowdsourced approach to coding whereby anyone can suggest changes to a program on code repositories like GitHub, where the changes are reviewed by other coders before they’re integrated into the software. Peeling back Jia Tan’s documented history in the open source programming world reveals that they first appeared in November 2021 with the GitHub username JiaT75, then made contributions to other open source projects using the name Jia Tan, or sometimes Jia Cheong Tan, for more than a year before beginning to submit changes to XZ Utils.

By January 2023, Jia Tan’s code was being integrated into XZ Utils. Over the next year, they would largely take control of the project from its original maintainer, Lasse Collin, a change driven in part by nagging emails sent to Collin by a handful users complaining about slow updates. (Whether those users were unwitting accomplices, or actually working with Jia Tan to persuade Collin to relinquish control, remains unclear. None of the users replied to requests for comment from WIRED.) Finally, Jia Tan added their stealthy backdoor to a version of XZ Utils in February of this year.

That inhumanly patient approach, along with the technical features and sophistication of the backdoor itself, has led many in the cybersecurity world to believe that Jia Tan must, in fact, be a handle operated by state-sponsored hackers—and very good ones. “This multiyear operation was very cunning, and the implanted backdoor is incredibly deceptive,” says Costin Raiu, who until last year served as the most senior researcher and head of the global research and analysis team at Russian cybersecurity firm Kaspersky. “I’d say this is a nation-state-backed group, one with long-term goals in mind that affords to invest into multiyear infiltration of open source projects.”

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As for which nation, Raiu names the usual suspects: China, Russia, and North Korea. He says it’s still too early to know the true culprit. “One thing is for sure clear,” he adds. “This was more cunning than all previous software supply chain attacks I’ve seen.”

A Very Private, Very Busy Programmer

As scrutiny around Jia Tan has mounted since the revelation of the XZ Utils backdoor last Friday, researchers have noted that the persona has remarkably good operational security. Independent security reporter Brian Krebs writes that he could find “zero trace” of Jia Tan’s email address outside of the messages they sent to fellow open source contributors, even after scouring breached databases. Jia Tan also appears to have routed all their communications through a VPN with a Singaporean IP address .

The lack of any other online presence linked to Jia Tan points toward the account being a “single-purpose invented persona” and indicates how much sophistication, patience, and thought was put into developing the backdoor, says Will Thomas, an instructor at the SANS Institute, a cybersecurity training firm. The Jia Tan persona has vanished since the backdoor was discovered, and emails sent by WIRED to a Gmail address linked to it have gone unanswered. Jia Tan’s GitHub account has been suspended, a company spokesperson tells WIRED.

In fact, the only real footprints Jia Tan appears to have left behind were their contributions to the open source development community, where they were a prolific contributor: Disturbingly, Jia Tan’s first code change was to the “libarchive” compression library, another very widely used open source component. That first change swapped one function with a less secure alternative, potentially attempting another malicious code change, notes developer Evan Boehs in his detailed Jia Tan timeline —though the problem has since been fixed.

In total, Jia Tan made 6,000 code changes to at least seven projects between 2021 and February 2024, according to Michael Scott, the cofounder of the cybersecurity firm NetRise who previously worked in the Marine Corps cyberwarfare group under US Cyber Command. Determining all the branching effects of those changes is nearly impossible, Scott says. Because those changes, known as “commits,” are often batched into collections in a process known as “squashing commits,” it’s not always apparent which exact changes were made by Jia Tan. And the difficulty of tracing which of the many versions of a library like libarchive ended up in which software adds yet another layer of obfuscation. “It’s going to be a bit of a mess pulling on this thread and trying to figure out where all these things ended up,” Scott says.

Scott notes that, throughout this time, Jia Tan was also emailing with other contributors, writing in a “very concise, very dry,” but not unfriendly tone that Scott compares to the output of ChatGPT. “Nice job to both of you for getting this feature as far as it is already,” Jia Tan wrote at one point. Or, at another: “Let me know your thoughts on these patches when you have a chance :)” Jordi Mas, a developer who contributed to XZ Utils and had emailed “feedback” from Jia Tan, says in retrospect that the account went to extra levels to build trust in the persona.

