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problem solving law question

Whether you’re on your LLB, GDL, PGDL, CILEX, LPC, SQE… You get it – learning how to deal with problem questions will be essential to your legal education. And to be fair, it’s genuinely useful to learn how to assess problem scenarios as you’ll need to use similar skills in your professional future.

Problem questions will present you with a factual scenario and typically require you to assess the situation from a legal perspective or advise a fictional client on their rights and liabilities.

The best way to answer problem questions is to learn the technique . Examiners will expect you to answer problem questions in a particular way. Like with any type of exam, honing your technique is your best bet for problem questions too. In the case of problem questions, it’s all about learning to apply your knowledge to the scenario. So, here’s a few tips:

Use the right guides: If you know that you’ll be assessed by way of problem questions, then you should learn and revise the law in the same way. That way, the technique will be second nature to you. Reading a typical set of notes won’t help you to apply your knowledge, so we recommend using Law Answered’s notes . Their LLB and GDL notes deliberately use problem question structures (and other exam answer outlines) in order to help you learn the subject in the same way as you’ll need to apply it.

Think about “ IRAC ”:  You might hear this term from a few of your tutors. It is an acronym to describe how you should structure your answer:

  • I ssue – simply state the specific legal issue or question;
  • R ule – explain that specific legal issue and the relevant rules in detail;
  • A pplication – apply the rules to the factual scenario in the question; and
  • C onclusion – conclude: what is the end result?

For example, if you were answering a problem question on a potential murder, you would begin with a brief description of the case of R v Defendant , in which the defendant killed the victim by stabbing him. You would state that the issue is whether the defendant has committed a murder, and legally define “murder”. You would then go through the rules of the actus reus and mens rea of the offence. You would then look at the rules in detail and apply them to the particular facts of the case, using examples from common law to illustrate why (or why not) the defendant has committed a murder. You would also look at the details of any defences that might apply. You would then conclude as to the defendant’s prospects. You can find a free PDF sample guide to answering a GDL murder exam question here .

Look out for red herrings: Examiners will sometimes throw in odd details to put you off. A common trick is to include a very specific date for when something happened. This could be the day before or after a particular statute became law. If so, your entire answer will change. Another trick is to have the fictional character or client in the question make an accusation or start a lawsuit along a particular legal line which is in fact the wrong line of enquiry.

Be practical: Answering a problem question is very different to answering an essay question. This is not an opportunity to engage in academic debate and jurisprudence. Instead, imagine that you are a lawyer giving practical advice to a real client – as if you are explaining the law and evaluating their circumstances and what the outcome in real terms will be. Showing off will not help you.

Slow down! Don’t make the mistake of skim-reading the question and rushing to write your answer – you might go down completely the wrong track. A good rule of thumb is to take five minutes at the start of your exam to properly read the question and understand the key facts.

Make a plan or a note of the key facts . Try writing down a few key words, a mini mind-map of connections or a mini chronology (timeline) of events – whichever works best for your style of learning. Writing down a few key words or facts will help you digest the problem question. For the same reason it’s good to occasionally check back in and re-read the question as you write your answer.

Answer the question set! Most importantly, you need to make sure you are answering the exact question, with the exact facts, that you have been set. So many students slip up because they do not check back in with the question and end up side-tracked and discussing a marginally relevant issue. Your answer is only worth any points if it is directly relevant to the problem question scenario. Look back to make sure that you are directly answering the exact question set. Use the same terminology that the question uses to avoid straying.

Now, if that all makes sense, you need to make sure that you’ve got the technique straight in your head. The solution is simple: practise, practise, practise! Take every opportunity you can to practise. Put effort into any mock exams on your course and take any feedback on board. Get hold of as many past papers as you can and practise writing answers under timed conditions. If your tutor is nice, they may be amenable to you asking for extra feedback. Never be afraid to ask for help as early as you can! It would be far worse to wait until the last minute.

Camilla Uppal

Camilla Uppal

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Gareth Evans

The Art of Solving Legal Problem Questions

problem solving law question

Table of Contents

❌ The Wrong Approach

✅ the successful technique, 4️⃣ the four-step process: irac, 1️⃣ 1. issue, 2️⃣ 2. rule, 3️⃣ 3. application, 4️⃣ 4. conclusion, 🎉 final thoughts.

Legal problem questions are something that trip up many law students. After all these years of writing free-flowing essays, suddenly you have to completely change the way you think about writing and answering questions. Not only will the typical essay approach no longer work when it comes to tackling problem questions, but clear structure is more important than ever. So today I want to help you develop a process for answering problem questions that works every single time. 

I think problem questions are great if you have a system or process for approaching them, so this is how I’m going to break down the article. Firstly, I want to show you the wrong approach most law students take, specifically looking at how they differ from essay questions. Secondly, I want to help you create your own problem solving technique that is equally applicable across all your law modules. So stick around and let’s get into it.

Perhaps the biggest mistake law students make is using their essay skills to answer problem questions.

In my first year of law school, this is something that I did too. After all, why wouldn’t a problem question have an introduction and a conclusion? It seems as though it makes sense to demonstrate your contextual knowledge of the law and to show the examiner your thought process in a coherent arc from start to finish. Unfortunately, this just demonstrate a poor awareness of what a problem question really is. 

With essays, you are supposed to critically analyse the law and associated academic opinion, interjecting your own thoughts into a form of written debate. Whereas with problem questions, you’re not engaging in a verbal battle of opinions, but a structured application of the law to a set of facts. In other words, your goal is not to debate whether or not a law is right or wrong, but to offer advice to a fictitious client about their legal responsibilities.

Think about it like this: if they were a real client would you really sandwich your legal advice with introductions and conclusions? Would they really care about academic opinion or the intricacies of the law? No, that would be absurd! 

Your job is to simply and coherently explain how the law applies to the relevant facts that concern them, and what this could mean for them. Will they go to jail? Will they get a fine? What are the consequences? 

This is what your client cares about in real life and in a problem question.

The key to writing brilliant answers to problem questions then is treating these fictitious clients as real clients and having a structured technique for providing advice to them. 

Your own university has probably given you some advice already on how to structure these questions, but they have probably done little more than chucked an acronym at you and left you to it, without explaining how you can use each element of these acronyms to your advantage. 

So, I will do their job for them by breaking down the technique that actually works.

The IRAC process for answering problem questions is my favourite acronym to use, and it stands for issue, rule, application, and conclusion. So, first you identifying the issue that you are dealing with and advising on; second, you identify the relevant legal rule applies; thirdly, you apply the rule to the issue at hand; before reaching a conclusion that answers the question.

I’m going to talk about each element in turn, but before I do so it’s imperative you NEVER apply the IRAC process to the question as a whole. In other words, you aren’t breaking your answer into four big chunks where you begin by looking at all the issues, then all the rules, then apply the rules, before crafting a huge conclusion on everything. Instead, you are dividing the answer into a number of separate issues and sub-issues that must be explored in turn using the IRAC method. 

For example, let’s say we had a problem question dealing with 3 different people, Tom, Daisy, and Harry and their respective liability for an injury sustained by Emily. We could break down the problem question by structuring our answer as to the liability of each party (e.g. Tom’s liability, Daisy’s liability, and Harry’s liability). Then within each of these ‘issues’ we should be able to identify subissues, which we apply the IRAC method to. For example, you may have to analyse whether Harry owes a duty of care or whether there are any defences available to him, in which case you should make a statement of the law and apply it to the facts before making a conclusion on that subissue.

Warning to one side, let’s wrap our heads around each element of IRAC.

Your job here is to look at the facts in the problem question and analyse them in relation to two key variables: parties and events. So, this is a two stage process.

Firstly, with respect to parties, jot down each of the people that are identified in the problem question and write next to them whether they are someone who has a claim (i.e. something happened to them) or they are someone who faces liability (i.e. they did something wrong).

Once you’ve done that, you want to determine how each of the parties relate to one another. In other words, you need to clearly write down how the ‘victim’ in the problem question relates to the ‘wrongdoer’ and what the specific event that took place to potentially give rise to a claim. 

The purpose of this exercise is to build the structure for your answer setting you up for success. The obvious approach would be to structure your problem question by considering each party one by one (e.g. Tom’s liability), but clearly establishing the issues allows you to see the myriad of possible offences that may need to be analysed as sub-issues. For example, if Tom killed Emily, we will have to analyse the actus reus and mens rea of the offence as sub-issues to help us determine whether or not it was murder.

Now we have a structure for our answer based on the issues within the problem question, it’s time to turn to the law.

I like to open up my textbook, statute books, and relevant websites to simply learn the law around the issues I identified and create some VERY brief notes. There’s no need to go into too much depth because you’re simply looking for supporting authority. For instance, if I was trying to prove mens rea I may look for relevant cases that help explain what is meant by ‘intention’ or with theft I will be looking for its statutory definition.

My top tip here though is to avoid abstract statements of the law. The purpose of finding the relevant ‘rules’ is to simply state the law rather than applying – you don’t need to think too deeply as you’re only making it clear to the reader you are aware of what needs to be proved for there to be liability. What does the statutory law say? What does the case law say? These are the sorts of things you want to write down; the application of this law comes in the next stage.

Application is the crux of a winning answer to any problem question.

Having identified the issue at hand and the relevant law, our focus is on marrying them together to answer the questions. Fortunately, this is a relatively straightforward process as long as we aren’t lazy in our application and don’t just end up critically analysing the law as if we were dealing with an essay.

For example, if we were dealing with the issue of Tom taking Emily’s purse and his liability for theft, we would start by turning to the definition of theft, which is the dishonest appropriation of property belonging to another with intention to permanently deprive. 

By breaking down the components of this definition we find that the actus reus of theft involves appropriating property belonging to another. We can then apply the law to the facts by asking ourselves whether or not Tom’s actions of picking up the purse and placing it in his rucksack was an exercise of the rights of ownership, and therefore whether or not it makes out the actus reus of the crime. 

You see, a good understanding of the law makes its application to the facts quite straightforward. By doing the groundwork in advance of finding the issues, understanding the facts of the case, and identifying the law, you can approach the problem question with a coherent understanding of what advice you need to give.

For each of the issues and sub-issues you identified at the start you need to form a conclusion. This conclusion must address the overall liability of the parties, including the potential ‘punishment’ that they could face, and ensure that all your conclusions are aligned and consistent with one another. 