Ultimately, Scott argues that those three years of code changes and polite emails were likely not spent sabotaging multiple software projects, but rather building up a history of credibility in preparation for the sabotage of XZ Utils specifically—and potentially other projects in the future. “He just never got to that step because we got lucky and found his stuff,” says Scott. “So that’s burned now, and he’s gonna have to go back to square one.”

Technical Ticks and Time Zones

Despite Jia Tan’s persona as a single individual, their yearslong preparation is a hallmark of a well-organized state-sponsored hacker group, argues Raiu, the former Kaspersky lead researcher. So too are the technical hallmarks of the XZ Utils malicious code that Jia Tan added. Raiu notes that, at a glance, the code truly looks like a compression tool. “It’s written in a very subversive manner,” he says. It’s also a “passive” backdoor, Raiu says, so it wouldn’t reach out to a command-and-control server that might help identify the backdoor’s operator. Instead, it waits for the operator to connect to the target machine via SSH and authenticate with a private key—one generated with a particularly strong cryptographic function known as ED448.

The backdoor’s careful design could be the work of US hackers, Raiu notes, but he suggests that’s unlikely, since the US wouldn’t typically sabotage open source projects—and if it did, the National Security Agency would probably use a quantum-resistant cryptographic function, which ED448 is not. That leaves non-US groups with a history of supply chain attacks, Raiu suggests, like China’s APT41 , North Korea’s Lazarus Group , and Russia’s APT29 .

At a glance, Jia Tan certainly looks East Asian—or is meant to. The time zone of Jia Tan’s commits are UTC+8: That’s China’s time zone, and only an hour off from North Korea’s. However, an analysis by two researchers , Rhea Karty and Simon Henniger, suggests that Jia Tan may have simply changed the time zone of their computer to UTC+8 before every commit. In fact, several commits were made with a computer set to an Eastern European or Middle Eastern time zone instead, perhaps when Jia Tan forgot to make the change.

“Another indication that they are not from China is the fact that they worked on notable Chinese holidays,” say Karty and Henniger, students at Dartmouth College and the Technical University of Munich, respectively. They note that Jia Tan also didn't submit new code on Christmas or New Year's. Boehs, the developer, adds that much of the work starts at 9 am and ends at 5 pm for Eastern European or Middle Eastern time zones. “The time range of commits suggests this was not some project that they did outside of work,” Boehs says.

Though that leaves countries like Iran and Israel as possibilities, the majority of clues lead back to Russia, and specifically Russia’s APT29 hacking group, argues Dave Aitel, a former NSA hacker and founder of the cybersecurity firm Immunity. Aitel points out that APT29—widely believed to work for Russia’s foreign intelligence agency, known as the SVR—has a reputation for technical care of a kind that few other hacker groups show. APT29 also carried out the Solar Winds compromise , perhaps the most deftly coordinated and effective software supply chain attack in history. That operation matches the style of the XZ Utils backdoor far more than the cruder supply chain attacks of APT41 or Lazarus, by comparison.

“It could very well be someone else,” says Aitel. “But I mean, if you’re looking for the most sophisticated supply chain attacks on the planet, that’s going to be our dear friends at the SVR.”

Security researchers agree, at least, that it’s unlikely that Jia Tan is a real person, or even one person working alone. Instead, it seems clear that the persona was the online embodiment of a new tactic from a new, well-organized organization—a tactic that nearly worked. That means we should expect to see Jia Tan return by other names: seemingly polite and enthusiastic contributors to open source projects, hiding a government’s secret intentions in their code commits.

Updated 4/3/2024 at 12:30 pm ET to note the possibility of Israeli or Iranian involvement.

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Accounting and reporting for crypto intangible assets

Issues In-Depth| February 2024

Accounting, presentation and disclosure for crypto intangible assets both in and out of scope of new ASC 350-60.

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Many of the most common digital assets (e.g. bitcoin, ether, solana, cardano) are accounted for as intangible assets under US GAAP (crypto intangible assets). Newly-codified ASC 350-60 requires all crypto intangible assets in its   scope to be measured at fair value after acquisition, and creates new presentation and disclosure requirements for those assets. Our Issues In-Depth outlines the accounting and reporting for both in-scope and out-of-scope crypto intangible assets.


  • Entities that have, or are planning to acquire, crypto intangible assets – except for broker-dealers subject to ASC 940 or investment companies subject to ASC 946

Key impacts

Digital asset use cases and offerings continue to evolve and proliferate, but there remains only limited US GAAP that explicitly addresses the accounting for digital assets. We provide our perspectives on accounting for crypto intangible assets (a subset of all digital assets) by commercial and not-for-profit entities and summarize the guidance that applies to them.

The issues and considerations we identify are not exhaustive, and our views and observations may not reflect the only acceptable ones in practice in this evolving area. Our perspectives may change as practice continues to develop, if the FASB expands or amends its US GAAP guidance on the accounting for crypto intangible assets, or if the SEC staff expresses views.

We encourage entities to discuss their accounting for crypto intangible assets (and other digital assets) and their specific facts and circumstances with their auditors or other accounting advisors.

Report contents

  • In a snapshot
  • What is a ‘crypto intangible asset’?
  • Scope of ASC 350-60
  • When you buy or otherwise acquire
  • While you hold a crypto intangible asset
  • When you sell or otherwise transfer
  • Financial statement presentation
  • Disclosures
  • Effective dates and transition for ASC 350-60 

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Crypto and other digital assets: Hot Topics

Read about the latest hot button issues related to crypto and other digital assets.

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Executive summaries & Issues In-Depth

Read summaries of the accounting requirements.

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FASB issues final ASU on crypto asset accounting

ASU 2023-08 introduces fair value measurement, separate presentation and new disclosures for in-scope crypto assets.

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Mayor Bowser Presents Fiscal Year 2025 Budget Proposal, A Fair Shot: Strategic Investments and Shared Sacrifice

(Washington, DC) – Today, Mayor Muriel Bowser delivered her Fiscal Year 2025 (FY25) Budget and Financial Plan, A Fair Shot: Strategic Investments and Shared Sacrifice, to the Council of the District of Columbia as part of the District’s annual budget process. The FY25 budget represents strategic investments and shared sacrifices to address a confluence of post-COVID factors and drive economic growth.

“Never bet against Washington, DC. We are a resilient city. We never give up. We know how to make a strong comeback. But our wins are also not accidental. We’re smart, creative, and strategic. That is the spirit of my fiscal 2025 budget. This is a smart budget, it’s a responsible budget, but most important, this is a budget that will keep DC the best city in the world,” said Mayor Bowser. “I know that by continuing to work together – by striking the right balance between investments and sacrifice and by prioritizing investments that will kick off more revenues for the District – we will get back to the economic growth levels that have fueled the renaissance of modern Washington.”  

The FY25 budget and financial plan is made up of $21 billion in operating funds and $11.8 billion in capital improvement funds. The post-COVID economic factors include: slower revenue growth; the end of federal stimulus funding; significantly higher operating costs, including an additional $200 million in WMATA funding; and the impacts of the remote work environment. The District’s budget is also unique because DC Government is required to have a balanced financial plan across both the current fiscal year and the upcoming four years of the financial plan. The result of these factors is a widening gap across the financial plan that requires prudent investments now to change the trajectory of our out-year revenue estimates. 

Mayor Bowser shared her guiding principles for creating the budget:

  • Maintaining and enhancing core services and preserve investments that protect health and safety.
  • Prioritizing programs with track records of success that advance equity.
  • Resetting spending to align with resources for long-term fiscal stability and focus new spending on catalytic investments, with a focus on public safety, education, and Downtown.

Below are highlights of investments and initiatives in Mayor Bowser’s FY25 budget proposal.