Unlike an essay question, where a more authoritative conclusion is usually desired, in a problem question you don’t need to be determinative. The nature of a problem question means there are going to be some grey areas of the law and saying “it depends” could be the ‘correct’ answer. But if you do that, make sure you state what the contingent factors and how liability would differ depending on the approach taken by the court.

The whole approach is extremely methodical, and if you follow these steps in order every time you answer a problem question – regardless of the law module you are taking – then you have a strategy that should lead to some awesome answers. It’s a one-size-fits-all approach where you don’t even have to think to get first class grades.

A methodical approach is possible to many other areas of your law degree. So, if you enjoyed this article, you’d probably also enjoy learning more about my approach to studying:  A Masterclass in Studying Law

Thanks for reading!

IRAC: How to Answer Law Problem Questions

You just got ushered into the examination hall and you take your seat. It’s time for another paper, and you’re hoping that you remember all that you read moments before the exams. After all students have sat down, invigilators share the exam questions and you promptly get yours.

As you look through the questions, you suddenly panic. The exam questions look like passages from a novel. You know what this means — problem questions. You read through the questions but things only seem to get worse, you don’t know what to do. You don’t know how to answer the questions. You don’t know where to start.

Problem questions can be quite problematic, if you don’t know  what to do. Luckily, they are also the easiest questions to answer — if you know your onions. The general technique that you can use to deal with any problem question is the simple formula: IRAC.

If you understand how to use IRAC, dealing with problem questions will seem less problematic. By the time you’re done with this post, you should be able to put any problem question in its place.

What is IRAC?

IRAC is simply an acronym for:

A pplication

C onclusion.

IRAC is a formula that is used throughout the broad sphere of legal writing. IRAC or slight variations is used by judges in delivering judgements, by lawyers in writing their briefs, by lawyers when giving legal opinions, and numerous other areas of law.

In essence, understanding IRAC will not only be useful for your exams, it would help you throughout your career as a lawyer.

How to Use IRAC

Now that we understand what IRAC is, we get to the most important part – actually using it.

Just like we did in the guide to answering law essay questions , I am going to give you a sample question that we will use IRAC for.

This is the question:

Mr Daniel Kiss is a seasoned Fuji musician, he heard of the 10th year wedding anniversary of his long-time friend, Mr Starboy, who wanted to celebrate it in a big way. Mr Daniel Kiss was actually at the ceremony and was delighted to have been called by Mr Starboy to perform at the ceremony. The performance was adjudged by  many people at the ceremony to be superb. After the performance, Mr Owolabi, who was highly impressed, promised to pay Mr Daniel Kiss a sum of 500,000 naira as a reward for his performance.  However, Mr Owolabi didn’t pay this sum and  Mr Daniel Kiss instituted an action to get the money. Advice Mr Daniel Kiss on the chances of success or otherwise of his action.

So, this is how you use IRAC to deal with a problem question:

When you want to determine the issue in a problem question, you have to look for the area of conflict. The conflict in a problem is where the interest of the characters clash and there is a disagreement. Looking at the scenario above, I have emphasized the area of conflict:

After the performance, Mr Owolabi, who was highly impressed, promised to pay Mr Daniel Kiss a sum of 500,000 naira as a reward for his performance. However, Mr Owolabi didn’t pay this sum and  Mr Daniel Kiss instituted an action to get the money. 

From the part I have emphasized here, the conflict involves a promise to pay for an action that has already occurred in the past. In essence, the conflict involves past consideration.

With this in mind, we can formulate the issue in this question as:

Whether or not Mr Daniel  Kiss’ performance was past consideration for Mr Owolabi’s promise?

There are some things you should notice in the structure of the issue. Note that it makes use of “Whether or not”, You can either use this phrase or “whether” when writing an issue. This  is due to the fact that in court cases, issues are usually couched in the form of questions. However, there are some lecturers who don’t want issues couched this way, and they will let you know.

You should also note that the issue relates the facts of the case with the area of law you’re considering. In essence, your issue would be incomplete if you just state something like “whether there was past consideration” or “whether Mr Owolabi owes Daniel Kiss some money”. The perfect issue is a unique combination of facts and law.

The rule is the section of your answer where you resort to authority. This can either be by stating statutory provisions or case law relevant to the issue.

The appeal to authority is something that is important to all law students. It is the provision of case law and statute that separates the writing of a lawyer from a sociologist, political scientist, or any other field of social science.

You should also try to define the legal concept that the question deals with. If the definition is something contained in statute, case law, or any other source of law , you should do well to quote it. If you don’t have any authority to quote, just give a definition to the best of your understanding.

This is an example of the rule for this question:

According to the Black’s Law Dictionary 9th Edition , past consideration can be defined as “An act done or a promise given by a promisee before making a promise sought to be enforced. Past consideration is not consideration for the new promise because it has not been given in exchange for this promise.” In the case of Akenzua II, Oba of Benin vs. Benin Divisional Council (1959) WRNLR 1 , the defendant asked the plaintiff to use his influence to convince the African Timber and Plywood company to release some forest areas to it. The plaintiff was able to successfully prevail on the African Timber and Plywood company to do this. After securing this, the Oba told the council to release part of the land to him for his exclusive use. The Provisional Council agreed to do this. However, it subsequently withdrew its assent. As a result, the Oba sued them to enforce the “contract”. The court held that the Oba’s act was not valid consideration for the Provisional Council’s promise because when the Oba carried out the act, he didn’t do it for a promise. As a result, his consideration is past and there is no valid contract that can be enforced.


In the application part of IRAC, you are going to relate the authority(s) you have used with the facts of the case. This is how you should do it:

In the present scenario, Mr Daniel Kiss performed before the promise of reward by Mr Owolabi. This is similar to Oba Akenzua getting the land before the promise of reward by the Benin Provisional Council in the case of Akenzua II, Oba of Benin vs Benin Provisional Council . In this case, the court held that such act was past consideration, and it makes the contract unenforceable. In the same vein, Mr Daniel Kiss’ performance is past consideration for the promise made by Mr Owolabi. As a result, it is not a valid contract that can be enforced  by the court.

Your conclusion is the part where you give advice to the party the question asked you to give advice to. You can glimpse this from the last sentence of this question which reads:

Advice Mr Daniel Kiss on the chances of success or otherwise of his action.

So, this is how you would advice Mr Daniel Kiss in the concluding part of IRAC:

My advice to Mr Daniel Kiss is that he should not go ahead with the suit because his consideration is past consideration, making the contract unenforceable.

The full Answer

To make things clearer, this is what the full answer to the problem question would look like:

The issue here is: Whether or not Mr Daniel  Kiss’ performance was past consideration for Mr Owolabi’s promise. According to the Black’s Law Dictionary 9th Edition , past consideration can be defined as “An act done or a promise given by a promisee before making a promise sought to be enforced. Past consideration is not consideration for the new promise because it has not been given in exchange for this promise. In the case of Akenzua II, Oba of Benin vs. Benin Divisional Council (1959) WRNLR 1 , the defendant asked the plaintiff/Oba to use his influence to convince the African Timber and Plywood company to release some forest areas to it. The Oba was able to successfully prevail on the African Timber and Plywood company to do this. After securing this, the Oba told the council to release part of the land to him for his exclusive use. The Provisional Council agreed to do this. However, it subsequently withdrew its assent. As a result, the Oba sued them to enforce the “contract”. The court held that the Oba’s act was not valid consideration for the Provisional Council’s promise because when the Oba carried out the act, he didn’t do it for a promise. As a result, his consideration is past and there is no valid contract  that can be enforced. In the present scenario, Mr Daniel Kiss performed before the promise of reward by Mr Owolabi. This is similar to Oba Akenzua getting the land before the promise of reward by the Benin Provisional Council in the case of Akenzua II, Oba of Benin vs Benin Provisional Council . In this case, the court held that such act was past consideration, and it makes the contract unenforceable. In the same vein, Mr Daniel Kiss’ performance is past consideration for the promise made by Mr Owolabi. As a result, it is not a valid contract that can be enforced  by the court. My advice to Mr Daniel Kiss is that he should not go ahead with the suit because his consideration is past consideration, making the contract unenforceable.

So, here you have it, how to answer problem questions with IRAC. If you know your way, it’s quite straightforward. If there are areas that aren’t clear to you, you can leave a comment. Also, don’t forget to share this post with any of your friends that might be needing it. You can easily do that with  the share buttons on the screen. To your success!!

P.S: If you are interested in an online course that makes it easy for you to get A’s in your law exams, you can check it out here:  Get Access to Ace LL.B Exams .

117 thoughts on “ IRAC: How to Answer Law Problem Questions ”

Hi Olamide, thanks a lot for this. My question is whether or not there is a way to know how many issues are contained in a problem question?

Yes, you just have to be on the look out for multiple areas of conflict in the question.

So how do I treat them

1.I find it quite difficult to identify the issues in a question.Any solution? 2.How can I differentiate a problem question from an essay question?

To know the issue in a question, you should just look for the area of conflict in the question, just like in the example. About differentiating problem and essay questions, the differentiating factor is that problem questions have a scenario/story and you have to give advice at the end.

Mr olamide thanks so I really appreciate But in the whereby you asked to discuss the concept of Accord and satisfaction with regards to consideration using case law? How would your answer look like?

That’s an essay question.

thanks Olamide for your help am sure to be a better student and you will be proud of me. thanks a lot once.

You’re very welcome.

Sir, when stating the rule while applying the irac method, for instance citing a case, do necessarily need to state the fact of the case or can I just present the holding of the case as a rule.

Thanks sir for sharing your knowledge and understanding with us. In the main time, sir i have a question pls. Can someone advice the parties that is involved in the scenario with only one identify legal issue? i.e you only raised one legal issue on the question and use it to advice two or three parties that are involved in the scenario or story.

Thanks sir for sharing your knowledge and understanding with us. In the main time, sir i have a question pls. Can someone advice the parties that are involved in the scenario with only one identified legal issue? i.e you only raised one legal issue on the question and use it to advice two or three parties that are involved in the scenario or story.

Yes. You can do that, if there is only one issue in the scenario, and if the question tells you to advise all parties.

please sir does this formula apply to a legal report. for instance you were made a secretary to a panel set-up to investigate a matter in report will you use the same format

Thanks graciously for this. My question is must definitions to terms in the Rule forumla b from the law dictionary??

2ndly, can we rephrase the issue to be Whether or not is Mr Owolabi’s promise was on past consideration to Mr Daniel’s promise

No. You don’t have to use the Law Dictionary for definitions, It’s just better. Also, on the rephrasing, Mr Owolabi’s promise is not past consideration. Rather it is the performance by Daniel that is past consideration.