Downtown Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $5 million for DMPED’s Vitality Fund, which provides grants to businesses in high-growth sectors like technology and life sciences to encourage them to locate in or remain Downtown
  • $50 million in incentives for building owners to convert underutilized Downtown office space into housing for DC residents
  • $68 million for major streetscape initiatives, including the I Street Greenway, a new green boulevard connecting Farragut Square and McPherson Square; the Dupont Crown Park deck over of Connecticut Avenue north of Dupont Circle; and completion of the Pennsylvania Avenue NW streetscape between 17th Street and Washington Circle

New Investments for FY 2025

  • $515 million for the Chinatown Revitalization Fund to support sports arena renovations, streetscape improvements, public space activations, and/or expanded green space
  • $64 million to build additional permanent supportive housing and congregate shelter space on the site with the existing Federal City Shelter
  • $32 million in federal tourism grants and marketing, supporting activities for families and workforce development for the hospitality and tourism industries
  • $26 million to implement the Business and Entrepreneurship Support to Thrive (BEST) Act that will streamline business licensing
  • $13 million to support a new program that will freeze in place property taxes for conversions of office buildings into new uses Downtown
  • $5.25 million to support DC’s hosting of World Pride in 2025
  • $5 million to create a new Downtown Arts Hub, a flexible, multi-use space for theatre, dance, music, and visual arts organizations
  • $3 million for DMPED’s Festival Fund, to continue making it easier for organizations to host festivals and to support the attraction of art fairs and go-go music festivals Downtown
  • $2.6 million to activate the Gallery Place Festival Plaza, Dupont Crown Park, and I Street Greenway
  • $2.5 million to support pop-up and short-term retail in vacant commercial spaces
  • $1 million to establish a comprehensive transportation vision for Downtown
  • $564,000 to host more cultural events and programs at the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library and serve more residents and tourists in Downtown DC
  • $500,000 for new planning initiatives to identify public space improvements to the Penn West and Downtown West/Golden Triangle neighborhoods in Downtown
  • $300,000 for ongoing operation of the new Chinatown Safe Commercial Corridor Hub providing added public safety and human services agency presence
  • $300,000 to support the installation of murals that celebrate the history and culture of the Gallery Place/Chinatown neighborhood
  • $250,000 to market Penn Quarter as an arts, culture, and entertainment district

Education Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $7 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for DC School Connect which provides safe transportation to more than 350 students and boosts school attendance
  • $6.8 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for support of out-of-school time educational and enrichment programs for children and youth
  • $4.8 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for High Impact Tutoring supports for our most vulnerable learners
  • $4.3 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for career and technical education and internship opportunities for the District’s youth, including investments in the District’s first Advanced Technical Center in Ward 5
  • $1.9 million to maintain funding for nutritional and food curriculum supports at DC Public Schools
  • $1.8 million to continue collecting data on the classes offered at schools to ensure students have access to rigorous coursework
  • $1.7 million to maintain a scholarship program at the University of the District of Columbia for residents who seek a career pathway within behavioral health
  • $1 million in sustained support of community-based organizations and schools who provide workforce preparation and training to adults in the District
  • $700,000 to maintain ARPA-level funding for the District’s dual enrollment program, empowering youth in high school to earn college credit 
  • $669,000 to maintain ARPA-level funding for commitment to students with special education needs and their families through the Special Education Hub, which provides residents with tools, information, and one-on-one support
  • $668,000 to continue support for the Office of Education through Employment, which provides key insights into how education and workforce investments are impacting residents and their families
  • $375,000 to maintain investments in “nudge technology” to address chronic absenteeism at the District’s public schools
  • $300,000 to maintain ARPA-level funding for virtual course offerings for more than 200 high school students across the District
  • $2.2 billion to support full modernization of 33 schools across the District 
  • $349 million to support a 12.4-percent increase to the Uniform Per Student Funding Formula (UPSFF)
  • $255 million to support small capital improvements to DC Public Schools including HVAC replacement, roof repairs, field replacements, and other important upgrades
  • $52 million for facility renovations and upgrades at the University of the District of Columbia to ensure facilities are kept in a state of good repair
  • $42 million to improve the safety and security of DC Public Schools through enhanced lighting, fencing, and access control
  • $17 million to expand the Advanced Technical Center at Penn Center to include a healthcare employer partnership, providing career and technical education to the District’s students and healthcare services to residents, and $600,000 to support the opening of a new Advanced Technical Center at the Whitman-Walker Max Robinson Center in Ward 8
  • $10.2 million to bring greater transparency into students’ PK-12 education and workforce data and outcomes
  • $7.5 million to support more efficient ways to transport eligible special education students to school
  • $5 million to upgrade the audio-visual equipment in auditoriums and other large spaces in schools 
  • $2 million to implement high quality instructional materials for teachers based on recommendations from the literacy task force
  • $1.1 million for additional academic advisors to support student success and outcomes at the University of the District of Columbia
  • $581,000 to expand access to career and technical education programming in Ward 8
  • $550,000 to continue investments in expanding the teacher pipeline in the District by establishing a teacher apprenticeship program and enrolling 50-100 residents in the first year
  • $500,000 to support educator wellness grants to ensure teachers are well supported in the classroom and can bring their best selves to work

Public Safety Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $9.7 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for Safe Passage to support students getting to and from school safely and expand coverage through roving teams in neighborhoods experiencing short-term increases in crime
  • $21 million to fund increased costs of the Department of Corrections health care contract due to increased population
  • $11.7 million to maintain ARPA-level funding and accommodate increased needs for SAVRAA and Victim Services
  • $8.9 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for expanded Violence Interrupters
  • $4.5 million to maintain mandated academic programs for the increased number of Department of Corrections residents with individualized education plans
  • $3.5 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for the Pathways Program helping participants gain job training programming and assisting them in navigating available services
  • $2.1 million to restore funding for 12 testing and support staff in the Public Health Lab following expiration of federal grants
  • $637,000 to maintain funding to support returning citizens as peer navigators so they can help others navigate available resources and opportunities
  • $2.3 million to expand Safe Commercial Corridors and Private Security Camera Incentives
  • $1.8 million to support the implementation of Secure DC changes to pre-trial detention
  • $322,000 to increase private security camera incentives for businesses
  • $160,000 to the Criminal Justice Coordinating Council (CJCC) to stand up a new diversion task force
  • $13 million to increase the Metropolitan Police Department’s crime-fighting capabilities by nearly quadrupling the department’s CCTV camera footprint and replacing end-of-life license plate readers
  • $8.7 million to create 40 new community safety officers and fund new civilian positions in the Metropolitan Police Department to free up 46 sworn officers for more critical crime-fighting tasks
  • $7 million to increase capacity to serve 500 additional youth through PASS and 180 youth through ACE
  • $463 million to build a new correctional treatment facility annex, which will provide a secure environment for evidence-based practices that support residents’ safe return to the community and reduce recidivism
  • $157 million to purchase new ambulances, ladder trucks, a new fire boat, and other critical lifesaving apparatus 
  • $4.8 million to fund procurement of critical life-saving equipment for fire and emergency medical response personnel
  • $4.8 million to plan and design a new state-of-the-art joint training facility for FEMS and MPD
  • $3.4 million to procure and maintain important crime-fighting technology, including upgraded software to support license plate reader technology
  • $3.2 million to expand processing capacity for fingerprint, drug, and DNA sample testing
  • $3.1 million to hire additional staff at the Department of Youth Rehabilitation Services to provide supervision and positive engagement with youth residents and to evaluate and improve DYRS processes and programming
  • $1 million to hire additional 911 call takers and dispatchers at the Office of Unified Communications
  • $841,000 to continue the development of the District’s premiere paramedic school, which will train up to 70 local paramedics per year
  • $400,000 to fund hiring, retention, and wellness programs for correctional officers to provide sufficient staffing for the increased resident population at the Department of Corrections
  • $358,000 to fund hiring and retention incentives for forensic scientists and analysts that increase the District’s capacity to respond to crime scenes 24 hours a day, 7 days a week 