Noted. Thank u

THANKS ,I understand it now.

thank you once again sir. Sir, i wanna ask you a question under criminal law sir. if A and B planned to do robbery but agreed that they would not carry any gun along. but on getting there A brought out a gun and B said, but we agreed not to carry any gun along. nevertheless, A went ahead and shoot C the owner of the car and he died instantly. then both A and B made away with the car and later apprehended by the police. Now sir my questions are, with statutory authorities and decided cases sir, (1) who will be liable for the murder of C? (2) both A & B will liable for the murder of C or only A who brought out the gun without the notice of B that will only be liable for the offense of murder? (3) if both of them would be liable, why would they be liable for the murder or if is only A that will be liable of the murder, why would only he be liable for the murder of C sir?

i would be so grateful if my questions could be answered sir. Thank you sir.

your the best solution of our problem as lawyer in making thanks for your lesson

Thanks very much sir I have a question what if the problem has a mutiplmu issues how do you go about it.

I’m currently working on a course that would deal with this in detail. In summary, what you should do is to use IRAC for each issue, separately.

Thank you so much sir. I believe I will be able to answer a problem question now.

Thank you so much sir…God bless you for this

Thank you sir.

May God reward you. We are ever grateful.

Hello Olamide, My question is concerning whether an introduction is necessary when using IRAC: that is, whether the portion that describes the main concept at hand can come before an identification of the legal issues.

In some circumstances, you can briefly highlight the main area of law the scenario deals with. However, the introduction would be very brief, it could just be a sentence. It should not be long and winding like the kind of introduction you’ll need for an essay question.

Thanks for your guide sir… But i wanna as one question please. When we are writing the exam, do we need to even specify the steps of answering the question on the booklet? i.e do we need to specify introduction, definition, body and conclusion?

Thanks for your guide sir… But i wanna ask one question please. When we are writing the exam, do we need to even specify the steps of answering the question on the booklet? i.e do we need to specify introduction, definition, body and conclusion?

Wow… Dear Sir, you definitely explained the IRAC better than my lecturers. Thanks a lot. However, I have a question. Is it possible to get this document in a PDF that I can download. That is, this your explanation on IRAC?

Thanks for the feedback. You can’t currently do that. However, now that you mention it, I’ll definitely work on making it possible.

Introduction is apt, although it comes in form of a concise discuss on the topic the legal issue is based.

Please how do you answer this question using the IRAC method. “Emeka, a cashier to Omenka Co-operative Society defrauded the Society of a huge sum of money. Emeka who was a first offender immediately tendered the money at the police station and begged for forgiveness. The prosecutor who was moved by Emeka’s show of remorse advised the Chairman of the Society who came to report the case to drop the charges. The Chairman however insisted on the prosecution saying that the stolen money belonged to the Society and that the Executive Committee had resolved to press case to a logical conclusion. Advise the parties. ” what rule applies and what’s the issue? I can’t seem to figure it out

It relates to private prosecution of a criminal case. Check out the case of Fawehinmi vs Akilu. If a private individual wants to prosecute a case, he needs to get an endorsement from the governor.

Thanks But what abt problem question that has more than one issue??

Kudos to you man thanks alot for this write-up

You’re welcome

It’s nice ❣️❣️

Yeah… I know 😉

Thank you for this I really appreciate.

Thank you sir am grateful

thank you for your explanation but i want to ask a question, if the question has multiple issues do you have to highlght in your answers that you are using irac i.e issue: indicate the issue rule: indicate the rule etc or you go ahead and answer the question still using irac but in an essay form

You still have to use IRAC for each issue. But it depends on the kind of question though. In most instances, you do.

please how do they use to set problem question base on internal conflicts of law and the best way to answer the questions

Thank you so much. You have explained so nicely and perfectly. It has saved my day.

Thank you Olamide

Comment thank you very much sir. I think I would have probably made more A’s if I asked earlier but not withstanding my subsequent semester would be a better one. But I would have to read it. Time after time

Thanks Sir for your nice article but pls I need a brief on identifying issues in a customary law case

Thank you so much sir i think i am improving already

If murder, rape, and not paying of tax is in a scenario, is that the conflict?

Yeah. Although it mostly depends on how the question is phrased.

Thank you so much Sir I was bad in understanding law but with this information I’m able to answer to law problem questions

I’m happy to have been of help.

Thank you so much! But I have a question.. According to Plato, Justice is giving each one his due, giving an individual that which he’s naturally fitted. However Injustice is leaving one’s fit, or part and meddling with another’s part..

What is the implication of this platonic view of a philosopher. I don’t seem to understand

I haven’t really come across this quote before. It might be better if you tell me your source, Plato might have explained further.

Thank you so much! It’s really helpful I have personal questions to ask

Okay. Would you like to send me a mail then?

That’s a good one Olamide, U can be a good and wonderful friend. Thanks alot for this.

I’m glad to have been of help.

Due to the patronage in free SHS policy introduced in Ghana in 2018/2019 academic year,Esi yaa had the following agreement with her brother who teachers at Madina boys SHS regarding her son. Esi yaa’ s son kwasi Adu is taking his final year exam at Madina boys SHS. Esi Yaa’s brother kojo Bright is Adu’ s economics teacher. At the start of kwasi Adu’s final year, Esi Yaa tell her brother that she will buy him a laptop if her son gets a A’ in economics. When the results came Kwasi Adu had an A in economics, Bright is now asking Esi to buy the laptop as promised. Consider if the agreement Esi Yaa made with Kojo Bright is enforceable by law. Please how do I go about this question.

This is concerned with the intention to enter into legal relations among family members. You can check this out

Thank you so much sir you really helped me.

Thank you very much sir. I need a brief on how to answer this question, whether or not can an infant be in a contract ?

Hello. You can check this out

I have a question sir. What if the question ask you to advise the parties and also write a brief judgement, especially in criminal law problem question?

You can use IRAC to write a judgement.

Can one use analysis onthe part of application? Does it have any notable difference if one decides to do so?

The application is the part where you make your analysis

Hello Mr Olanrewaju, the guide for answering our law questions its quite benefit me because i dont even know how to answer because my lect gave me the AIPAC formula and looking forward is quite similar with IPAC and i think this guide its really good and i can sure that i can solve the answer. Thank your sir.

also sir is it different when we use abstract or is it still same with ipac? aipac (abstract, issues, principle. application, conclusion )

If you lecturer wants that format, then you can use it. Although, I haven’t come across it before.

Good work sir, keep doing the good work this really help me when I was undergoing my diploma in law. Okay our articles help me a lot so much so I pass my law questions perfectly. I was very impressed by your work so much so I wanted to be like you and I started researching how will I be like you. I want to have a site as you do after many research and attending lesson finally I am able to learn how to create a website like your own. Thank you very much. Bless the site sir

Nice site you have there.

I used to be recommended this website via my cousin. I am now not sure whether or not this post is written via him as nobody else recognize such designated about my trouble. You are incredible! Thank you!

I am so lucky to find myself in this site which has helped me a lot about how to answer law essay and problem questions. I must say u are the best sir

Thanks for the compliment. We’re only doing the best we can.

thank God I am here. I just gained admission to study law and my school is about to resume. I was just engaging in researches on how to answer law questions and then I stumbled on this site. you’ve a new fan here sir, pls sir God grant you grace never to quit

Hello. Congratulations. I’m very glad to have been of help to you.

Please when there is more than one issue how do I represent it

If there are multiple issues, you have to highlight each of them. It depends on the question though, as it’s not so straightforward. This is something I addressed in my online course though.

Sir must you define all the elements of a contract when you are given a contract law questions

Sir if you are told to advice all parties in a question Will you do it one place or in a separate place. Sir is there a present consideration? If there’s one give me an example please.

Good day sir, I wanted to ask that, what does one do when he doesn’t know any rule to use in a problem question?

Ah. That is a serious problem O. As a law student, you should always be ready to back up your points with legal authorities. You should probably learn how to easily memorise legal authorities as that would help you remember rules to use in a problem question. This blog post should be of help:

Pls I have four questions If there are multiple legal issues,how do i answer them using irac? Also,when I’m asked to advise both parties, do I present defences to the defendants and remedies to the plaintif, or give my own opinion on what I feel they should do, with reasons? Do I call them by their names when presenting the issues or stick to plaintiff and defendant? Also, when I’m asked to advise the parties in any question,do I first conclude,as per following the irac rule or give my advice in the conclusion? Pls I anticipate your quick reply Thank you?

Please how do I get to know different cases that could be linked to particular problem question..learning the m is a tough one. I NEED HELP!!!

How do I write/answer this question with relevant cases? Agatha and Ben have been investing on the Zimbabwe stock exchange for 20years with the assistance of their Investment advisor Masimba. Masimba has access to Agatha and Ben’s investment account which is worth 5 million dollars. Masimba approached XYZ bank and opened two bank accounts in the name of Agatha and Ben and made himself a signatory to both accounts. Masimba transferred over 3.5million dollars from the investment account into Agatha and Ben personal accounts and eventually withdrew the funds from both accounts.Upon requesting their statement Agatha and Ben observed the anomaly and they are now suing the bank for negligence. Sighting a relevant case does Agatha and Ben have a legal case?

How do I answer a problem question, if it has more than one issue? Will i take the issue one by one and provide solutions to them, or I’m just going to answer it together

Depends on the question. But most likely, you have to address the issues individually.

Thanks a lot..sure this will really help

thank you, sir

Thanks so much for this

Thank you so much for this post, My question is what if you’ve been given a scenario like the one above and instead of question on advice the party’s, a direct question is given. Like they ask as pertaining to your scenario what is past consideration, or explain it in relation with something else. Is IRAC still advisable to be used.

What if the case is based on argument with respect to cult activities in a particular community..what will be the right issue to present in answering such problem?

Thank you, this is very helpful. Please, can you write on how to identify issues in courses, notably criminal law, torts and human rights?

Sir I understand your teaching on how to use IRAC to solve a problem question and am clear about that. But my challenge is how I can differentiate between problem questions and essay please I need ur help dearly.?????? Thanks Sir.