Recreation & Libraries Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $129 million to modernize and construct recreation and community centers, including $13 million for Emery Heights, $14.5 million for Fort Davis, $7.5 million for Crummell, $17 million for Randall, $17 million for Harry Thomas, $3 million for Marvin Gaye, $11.9 million for Douglas, $12.4 million for Langdon, $20 million for River Terrace, and an additional $8 million for Fort Lincoln to support space for childcare facility seats
  • $87 million to modernize and renovate our public libraries, including $25 million for the Shepherd Park Library, $24.7 million for Rosedale, $20.5 million for a new Northwest Library, $6 million for Chevy Chase, and $5.5 million to complete Parklands-Turner;
  • $1.1 million to maintain ARPA-level funding to bring more recreation offerings and opportunities to neighborhoods without recreation facilities
  • $576,000 to maintain ARPA-level funding for Late-Night Hype and Late-Night Drip at recreation facilities across the District, providing safe spaces for youth and children
  • $6 million for a playground equipment blitz, to include refreshes at Hobart Twins, Langdon, Lovejoy, Westminster, and North Michigan
  • $5 million for preventative maintenance to ensure DC public libraries are well-maintained
  • $2.6 million for an athletic field and basketball court blitz, to include refreshes at the Marvin Gaye Rec Center athletic field, Joy Evans Therapeutic Rec Center basketball court, Ely Place basketball courts, and Fort Stanton football field
  • $2.25 million to replace synthetic turf at Joe Cole playground, Guy Mason playground, and Riggs LaSalle
  • $2.1 million to modernize technology infrastructure across the DC Public Library system, ensuring residents have continued access to online information sources
  • $1.7 million for a playground surface blitz, to include refreshes at Guy Mason, Raymond, Ft. Stevens, Newark, Hamilton, Benning Stoddert, and Mitchell Park
  • $1.25 million to renovate the KC Lewis Playground
  • $1 million for a tennis court blitz, including refreshes at Harry Thomas Recreation Center, Kennedy Recreation Center, Ely Place, Fort Davis, and Fort Reno
  • $886,000 to address necessary building and children’s slide upgrades at the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library
  • $825,000 in FY 2024 to replace the windows at Anacostia Library
  • $750,000 in FY 2024 to deliver a boxing annex at the Ferebee Hope Recreation Center, as promised to the community
  • $663,000 for enhanced security and mental health services throughout the DC Public Library system, including additional special police officers and mental health workers
  • $500,000 for a fencing and gate blitz to replace and repair fences and gates at DPR facilities
  • $500,000 to begin planning and design efforts for a new state-of-the-art, multi-level sports complex at or near RFK stadium campus

Housing & Economic Development Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $59 million contribution to the Housing Production Trust Fund (HPTF), providing financing for developers to create new affordable housing units in the District
  • $85 million to support continued infrastructure development at the St. Elizabeths, Hill East, and Fletcher Johnson sites
  • $7 million to continue Great Streets, transforming emerging commercial corridors into thriving and inviting neighborhood centers
  • $2.5 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for the Commercial Property Acquisition Fund, providing down payment, closing cost, and other assistance to help equity impact enterprises buy commercial property
  • $4.2 million to help low-income homeowners make critical upgrades to their homes
  • $4 million to help DC government employees become first time homeowners
  • $1 million to maintain the Heirs Property Legal Services, to assist multi-generational families in maintaining their family property after the death of the original homeowner
  • $1 million to maintain funding for the Strong Families, Strong Futures pilot, providing cash assistance to low-income mothers in Wards 5,7, and 8
  • $101 million to rehabilitate and modernize public housing units managed by the DC Housing Authority
  • $66 million to complete DMPED’s New Communities Initiative at Bruce Monroe and Park Morton, including 117 public housing replacement units
  • $28 million for Home Purchase Assistance Program (HPAP), to help first-time homebuyers with down payment and closing cost assistance
  • $10 million to support planning and initial development of the Poplar Point site
  • $4.8 million for project-based vouchers to support new affordable housing units coming online

Transportation & Environment Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $16 million to continue the Kids Ride Free and Adult Learners’ Transit Subsidy programs
  • $12 million to maintain new overnight Metrobus service launched in 2023
  • $5 million to maintain ARPA-level funding for the District’s Public Works Employment Program, a job-training program that will also fill critical gaps in the DPW’s workforce and provide a pathway to permanent employment
  • $3 million to continue the District’s curbside composting program, providing at-home organic waste pickup for 9,000 households
  • $2 million in maintained investments at the Department of Buildings to reduce permit issuance timelines and strengthen overall customer experience 
  • $900,000 for installation of floodproofing upgrades for homes in vulnerable floodplains, especially in Wards 7 and 8 
  • $217 million in additional funding for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) to support Metrorail and Metrobus service levels
  • $3 million to support the operating and maintenance costs of Capital Bikeshare’s continued growth, including more stations, e-bikes, and traditional bikes
  • $1 million to update IT systems at the headquarters of the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to avoid critical service interruptions
  • $750,000 to help restaurants comply with forthcoming Streatery design regulations by providing free consulting services and construction materials
  • $620,000 to explore new “microtransit” services in select areas affected by proposed changes in Circulator service

Major Capital Investments

  • $289 million to reconstruct the H Street Bridge, providing needed repairs to the bridge and enabling the future redevelopment of Union Station
  • $210 million in local and federal funds to support the planned extension of the DC Streetcar to Benning Road, including replacement of the Lorraine Whitlock bridge, improvements to the interchange of Benning Road and I-295, and streetscape improvements in the corridor, including to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety
  • $206 million to plan or implement the redesign of 14 road segments to improve safety for drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, focusing on segments with the highest rates of crashes and injuries
  • $193 million for paving and maintenance of local streets to maintain a state of good repair
  • $115 million for maintenance of the existing sidewalk network and construction of new sidewalks in areas with gaps
  • $109 million for the Bus Priority Program, deploying strategies to improve bus speeds and on-time reliability, including bus-only lanes, priority traffic signal installations, bus bulb-outs, and more
  • $98 million for rehabilitation of alleys throughout the District
  • $77 million to build or rehabilitate seven multi-use walking and biking trails, including multiple new connecting segments on the Anacostia River Trail, another portion of the Metropolitan Branch Trail, and rehabilitation of the Suitland Parkway Trail
  • $56 million for construction, maintenance, and hardening of quick-build traffic calming and safety interventions
  • $54 million to replace street trees and continually replenish and expand the city’s tree canopy
  • $50 million for a third entrance at the NoMa-Gallaudet Metro Station to improve pedestrian access to Union Market and areas east of the station
  • $47 million for remediation of hazardous materials in the Anacostia River to make the waterway safe for swimming, fishing, and recreation
  • $47 million for the 11th Street Bridge Park, a transformative pedestrian bridge and park that will connect the Anacostia and Fairlawn neighborhoods with Capitol Hill and Navy Yard
  • $44 million for design and construction of traffic safety improvements near 75 schools
  • $32 million to expand the District’s network of protected bike lanes and make pedestrian safety improvements
  • $30 million for the Traffic Safety Inputs program to install traffic safety interventions in response to community requests
  • $16 million in federal funds to conduct stream restoration and stormwater management projects
  • $11 million to deliver the new pedestrian and bicyclist bridge connecting the Anacostia Metro Station to Barry Farm
  • $10 million for Capital Bikeshare to build additional stations, replace stations at the end of their useful life, and to refresh and expand the fleet of traditional bikes and e-bikes
  • $1 million to continue planning and design for future dredging of the Anacostia River to expand boating and other recreational opportunities 