I kindly need help on this

Agatha and Ben have been investing on the Zimbabwe stock exchange for 20years with the assistance of their Investment advisor Masimba. Masimba has access to Agatha and Ben’s investment account which is worth 5 million dollars. Masimba approached XYZ bank and opened two bank accounts in the name of Agatha and Ben and made himself a signatory to both accounts. Masimba transferred over 3.5million dollars from the investment account into Agatha and Ben personal accounts and eventually withdrew the funds from both accounts.Upon requesting their statement Agatha and Ben observed the anomaly and they are now suing the bank for negligence. Sighting a relevant case does Agatha and Ben have a legal case?

I really appreciate your efforts in helping law students solve contending legal issues. Now my question is this scenario or in another where there are exceptions, how then is the best possible way to answer the question?

Thanks for ur properly guidance

Two students, who were in an electoral body, were involved in electoral malpractice and were rusticated. Your chamber has been approached to prove to the school authority that the issue of the student election is purely a student matter and should not be a curricular issue. Is this a problem question?

This not a problem question simply because there’s no conflict between both parties

Please why are you not serving ads here? It’s a really good job you do here!

Thank you so much Mr Olanrewaju,this is so helpful and explicit.God bless you.

I wish to ask some questions Sir🙇‍♀️ 1.what should I do for in case I omitted any party to the case (either the plaintiff’s name or the defendant’s name) or both,but the facts and court holding are known

2.Or if the the principles are clearly understandable but can not be quoted as they are…?

Nice and informative post sir. This gives me clarity on how to approach legal questions. Thanks once again Mr. Olamide!!

Thanks alot

AM sir Olamide please I would be delighted if u can help me with how to go about questions like this Question😎

_The National Assembly has passed a bill on electronic voting system. The bill has successfully passed through all the law making process only remaining the president assent. The president who has being with the bill for over 35days has refused to sign the bill into law. He didn’t give any valid reason for withholding his assent. He only said that the bill can only becomes law if he wish_

_A.With the aid of statutory provisions and judicial authorities, discuss the legal issues arising from the above case scenario._

_B. Can the bill be passed into law even without the president assent? If your answer is in the affirmative, state reasons with statutory provisions and judicial authorities._

Thank you so much sir. This has really helped . I have been using IRAC wrongly

Kindly help me with all the issues. Thanks, After 15 years of trade in the cocoa industry, Madam Echoke decided to expand into 5 different African Countries. She therefore engaged the services of Kwaku Frimpong to trade from Ghana to Nigeria. After three (3) successful trips to Nigeria, Kwaku Frimpong was promoted to handle all 5 African countries. There was a 40-footer container to be shipped to a new client in Rwanda. While the cocoa beans were being transported to Tema Harbour, the truck got stuck for 2 weeks. Finally, the cocoa beans were on board to Rwanda via Maersk Shipping line. The shipping line noticed during the voyage that the cocoa beans were becoming moldy. Discovering that the cocoa beans will greatly devalue before getting to Rwanda, the shipping line got an offer and sold the cocoa beans at Ethopia, after several impossible calls to Kwaku Frimpong. The new buyer paid the agreed price (based on current market value) to Maersk Shipping line’s transactional account which was immediately transferred to Kwaku Frimpong. Kwaku Frimpong under-declared the said payment and paid Madam Echoke. Advice Madam Echoke and Kwaku Frimpong.

Thanks alot Mr. Olamide. I’ve always had a problem with answering problem questions but you’ve just explained it in a more comprehensible manner. Thanks!

Please sir, how do I know the type of question to apply FIRAC?

You mean IRAC? You apply it to problem questions. These are usually questions that have a scenario. Although, not all questions with scenarios are problem questions, most of them are.

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How To Answer Law Questions (Essay & Problem Questions)

  • Post author: Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka ACMC
  • Post published: July 4, 2020
  • Post category: Legal Articles / Scholarly Articles

How to answer law questions: Over the years, law schools and law universities have evolved two methods of asking test or exam questions. They are the problem and essay questions patterns. Basically, these two ways of asking questions require a totally different ways of answering them that are different from the traditional ways of answering questions in the primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions.

One major problem that new law university intakes encounter, is the fact that many of them usually have the mindset that where they are (university) will be the same with where they are coming from (secondary school); and because of this, they tend not to ask questions about how well to answer their law questions thus going on to use the traditional or general method and ending up not getting the expected result or even failing.

In this article, I am going to be expounding on the way of tackling law essay questions for the benefit of students. However, what I will be discussing is the general rule which is subject to what your specific tutor or lecturer may require from you.

So, it is advised that in as much as you learn how to generally answer law essay questions, you should pay attention and understand your lecturers so as to give him/her what their individual preferences are, like asking you to write a concised answer or be elaborate, or add this and remove that  etc.

Differences between cross-offers and counter-offers

Hierarchy of courts in Nigeria

Mojekwu v Mojekwu: Facts, Issues and Decision of the court

Table of Contents

Differences between Law problem and Essay Questions

As you may know, Law problem questions are not the same as essay questions. Problem questions are those law questions that tell live stories about the relationship between people and then require you to identify legal issues from those interactions, address the issues with relevant authorities and then to advise the parties on their different rights using the IRAC method.

It is important to note that a single problem question could have a series of different events which are based on different legal principles.

On the other hand, an essay question is a question which requires an individual to write on legal principles without using a particular format like the IRAC method.

Notminding the fact that you are not required to advise the parties or to use a particular method to answer your question, you have to have some mental steps at the back of your mind so as to make your work enticing and arranged before your tutor or Lecturer.


Just like I explained at the beginning of this work, a problem question is a question that test candidates by giving them stories/cases to solve. Here, law students will be expected to draw out the issues of law in the story, as it relates to what they have been taught in the classroom.

Take for instance, a problem question on customary law might tell the story of a man who beats his wife because the custom provides for it. After explaining the story, students will be required to either provide the position of the law on the issues raised in the story or to advise the parties in the story.

The most acceptable way of answering law problem questions is through IRAC method. IRAC is actually the best because it makes it very easy for students to explain any legal principle with authorities in the simplest format. Below are the things you must know about IRAC method of answering law questions.

Meaning of IRAC

The word “IRAC” is an acronym which stands for:

  • Issues – I
  • Rule of law – R
  • Application – A
  • Conclusion – C

Note that if you must answer problem questions using this format, you must have this acronym at the back of your mind. If you miss any step, then you are getting the whole question wrong.

Now, to make sure that you understand the steps listed above, i will take my time to explain what you are supposed to do in every step. Remember, this is to teach you how to answer law problem question using IRAC method.

Your first concern is to determine the issue or issues implicated in the question. This determination involves asking yourself, what is the problem sought to be addressed in the case?

Example: What is the liability of a master regarding tort committed by his servant while engaged in a conduct expressly prohibited by the master?

The importance of accurate identification of the issue(s) is that it narrows your response to the gist of the question.

Once you accomplish this goal, you will know automatically that there is no need to state, for instance, that “the tort borders on vicarious liability” or for you to describe general elements of the tort in question.

Your task is to focus only on those elements or information that substantively (not tangentially) speak to the issue(s) you have successfully identified. Relevance is the key here. Recall my admonition, “ the more you write, the more you expose your ignorance .”

Note that you are not expected to call the names of parties in the story in the issues because they are issues for determination in law. You can only mention the names of parties in the story or case given to you when you reach third stage which is APPLICATION

Also read: Are lawyers liars? The truth as to whether lawyers are liars


The “R” or Rule (rule of law) in IRAC is also called “reasoning.” This is because the applicable rule of law is reasoned from the facts of the case. As you think through the problems presented, aided by the issue you have successfully identified, the rule will emerge. What rule of law will guide the court in reaching a correct decision, assuming the same facts?

This is the question that you need to ask your self; it is also the question that you need to address. A rule of law in vicarious liability, for instance, is that “ a master is liable for the acts of his servant, even when expressly prohibited, so long as the servant acted within the scope of his employment. ”

Under the rule of law, students are expected to cite their authorities. Authorities here can be cases, statutes, dictum of judges, articles which are related to the issue in question. It is very important that you cite authorities because that is what will back up the rule of law and legal principles in the case.


This is where you apply the rule of law to the issue(s) you have raised. By doing this, you are applying the rule of law to the actual story in the problem question given to you. In the application, you are expected to pick those authorities and rules of law that concerns the issues raised and apply them to the matter effectively.

Always pay attention to exception(s) to the general rule, if any, and clearly outline/justify any distinctions that might be helpful to your argument. By constantly reminding yourself of the issue(s), you are bound to succeed in steering yourself away from irrelevance.

A great analysis is targeted to the issue(s) identified and is judged by the degree of focus/precision as well as the presentation (language/expressions used in articulating your argument).

Finally, the conclusion (“C”) . A few sentences would suffice to wrap up your discussion. Briefly state the outcome of your analysis. Where the question requires that you advise the parties, the conclusion is the best place to do that.

Simply tell each of the parties their rights and persuade them to sue the when the need be. Here, you can also rebuke the party in default in the case and tell him why he/she is at fault.

How to answer law problem question

Okay! Now that you know what all the letters in the acronym IRAC entails, I will give you an example of how a perfect law problem question is answered. The example below is a problem question that borders on the law of defamation.

If you are a student and you don’t know anything about the law of defamation, don’t worry. Just keep reading. You will still be able to understand the steps taken in every section.

Also read: List of less competitive universities in Nigeria (2020)

Sample of a law problem question answered using IRAC method

The Daily Trumpeter, a popular Newspaper in Enugu recently published a report of the proceedings of the Enugu State High Court in a land case between Chief Okoto and Barrister Akuepue under the caption ‘Judge calls a popular Enugu Lawyer: ‘A Crook and a Land Speculator”.

In the article, the newspaper reporter, Ade also stated thet Nigerian lawyers are in the habit of using their knowledge of the law to deprive innocent ‘laymen’ of their land. Barrister Akuepue and Barrister Ikpeama, another popular lawyer based in Enugu have sepaprately sued Joe, the edito of The Daily Trumpeter and Ade for publication.

Issue 1: Whether Newspaper Publishers can be liable for publishing court/tribunal proceedings

Issue 2: What must one prove in order for his defense of ‘fair comment’ to be successful

Issue 3: What is the legal position on defamation of a class or a group of person


Defamation refers to the publication of a statement which is calculated to injure a person and cause right-thinking members of the society to shun or avoid him, or even cause them to hate him and also convey an imputation on him which is injurious to his office, trade or profession – s.137 Enugu State Torts law, cap 150 2004(which shall hereinafter be called ESTL), Sketch v. Ajagbemokeferi.

People are thus warned against idle gossip which may likely impugn another person when communicated to a third party. Defamation may either be in the form of libel which is in a permanent form such as newspaper publication, television or radio broadcasts; or otherwise in slander which has a transient nature usually verbalized or through gesticulations conveying a defamatory connotation.

For an action in defamation to succeed, the following essential elements must be proved, as a thing of necessity:

The words complained of must be defamatory:

If right-thinking people of sane minds would think less of an individual or shun and avoid him due to a statement, then this element may be said to have been successfully proved.

Defamatory words must refer to the plaintiff:

It is not sufficient that the defamatory statement described a person merely by his name Akintla v. Anyiam . It is enough where he is identified by his initials, post, Photograph, or even his office – Dafe v. Teswinor.

The words complained of must be published:

It has been held in a vast litany of cases that it is not the publication of defamatory statement but the publication that grounds a cause of action. In fact, in Pullman v. Hill , Lord Esher, Master of the Rolls said thus ‘‘ Publication is the making known of the defamatory matter after it has been written to such person other than the person to whom it is written’’ It therefore follows that publication in itself is what grounds a cause of action- s. 141 ESTL .

Also, communication to the plaintiff himself cannot ground a cause of action for the purposes of determining liability in defamation because defamation is injury to ones reputation and protects not an individual’s opinion of himself but the estimation in which others hold him – Okotcha v. Olumese.

However, even if a person has been alleged to have defamed another, there is an array of defenses open to him. Such defenses are:

  • Unintentional Defamation
  • Innocent dissemination
  • Justification( or truth) – s. 163 ESTL
  • Volenti Non fit injuria – Chapman v.
  • Fair comment- s. 194(1) ESTL

Under the defenses of privilege , we have what is known as absolute privileges and also qualified privileges. Circumstances under which the defense of qualified privilege can arise are varied but for the purposes of our case, we have an occasion known as Statements made in performance of a legal, moral or social duty – s.178 ESTL .

In the connection above, for such an occasion to arise, the person giving out information which is alleged to contain defamatory statements must have a duty to give such information on grounds of public policy and also the party receiving such information, that is, the person to whom the matter is published to must have a corresponding duty of receiving such information.

Perhaps, this is the reason the law admits that radio and television broadcasters as well as Newspaper Publishers and Proprietors are covered by the said defense – NTA v. Babatope . It is also the legal position, pursuant to s.185 (1) that qualified privilege very much applies to those who publish reports of judicial proceedings. However, such broadcasters or publishers must be very careful enough to give reports of what actually took place in court, not necessarily a verbatim report of the proceedings but at least an abridged or condensed report will be privileged, provided that it gives a fair, accurate and correct impression of what transpired.

Also read: Names of Nigerian Presidents From 1960 till Date (Full list) 

It clearly and necessarily follows that when such reports are substantially inaccurate, such a report will lose the protective cloak of this defense. Thus, in Omo-Osagie v, Okutobo, a report of a newspaper of certain court proceedings bore the caption, ‘‘Chief Justice Tells a Teacher: ‘ You are a Bad Woman’.

However, those words were never used by the Judge, and the courts held that such a newspaper report had lost the defense of qualified privilege. The defense of fair comment stated above, consists of criticisms of matters of public interest in the form of comments, by citizens upon true facts, such comments being honestly made without malice – s.194(1) Enugu State Torts law, cap 150 2004.

In order for this defense to avail a person, the following requirements must be proved to the satisfaction of the courts trying the issue:

The Matter commented on must be of Public Interest:

The matter must be one of general concern as to affect the generality of the population at large- London Artists Ltd. v. Littler. Thus issues of land fraud by legal practitioners may fall for issues of public interest.

The Comment must be an expression of Opinion not an assertion of fact:

It is noteworthy that the defense of fair comment consists of two things: a set of facts which must be true and the commentator’s opinion on those facts- s. 194(1) (a). The distinction between a comment and a fact, however, depends on the merits of each case.

The Comment must be Honest- s. 194(1)(c) So long as a commentator honestly expressed his view, it is immaterial that he used excessively strong language o that people read all sorts of innuendoes into it, if he made the comment honestly, he has nothing at all to fear. However, criticisms cannot be used as a cloak for an attack, or for personal imputations on the plaintiff not arising out of the subject matter not based on the facts.

The Comment must be devoid of Malice- s.195 ESTL Malice is a complete bar to a defense of fair comment. Malice means making abuse of the occasion for some indirect purpose – Bakare v. Ibrahim.

When a class or group of persons i.e. lawyers, teachers, doctors etc, are defamed, no individual member of the class is entitled to bring action upon grounds that he has been defamed save only when the class is so small or so ascertainable that what is said of the class is necessarily said of each and every member of it, or if the circumstances of the case show that the plaintiff was singled out and defamed – Knuppfer v. London Express Newspaper Ltd.

Thus, in Zik Enterprises ltd. V. Awolowo , an article which contained defamatory statements against the Action Group was regarded by the court not to refer to the plaintiff but to the Action Group as a political party since it was a large group and the plaintiff could not show circumstances which proved that he was singled out.

Also read: How to answer Law problem questions effectively


It seems that Daily Trumpeter will not escape liability if the report they gave of the court proceedings was grossly inaccurate or did not give a correct impression of what actually transpired therein.

Also, Ade seems to have overstepped the boundaries of fair comment by making such a comment, he seems to have made a statement of fact because saying that someone is in the habit of doing something is as much as imputing a disreputable motive upon him which is very much actionable in law. Hence the cloak of fair comment may no longer protect.

Barrister Akuepue and Barrister Ikpeama by bringing action against Ade seem to be oblivious of the applicable guiding principles in the circumstance. In this connection, a defamatory statement against Nigerian lawyers as a whole is too large a group for the purposes of an action in defamation, unless, if they can show that they were singled out and defamed. They may be going on a wild goose chase.

Joe : You will only escape liability if what you said happened in court was accurate, otherwise, you will fall for liability. Ade: It is true you have overstepped the bounds of fair comment; however you may still escape liability under the principles of defamation of a class or group.

Barrister Akuepue and Barrister Ikpeama : You both can only bring action against Ade and Joe should what Joe reported about the proceedings be inaccurate. With respect to Ade although he has lost the defense of fair comment, he can still be liable for publishing what Joe reported, only the will you have a cause of action against him.

Must read: Most populated universities in Nigeria (2020)

Four things to note when answering law questions

How to answer law problem question

Note the little differences in the way every lecturer want students to answer their questions:

Even though IRAC method of answer law problem questions is generally acceptable, some lecturers make little changes to the way they want their questions to be answered.

For instance, some lecturers posit that after outlining your issues, you must tackle them one after the other. What that means is that, you are expected to apply IRAC in the different issues ( One after the other ).

Well, it is impossible for me to cover all the different styles lecturers like. So, I enjoin you to always attend classes. By attending classes, you will know the best method to answer your law problem questions.

It will surprise you to know that some lecturers don’t even like their questions to be answered using IRAC. So you see, you must know what every lecturer wants.

Time is a very important factor:

To perform very well as a law student, you must have it in mind that time is very important. You have to be time conscious because you have only but 2:30 minutes to answer all the questions you were given. Most times, students are expected to answer at least 3 questions in law examinations.

So you must learn to manage your time. If you do not manage your time properly, you will definitely not finish answering your questions.

How to answer law problem question

I personally recommend that you get a wristwatch for your exams. It will go a long way to help you plan how to use your time adequately.

Always cite your authorities with red pen:

One of the pivotal information that has never been skipped in all the tutorials I have read on how to answer law problem question is the citing of authorities.

The importance of using a red pen when citing authorities in law examinations cannot be over emphasized. The reason is because, it makes it easy for anyone who is assigned to mark your examination script.

So, in other not to jeopardize your chance of success in any law exam, you should use red pen to cite your authorities. Your authorities here may include: cases, names of judges, articles, statutes, dictums etc.

Dive detailed information about the issues raised in every case:

Most times, lecturers prefer giving more marks to students who were able to give them detailed information about the question than students who just answered the question.

For sure, if you answer the question correctly you will definitely be given the mark you deserve. But if you give more details, you will likely earn more marks.

Take for instance, you might be asked to explain the term “ Nigeria legal system “. If you go ahead to just define it and move to the next question, you won’t even get your full marks there. To get your full marks, you must also highlight the features of Nigerian legal systems and any other subtopic in the topic. Though, you are not expected to go too deep. Just make sure you give detailed information. Some lecturers love it.

Okay! for now, this is all i can disclose on this topic (How to answer law problem question). Like i have rightly mentioned, it is important to always attend classes because the way a particular lecturer will want his/her problem question to be answered might be different from the way another lecturer wants it.

That notwithstanding, i have explained the most generally accepted way of answering law question using IRAC method above. So, if you have not written law examination before, you can safely understand the IRAC method as i explained it. Hope this article was helpful? Do let me know if you have any question or confusion as to how to answer law problem question using IRAC method. I will be glad to help.

problem solving law question

Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka, ACMC, is a lawyer and a certified mediator/conciliator in Nigeria. He is also a developer with knowledge in various programming languages. Samuel is determined to leverage his skills in technology, SEO, and legal practice to revolutionize the legal profession worldwide by creating web and mobile applications that simplify legal research. Sam is also passionate about educating and providing valuable information to people.

6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws

Learning objectives.

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Apply problem-solving techniques to solve for quantities in more complex systems of forces
  • Use concepts from kinematics to solve problems using Newton’s laws of motion
  • Solve more complex equilibrium problems
  • Solve more complex acceleration problems
  • Apply calculus to more advanced dynamics problems

Success in problem solving is necessary to understand and apply physical principles. We developed a pattern of analyzing and setting up the solutions to problems involving Newton’s laws in Newton’s Laws of Motion ; in this chapter, we continue to discuss these strategies and apply a step-by-step process.

Problem-Solving Strategies

We follow here the basics of problem solving presented earlier in this text, but we emphasize specific strategies that are useful in applying Newton’s laws of motion . Once you identify the physical principles involved in the problem and determine that they include Newton’s laws of motion, you can apply these steps to find a solution. These techniques also reinforce concepts that are useful in many other areas of physics. Many problem-solving strategies are stated outright in the worked examples, so the following techniques should reinforce skills you have already begun to develop.

Problem-Solving Strategy

Applying newton’s laws of motion.

  • Identify the physical principles involved by listing the givens and the quantities to be calculated.
  • Sketch the situation, using arrows to represent all forces.
  • Determine the system of interest. The result is a free-body diagram that is essential to solving the problem.
  • Apply Newton’s second law to solve the problem. If necessary, apply appropriate kinematic equations from the chapter on motion along a straight line.
  • Check the solution to see whether it is reasonable.