Health & Human Services Prior Investments We’re Maintaining

  • $30 million to support rental assistance through the Family Re-Housing Stabilization Program (FRSP) for families at imminent risk of homelessness
  • $18.9 million to continue ARPA-level funding for the Career Mobility Action Plan (Career MAP) program, which will help 500 District families avoid losing public assistance benefits as their careers advance and incomes rise
  • $13 million to continue providing long-term housing and intensive case management to individuals and families who are chronically homeless or at imminent risk of becoming homeless
  • $7 million to continue ARPA-level funding for 24/7 operations at six homeless shelters in the District
  • $4.8 million to continue ARPA-level funding for diversion of some 911 calls for residents experiencing mental health distress to the Department of Behavioral Health’s Community Response Team and Access HelpLine
  • $4 million to continue ARPA-level funding for transitional housing and drop-in centers that provide meals, showers, shelter, and case management services to youth experiencing homelessness 
  • $2.3 million to continue residential support to individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities
  • $600,000 to provide workforce development services for transgender and gender non-conforming residents who are experiencing homelessness and housing instability
  • $600,000 to continue the substance abuse pilot and behavioral targeted outreach pilot in Wards 1, 5, and 7
  • $23 million for renovations to DHS’s Naylor Road, V Street, Emery, and Madison shelters, as well as various small-scale improvements at other shelters in the system
  • $39 million in funding for the Office of Migrant Services to ensure migrants arriving in the District are treated humanely and have the resources they need to reach their destination or resettle
  • $22.5 million to build a new city-owned animal shelter replacing the current shelter facility on New York Avenue
  • $21.3 million to create a Behavioral Health Alliance benefit that will provide funding for DC residents who do not qualify for Medicaid. This coordination with the Department of Health Care Finance will provide District residents who do not qualify for Medicaid with complete healthcare benefits.
  • $12 million to support the Emergency Rental Assistance Program (ERAP), supporting District residents who are facing housing emergencies and evictions
  • $20 million to fund required cost-of-living adjustments for recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
  • $13 million for operating costs for two new non-congregate homeless shelter facilities—The Aston and 25 E Street—that will soon come online
  • $6.8 million to ensure compliance with a new federal mandate requiring the District to provide 12-month continuous eligibility for children under the age of 19 in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
  • $6.3 million to support the rising cost of complete care for children in foster care and their associated placements in Family Based Settings and Congregate Care Settings
  • $750,000 to support the expansion of the Safe at Home program providing in-home adaptions for seniors to reduce the risk of falls
  • $450,000 to support the Dementia Navigators program supporting older adults with dementia by linking them to community resources, providing education, and managing behavioral symptoms
  • $350,000 to increase funding for Senior Villages, neighborhood-based nonprofit organizations that help seniors find useful community resources so they can continue to live safely, comfortably, and actively in their homes
  • $300,000 to establish a pilot program for emergency childcare needs for birthing parents

Government Operations New Investments for FY 2025

  • $48 million to cover increases in the District’s rising costs related to leased office space, building security, and utilities, especially electricity
  • $29 million to support critical infrastructure and roof replacements at DC government facilities
  • $22 million to support building needed improvements at the Marion S. Barry, Jr. building and John A. Wilson government buildings
  • $17 million in capital funding to further protect against cybersecurity threats by replacing outdated network hardware and security applications across District government
  • $6.8 million to support energy retrofits at DC government facilities 
  • $1.7 million for the new Office of Artificial Intelligence, launched in FY 2024 and housed at OCTO, which is responsible for developing an AI strategy for District government as well as tools for agencies to use to make the most of available AI technology
  • $1.5 million to continue the development and support the ongoing operations of the new DC Business Portal, which streamlines various licensing processes for District businesses
  • $575,000 to add new staff and contractual capacity for the design and rollout of 2.0, a redesigned website for District government 

Shared Sacrifices To ensure we are able to invest in our comeback and remain fiscally prudent, we need to jointly contribute to filling gaps, across the government and across the community, to move forward, together.

In FY25, DC Government closed $500 million, more than half of the budget gap, through:

  • Eliminating positions, rightsizing spending, and focusing on moving forward with programs we know are working. 
  • Cutting duplicative or lower-performing programs and resisting starting new programs that would only add to longer-term financial pressures. 
  • Looking across government for savings by eliminating mobile devices and phone lines no longer in use, rebalancing the capital portfolio, maximizing federal reimbursements, and consolidating licenses and software purchases. 

To close the remainder of the gap in FY25, or approximately $300 million, the budget identifies new revenues that will be shared across the community:

  • Businesses will help through an adjustment to the Paid Family Leave tax back to fiscal 2021 levels to support DC’s human services safety net.
  • And guests will help through a small 911 fee on hotel room stays to support increased public safety hiring.

If, after FY25, there is still a gap to close, then beginning in FY26, consumers will help through a modest sales tax increase to support increased Metro costs.

See the full budget presentation at .   

Mayor Bowser X:  @MayorBowser Mayor Bowser Instagram:  @Mayor_Bowser Mayor Bowser Facebook: Mayor Bowser YouTube:


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