Let’s apply this problem-solving strategy to the challenge of lifting a grand piano into a second-story apartment. Once we have determined that Newton’s laws of motion are involved (if the problem involves forces), it is particularly important to draw a careful sketch of the situation. Such a sketch is shown in Figure 6.2 (a). Then, as in Figure 6.2 (b), we can represent all forces with arrows. Whenever sufficient information exists, it is best to label these arrows carefully and make the length and direction of each correspond to the represented force.

As with most problems, we next need to identify what needs to be determined and what is known or can be inferred from the problem as stated, that is, make a list of knowns and unknowns. It is particularly crucial to identify the system of interest, since Newton’s second law involves only external forces. We can then determine which forces are external and which are internal, a necessary step to employ Newton’s second law. (See Figure 6.2 (c).) Newton’s third law may be used to identify whether forces are exerted between components of a system (internal) or between the system and something outside (external). As illustrated in Newton’s Laws of Motion , the system of interest depends on the question we need to answer. Only forces are shown in free-body diagrams, not acceleration or velocity. We have drawn several free-body diagrams in previous worked examples. Figure 6.2 (c) shows a free-body diagram for the system of interest. Note that no internal forces are shown in a free-body diagram.

Once a free-body diagram is drawn, we apply Newton’s second law. This is done in Figure 6.2 (d) for a particular situation. In general, once external forces are clearly identified in free-body diagrams, it should be a straightforward task to put them into equation form and solve for the unknown, as done in all previous examples. If the problem is one-dimensional—that is, if all forces are parallel—then the forces can be handled algebraically. If the problem is two-dimensional, then it must be broken down into a pair of one-dimensional problems. We do this by projecting the force vectors onto a set of axes chosen for convenience. As seen in previous examples, the choice of axes can simplify the problem. For example, when an incline is involved, a set of axes with one axis parallel to the incline and one perpendicular to it is most convenient. It is almost always convenient to make one axis parallel to the direction of motion, if this is known. Generally, just write Newton’s second law in components along the different directions. Then, you have the following equations:

(If, for example, the system is accelerating horizontally, then you can then set a y = 0 . a y = 0 . ) We need this information to determine unknown forces acting on a system.

As always, we must check the solution. In some cases, it is easy to tell whether the solution is reasonable. For example, it is reasonable to find that friction causes an object to slide down an incline more slowly than when no friction exists. In practice, intuition develops gradually through problem solving; with experience, it becomes progressively easier to judge whether an answer is reasonable. Another way to check a solution is to check the units. If we are solving for force and end up with units of millimeters per second, then we have made a mistake.

There are many interesting applications of Newton’s laws of motion, a few more of which are presented in this section. These serve also to illustrate some further subtleties of physics and to help build problem-solving skills. We look first at problems involving particle equilibrium, which make use of Newton’s first law, and then consider particle acceleration, which involves Newton’s second law.

Particle Equilibrium

Recall that a particle in equilibrium is one for which the external forces are balanced. Static equilibrium involves objects at rest, and dynamic equilibrium involves objects in motion without acceleration, but it is important to remember that these conditions are relative. For example, an object may be at rest when viewed from our frame of reference, but the same object would appear to be in motion when viewed by someone moving at a constant velocity. We now make use of the knowledge attained in Newton’s Laws of Motion , regarding the different types of forces and the use of free-body diagrams, to solve additional problems in particle equilibrium .

Example 6.1

Different tensions at different angles.

Thus, as you might expect,

This gives us the following relationship:

Note that T 1 T 1 and T 2 T 2 are not equal in this case because the angles on either side are not equal. It is reasonable that T 2 T 2 ends up being greater than T 1 T 1 because it is exerted more vertically than T 1 . T 1 .

Now consider the force components along the vertical or y -axis:

This implies

Substituting the expressions for the vertical components gives

There are two unknowns in this equation, but substituting the expression for T 2 T 2 in terms of T 1 T 1 reduces this to one equation with one unknown:

which yields

Solving this last equation gives the magnitude of T 1 T 1 to be

Finally, we find the magnitude of T 2 T 2 by using the relationship between them, T 2 = 1.225 T 1 T 2 = 1.225 T 1 , found above. Thus we obtain


Particle acceleration.

We have given a variety of examples of particles in equilibrium. We now turn our attention to particle acceleration problems, which are the result of a nonzero net force. Refer again to the steps given at the beginning of this section, and notice how they are applied to the following examples.

Example 6.2

Drag force on a barge.

The drag of the water F → D F → D is in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of the boat; this force thus works against F → app , F → app , as shown in the free-body diagram in Figure 6.4 (b). The system of interest here is the barge, since the forces on it are given as well as its acceleration. Because the applied forces are perpendicular, the x - and y -axes are in the same direction as F → 1 F → 1 and F → 2 . F → 2 . The problem quickly becomes a one-dimensional problem along the direction of F → app F → app , since friction is in the direction opposite to F → app . F → app . Our strategy is to find the magnitude and direction of the net applied force F → app F → app and then apply Newton’s second law to solve for the drag force F → D . F → D .

The angle is given by

From Newton’s first law, we know this is the same direction as the acceleration. We also know that F → D F → D is in the opposite direction of F → app , F → app , since it acts to slow down the acceleration. Therefore, the net external force is in the same direction as F → app , F → app , but its magnitude is slightly less than F → app . F → app . The problem is now one-dimensional. From the free-body diagram, we can see that

However, Newton’s second law states that

This can be solved for the magnitude of the drag force of the water F D F D in terms of known quantities:

Substituting known values gives

The direction of F → D F → D has already been determined to be in the direction opposite to F → app , F → app , or at an angle of 53 ° 53 ° south of west.

In Newton’s Laws of Motion , we discussed the normal force , which is a contact force that acts normal to the surface so that an object does not have an acceleration perpendicular to the surface. The bathroom scale is an excellent example of a normal force acting on a body. It provides a quantitative reading of how much it must push upward to support the weight of an object. But can you predict what you would see on the dial of a bathroom scale if you stood on it during an elevator ride? Will you see a value greater than your weight when the elevator starts up? What about when the elevator moves upward at a constant speed? Take a guess before reading the next example.

Example 6.3

What does the bathroom scale read in an elevator.

From the free-body diagram, we see that F → net = F → s − w → , F → net = F → s − w → , so we have

Solving for F s F s gives us an equation with only one unknown:

or, because w = m g , w = m g , simply

No assumptions were made about the acceleration, so this solution should be valid for a variety of accelerations in addition to those in this situation. ( Note: We are considering the case when the elevator is accelerating upward. If the elevator is accelerating downward, Newton’s second law becomes F s − w = − m a . F s − w = − m a . )

  • We have a = 1.20 m/s 2 , a = 1.20 m/s 2 , so that F s = ( 75.0 kg ) ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) + ( 75.0 kg ) ( 1.20 m/s 2 ) F s = ( 75.0 kg ) ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) + ( 75.0 kg ) ( 1.20 m/s 2 ) yielding F s = 825 N . F s = 825 N .
  • Now, what happens when the elevator reaches a constant upward velocity? Will the scale still read more than his weight? For any constant velocity—up, down, or stationary—acceleration is zero because a = Δ v Δ t a = Δ v Δ t and Δ v = 0 . Δ v = 0 . Thus, F s = m a + m g = 0 + m g F s = m a + m g = 0 + m g or F s = ( 75.0 kg ) ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) , F s = ( 75.0 kg ) ( 9.80 m/s 2 ) , which gives F s = 735 N . F s = 735 N .

Thus, the scale reading in the elevator is greater than his 735-N (165-lb.) weight. This means that the scale is pushing up on the person with a force greater than his weight, as it must in order to accelerate him upward. Clearly, the greater the acceleration of the elevator, the greater the scale reading, consistent with what you feel in rapidly accelerating versus slowly accelerating elevators. In Figure 6.5 (b), the scale reading is 735 N, which equals the person’s weight. This is the case whenever the elevator has a constant velocity—moving up, moving down, or stationary.

Check Your Understanding 6.1

Now calculate the scale reading when the elevator accelerates downward at a rate of 1.20 m/s 2 . 1.20 m/s 2 .

The solution to the previous example also applies to an elevator accelerating downward, as mentioned. When an elevator accelerates downward, a is negative, and the scale reading is less than the weight of the person. If a constant downward velocity is reached, the scale reading again becomes equal to the person’s weight. If the elevator is in free fall and accelerating downward at g , then the scale reading is zero and the person appears to be weightless.

Example 6.4

Two attached blocks.

For block 1: T → + w → 1 + N → = m 1 a → 1 T → + w → 1 + N → = m 1 a → 1

For block 2: T → + w → 2 = m 2 a → 2 . T → + w → 2 = m 2 a → 2 .

Notice that T → T → is the same for both blocks. Since the string and the pulley have negligible mass, and since there is no friction in the pulley, the tension is the same throughout the string. We can now write component equations for each block. All forces are either horizontal or vertical, so we can use the same horizontal/vertical coordinate system for both objects

When block 1 moves to the right, block 2 travels an equal distance downward; thus, a 1 x = − a 2 y . a 1 x = − a 2 y . Writing the common acceleration of the blocks as a = a 1 x = − a 2 y , a = a 1 x = − a 2 y , we now have

From these two equations, we can express a and T in terms of the masses m 1 and m 2 , and g : m 1 and m 2 , and g :

Check Your Understanding 6.2

Calculate the acceleration of the system, and the tension in the string, when the masses are m 1 = 5.00 kg m 1 = 5.00 kg and m 2 = 3.00 kg . m 2 = 3.00 kg .

Example 6.5

Atwood machine.

  • We have For m 1 , ∑ F y = T − m 1 g = m 1 a . For m 2 , ∑ F y = T − m 2 g = − m 2 a . For m 1 , ∑ F y = T − m 1 g = m 1 a . For m 2 , ∑ F y = T − m 2 g = − m 2 a . (The negative sign in front of m 2 a m 2 a indicates that m 2 m 2 accelerates downward; both blocks accelerate at the same rate, but in opposite directions.) Solve the two equations simultaneously (subtract them) and the result is ( m 2 − m 1 ) g = ( m 1 + m 2 ) a . ( m 2 − m 1 ) g = ( m 1 + m 2 ) a . Solving for a : a = m 2 − m 1 m 1 + m 2 g = 4 kg − 2 kg 4 kg + 2 kg ( 9.8 m/s 2 ) = 3.27 m/s 2 . a = m 2 − m 1 m 1 + m 2 g = 4 kg − 2 kg 4 kg + 2 kg ( 9.8 m/s 2 ) = 3.27 m/s 2 .
  • Observing the first block, we see that T − m 1 g = m 1 a T = m 1 ( g + a ) = ( 2 kg ) ( 9.8 m/s 2 + 3.27 m/s 2 ) = 26.1 N . T − m 1 g = m 1 a T = m 1 ( g + a ) = ( 2 kg ) ( 9.8 m/s 2 + 3.27 m/s 2 ) = 26.1 N .

Check Your Understanding 6.3

Determine a general formula in terms of m 1 , m 2 m 1 , m 2 and g for calculating the tension in the string for the Atwood machine shown above.

Newton’s Laws of Motion and Kinematics

Physics is most interesting and most powerful when applied to general situations that involve more than a narrow set of physical principles. Newton’s laws of motion can also be integrated with other concepts that have been discussed previously in this text to solve problems of motion. For example, forces produce accelerations, a topic of kinematics , and hence the relevance of earlier chapters.

When approaching problems that involve various types of forces, acceleration, velocity, and/or position, listing the givens and the quantities to be calculated will allow you to identify the principles involved. Then, you can refer to the chapters that deal with a particular topic and solve the problem using strategies outlined in the text. The following worked example illustrates how the problem-solving strategy given earlier in this chapter, as well as strategies presented in other chapters, is applied to an integrated concept problem.

Example 6.6

What force must a soccer player exert to reach top speed.

  • We are given the initial and final velocities (zero and 8.00 m/s forward); thus, the change in velocity is Δ v = 8.00 m/s Δ v = 8.00 m/s . We are given the elapsed time, so Δ t = 2.50 s . Δ t = 2.50 s . The unknown is acceleration, which can be found from its definition: a = Δ v Δ t . a = Δ v Δ t . Substituting the known values yields a = 8.00 m/s 2.50 s = 3.20 m/s 2 . a = 8.00 m/s 2.50 s = 3.20 m/s 2 .
  • Here we are asked to find the average force the ground exerts on the runner to produce this acceleration. (Remember that we are dealing with the force or forces acting on the object of interest.) This is the reaction force to that exerted by the player backward against the ground, by Newton’s third law. Neglecting air resistance, this would be equal in magnitude to the net external force on the player, since this force causes her acceleration. Since we now know the player’s acceleration and are given her mass, we can use Newton’s second law to find the force exerted. That is, F net = m a . F net = m a . Substituting the known values of m and a gives F net = ( 70.0 kg ) ( 3.20 m/s 2 ) = 224 N . F net = ( 70.0 kg ) ( 3.20 m/s 2 ) = 224 N .

This is a reasonable result: The acceleration is attainable for an athlete in good condition. The force is about 50 pounds, a reasonable average force.

Check Your Understanding 6.4

The soccer player stops after completing the play described above, but now notices that the ball is in position to be stolen. If she now experiences a force of 126 N to attempt to steal the ball, which is 2.00 m away from her, how long will it take her to get to the ball?

Example 6.7

What force acts on a model helicopter.

The magnitude of the force is now easily found:

Check Your Understanding 6.5

Find the direction of the resultant for the 1.50-kg model helicopter.

Example 6.8

Baggage tractor.

  • ∑ F x = m system a x ∑ F x = m system a x and ∑ F x = 820.0 t , ∑ F x = 820.0 t , so 820.0 t = ( 650.0 + 250.0 + 150.0 ) a a = 0.7809 t . 820.0 t = ( 650.0 + 250.0 + 150.0 ) a a = 0.7809 t . Since acceleration is a function of time, we can determine the velocity of the tractor by using a = d v d t a = d v d t with the initial condition that v 0 = 0 v 0 = 0 at t = 0 . t = 0 . We integrate from t = 0 t = 0 to t = 3 : t = 3 : d v = a d t , ∫ 0 3 d v = ∫ 0 3.00 a d t = ∫ 0 3.00 0.7809 t d t , v = 0.3905 t 2 ] 0 3.00 = 3.51 m/s . d v = a d t , ∫ 0 3 d v = ∫ 0 3.00 a d t = ∫ 0 3.00 0.7809 t d t , v = 0.3905 t 2 ] 0 3.00 = 3.51 m/s .
  • Refer to the free-body diagram in Figure 6.8 (b). ∑ F x = m tractor a x 820.0 t − T = m tractor ( 0.7805 ) t ( 820.0 ) ( 3.00 ) − T = ( 650.0 ) ( 0.7805 ) ( 3.00 ) T = 938 N . ∑ F x = m tractor a x 820.0 t − T = m tractor ( 0.7805 ) t ( 820.0 ) ( 3.00 ) − T = ( 650.0 ) ( 0.7805 ) ( 3.00 ) T = 938 N .

Recall that v = d s d t v = d s d t and a = d v d t a = d v d t . If acceleration is a function of time, we can use the calculus forms developed in Motion Along a Straight Line , as shown in this example. However, sometimes acceleration is a function of displacement. In this case, we can derive an important result from these calculus relations. Solving for dt in each, we have d t = d s v d t = d s v and d t = d v a . d t = d v a . Now, equating these expressions, we have d s v = d v a . d s v = d v a . We can rearrange this to obtain a d s = v d v . a d s = v d v .

Example 6.9

Motion of a projectile fired vertically.

The acceleration depends on v and is therefore variable. Since a = f ( v ) , a = f ( v ) , we can relate a to v using the rearrangement described above,

We replace ds with dy because we are dealing with the vertical direction,

We now separate the variables ( v ’s and dv ’s on one side; dy on the other):

Thus, h = 114 m . h = 114 m .

Check Your Understanding 6.6

If atmospheric resistance is neglected, find the maximum height for the mortar shell. Is calculus required for this solution?


Explore the forces at work in this simulation when you try to push a filing cabinet. Create an applied force and see the resulting frictional force and total force acting on the cabinet. Charts show the forces, position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. View a free-body diagram of all the forces (including gravitational and normal forces).

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Ohm’s Law Practice Problems | Review and Examples

  • The Albert Team
  • Last Updated On: December 5, 2023

problem solving law question

Welcome to the fascinating world of electrical principles, where understanding Ohm’s Law is not just a skill but a necessity. Often considered the backbone of electrical engineering and physics, Ohm’s Law is a fundamental concept that illuminates the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical circuit. In this comprehensive guide, we will cover the core of Ohm’s Law, explore its fundamental formula, and work through a series of Ohm’s Law practice problems. Mastering Ohm’s Law is a step towards unraveling the complexities of electronics.

What Does Ohm’s Law State?

Ohm’s Law is a fundamental principle in electronics and physics, providing a simple yet powerful way to understand the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in electrical circuits. At its core, Ohm’s Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across these points and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. This relationship is elegantly captured in the formula V = IR , where V stands for voltage, I for current, and R for resistance.

Understanding Voltage, Current, and Resistance

In order to fully appreciate Ohm’s law, let’s review the three components.

  • Voltage (V) : Often described as the electrical force or pressure that drives the flow of electrons through a conductor. It’s the potential difference between two points in a circuit.
  • Current (I) : This is the flow of electrical charge, measured in amperes (A). It represents how many electrons are flowing through the circuit.
  • Resistance (R) : Resistance is the opposition to the current flow in a circuit. It’s measured in ohms (Ω) and depends on the material, size, and temperature of the conductor.

By manipulating the Ohm’s Law formula, you can solve for any one of these three variables if the other two are known. This makes it an invaluable tool for understanding and designing electrical circuits.

Practical Applications

Ohm’s Law isn’t just a theoretical concept; it has numerous practical applications in everyday life and various industries. Here are a few examples:

  • Electronics Design: Engineers use Ohm’s Law to design circuits, select appropriate components, and ensure electrical devices function safely and efficiently.
  • Troubleshooting Electrical Problems: Technicians often use Ohm’s Law to diagnose issues in electrical systems, such as finding short circuits or identifying components that are not functioning correctly.
  • Educational Purposes: Ohm’s Law is a fundamental concept taught in physics and electronics courses, helping students understand the basics of electrical circuits.
  • Power Management: In larger-scale applications like power distribution, Ohm’s Law helps calculate the load that can be safely put on electrical systems without causing damage or inefficiency.

problem solving law question

Understanding Ohm’s Law opens up possibilities for creating, managing, and troubleshooting electrical systems, from the smallest electronic devices to large-scale power grids.

What is the Formula for Ohm’s Law?

Ohm’s Law is elegant in its formulation, providing a precise mathematical relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in an electrical circuit.

In the formula for Ohm’s Law, V represents voltage measured in volts (V), I is the current measured in amperes (A), and R is the resistance measured in ohms (Ω). This formula is the cornerstone for analyzing and understanding electrical circuits, requiring two variables to solve.

Ohm’s Law Triangle

The Ohm’s Law triangle is a helpful tool for remembering how to calculate voltage, current, and resistance. It visually represents the formula V=IR in a graphic format, with V at the top, I on the left, and R on the right. By covering the variable you want to calculate, the other two variables show how they relate. For example, covering V shows I\times R , covering I shows /frac{V}{R} , and covering R shows \frac{V}{I} . This tool is handy for beginners and a reference for quick calculations.

The Ohm's Law Triangle is a useful tool for solving Ohm's Law practice problems.

Strategies for Solving Ohm’s Law Practice Problems

When solving problems using Ohm’s Law, it’s important to follow a systematic approach:

  • Identify Known Quantities: Start by determining which of the three variables (voltage, current, resistance) are known.
  • Determine the Unknown: Figure out which variable you need to calculate.
  • Use the Ohm’s Law Circle: Utilize the Ohm’s Law circle to understand the relationship between the variables and to choose the correct formula.
  • Solve Step-by-Step: Apply the formula and solve for the unknown variable step-by-step, ensuring accuracy in your calculations.
  • Check Units: Always check that your units are consistent (volts for voltage, amperes for current, ohms for resistance) and convert if necessary.

By applying these strategies, you can effectively use Ohm’s Law to solve a wide range of electrical problems, enhancing your understanding and skills in electrical theory and practice.

Examples of Ohm’s Law

Calculating Current: If a light bulb has a resistance of 240\text{ ohms} and is connected to a 120\text{-volt} power source, the current flowing through it can be calculated as:

Determining Voltage: For a toaster that draws a current of 5\text{ amperes} and has a resistance of 10\text{ ohms} , the voltage across it is:

Finding Resistance: If a hairdryer operates at 220\text{ volts} and draws a current of 11\text{ amperes} , its resistance is:

These examples demonstrate how Ohm’s Law is applied in practical situations, providing a clear understanding of how electrical components function in various devices.

Ohm’s Law Practice Problems

Here are eight practice problems involving Ohm’s Law, arranged in order of increasing complexity. These problems will help you apply the concepts of voltage, current, and resistance in various scenarios. Work through these on your own, then scroll down for solutions.

1. Basic Current Calculation

A circuit with a 9\text{-volt} battery and a resistor of 3\text{ ohms} . What is the current flowing through the circuit?

2. Resistance Determination

Find the resistance of a bulb that draws 0.5\text{ amperes} from a 120\text{-volt} supply.

3. Voltage Calculation

What is the voltage across a resistor of 15\text{ ohms} through which a current of 2\text{ amperes} is flowing?

4. Multiple Resistors (Series) 

In a series circuit with a 12\text{-volt} battery, if there are two resistors of 4\text{ ohms} and 6\text{ ohms} , what is the current flowing through the circuit?

5. Multiple Resistors (Parallel)

Calculate the total resistance in a parallel circuit with two resistors of 5\text{ ohms} and 10\text{ ohms} . If a voltage of 12\text{-volts} is applied across the circuit, what is the total current flowing through the circuit?

6. Combined Ohm’s Law and Power

A device using 18\text{ watts} of power is connected to a 9\text{-volt} battery. Calculate the current drawn by the device and determine the resistance of the device.

7. Variable Resistance

If the current in a circuit is 0.25\text{ amperes} and the voltage is 10\text{ volts} , what must be the resistance?

8. Complex Circuit Analysis

In a circuit, a 6\text{-ohm} resistor and a 12\text{-ohm} resistor are connected in series to a 9\text{-volt} battery. Calculate the current through each resistor.

problem solving law question

Solutions to Ohm’s Law Practice Problems

Are you ready to see how you did? Review below to see the solutions for the Ohm’s Law practice problems.

We have a simple circuit with a 9\text{ V} battery and a 3\ \Omega resistor. In order to solve this, use Ohm’s Law, V=IR to find the current:

Therefore, the current flowing through this circuit is 3\text{ amperes} , typical for small electronic devices.

A bulb is connected to a 120\text{ V} supply and draws 0.5\text{ A} .To find the resistance, rearrange Ohm’s Law to R = V/I :

The bulb has a resistance of 240\ \Omega , indicating it’s suitable for moderate power applications.

A resistor of 15\ \Omega carries a current of 2\text{ A} . Apply V=IR to find the voltage across the resistor:

The voltage across this resistor is 30\text{ V} , typical for small household circuits.

We have a series circuit with a 12\text{ V} battery and two resistors ( 4\ \Omega and 6\ \Omega ). First, sum the resistances in series. Then, apply Ohm’s Law.

Summing the resistance:

Now, apply Ohm’s Law with the total resistance, rearranged for the current:

The current of 1.2\text{ A} flows uniformly through each component in this series circuit.

In this scenario, there is a parallel circuit with two resistors of 5\ \Omega and 10\ \Omega . First, calculate the total resistance in parallel using the reciprocal formula:

Then, apply Ohm’s Law with the total resistance, rearranged for the current:

The total current flowing through the circuit is approximately 3.6\text{ A} .

An 18\text{ W} device is connected to a 9\text{ V} battery. First, find the current using by rearranging the power formula P=VI :

The device draws a current of 2\text{ A} . Next, use Ohm’s Law rearranged for resistance:

The device’s resistance is 4.5\ \Omega .

For a circuit with a current of 0.25\text{ A} and a voltage of 10\text{ V} , apply Ohm’s Law to find the resistance:

The circuit has a resistance of 40\ \Omega , indicating a relatively high resistance for the given current and voltage.

First, calculate the total resistance:

For a series circuit, all elements receive the same current. Each resistor in this series circuit experiences a current of 0.5\text{ A} .

As we reach the end of our exploration into Ohm’s Law, it’s clear that this fundamental principle is more than just a formula; it’s a key to unlocking the mysteries of electrical circuits. Through this guide, we’ve journeyed from the basic understanding of voltage, current, and resistance to applying these concepts in various practical scenarios. The practice problems provided various challenges, from straightforward calculations to more complex circuit analyses, each designed to strengthen your grasp of Ohm’s Law.

Remember, the journey of mastering Ohm’s Law is as much about practice as it is about understanding the theory. Each problem you solve, and each circuit you analyze adds to your skill set, making you more adept at navigating the world of electronics.

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Mechanics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Calculator pad, version 2, newton's laws of motion: problem set.

An African elephant can reach heights of 13 feet and possess a mass of as much as 6000 kg. Determine the weight of an African elephant in Newtons and in pounds. (Given: 1.00 N = .225 pounds)

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About twenty percent of the National Football League weighs more than 300 pounds. At this weight, their Body Mass Index (BMI) places them at Grade 2 obesity, which is one step below morbid obesity. Determine the mass of a 300 pound (1330 N) football player.

With fuel prices for combustible engine automobiles increasing, researchers and manufacturers have given more attention to the concept of an ultralight car. Using carbon composites, lighter steels and plastics, a fuel-efficient car can be manufactured at 540 kg. How much less does an ultralight car weigh compared to a 1450-kg Honda Accord (2007)?

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the average mass of an adult American male is 86 kg. Determine the mass and the weight of an 86-kg man on the moon where the gravitational field is one-sixth that of the Earth.

The rising concern among athletic trainers and health advocates (and parents) regarding concussions and multiple concussions among high school football players has prompted numerous studies of the effectiveness of protective head gear and the forces and accelerations experienced by players. One study suggested that there is a 50% chance of concussions for impacts rated at 75 g's of acceleration (i.e., 75 multiplied by 9.8 m/s/s). (The average head impact results in 22 to 24 g's of acceleration.) If a player's head mass (with helmet) is 6.0 kg and considered to be a free body , then what net force would be required to produce an acceleration of 75 g's?

Captain John Stapp of the U.S. Air Force tested the human limits of acceleration by riding on a rocket sled of his own design, known as the Gee Whiz. What net force would be required to accelerate the 82-kg Stapp at 450 m/s/s (the highest acceleration tested by Stapp)?

Sophia, whose mass is 52 kg, experienced a net force of 1800 N at the bottom of a roller coaster loop during her school's physics field trip to the local amusement park. Determine Sophia's acceleration at this location.

The Top Thrill Dragster stratacoaster at Cedar Point Amusement Park in Ohio uses a hydraulic launching system to accelerate riders from 0 to 54 m/s (120 mi/hr) in 3.8 seconds before climbing a completely vertical 420-foot hill . Determine the net force required to accelerate an 86-kg man.

a. Determine the net force required to accelerate a 540-kg ultralight car from 0 to 27 m/s (60 mph) in 10.0 seconds. b. Determine the net force required to accelerate a 2160-kg Ford Expedition from 0 to 27 m/s (60 mph) in 10.0 seconds.

Problem 10:

Anna Litical and Noah Formula are experimenting with the effect of mass and net force upon the acceleration of a lab cart. They determine that a net force of F causes a cart with a mass of M to accelerate at 48 cm/s/s. What is the acceleration value of a cart with …

a. a mass of M when acted upon by a net force of 2F ? b. a mass of 2M when acted upon by a net force of F ? c. a mass of 2M when acted upon by a net force of 2F ? d. a mass of 4M when acted upon by a net force of 2F ? e. a mass of 2M when acted upon by a net force of 4F ?

Problem 11:

F grav = F norm = 60.5 N F app = 40.2 N F frict = 5.7 N.

Problem 12:

F grav = F norm = 207 N F tens = 182 N F frict = 166 N.

Problem 13:

F tens = 2340 N F grav = 2120 N F norm1 = F norm2 = 276 N.

Problem 14:

It's Friday night and Skyler has been assigned the noble task of baby-sitting Casey, his 2-year old brother. He puts a crash helmet on Casey, places him in the red wagon and takes him on a stroll through the neighborhood. As Skyler starts across the street, he exerts a 52 N forward force on the wagon. There is a 24 N resistance force and the wagon and Casey have a combined weight of 304 N. Construct a free body diagram depicting the types of forces acting upon the wagon. Then determine the net force, mass and acceleration of the wagon.

Problem 15:

After a lead-off single in the 8 th inning, Earl makes an effort to steal second base. As he hits the dirt on his head first dive, his 73.2 kg body encounters 249 N of friction force. Construct a free body diagram depicting the types of forces acting upon Earl. Then determine the net force and acceleration.

Problem 16:

Mira and Tariq are lab partners for the Pulley and Bricks Lab. They have determined that the 2.15-kg brick is experiencing a forward tension force of 9.54 N and a friction force of 8.69 N as it is accelerated across the table top. Construct a free body diagram depicting the types of forces acting upon the brick. Then determine the net force and acceleration of the brick.

Problem 17:

Moments after making the dreaded decision to jump out the door of the airplane, Darin's 82.5-kg body experiences 118 N of air resistance. Determine Darin's acceleration at this instant in time. HINT: begin by drawing a free body diagram and determine the net force.

Problem 18:

Kelli and Jarvis are members of the stage crew for the Variety Show. Between acts, they must quickly move a Baby Grand Piano onto stage. After the curtain closes, they exert a sudden forward force of 524 N to budge the piano from rest and get it up to speed. The 158-kg piano experiences 418 N of friction.

a. What is the piano's acceleration during this phase of its motion? b. If Kelli and Jarvis maintain this forward force for 1.44 seconds, then what speed will the piano have?

Problem 19:

Skydiving tunnels have become popular attractions, appealing in part to those who would like a taste of the skydiving experience but are too overwhelmed by the fear of jumping out of a plane at several thousand feet. Skydiving tunnels are vertical wind tunnels through which air is blown at high speeds, allowing visitors to experience bodyflight . On Natalya's first adventure inside the tunnel, she changes her orientation and for an instant, her 46.8-kg body momentarily experiences an upward force of air resistance of 521 N. Determine Natalya's acceleration during this moment in time.

Problem 20:

A rope is used to pull a 2.89-kg bucket of water out of a deep well.

a. What is the acceleration of the bucket when the tension in the rope is 30.2 N? b. If starting from rest, what speed will the bucket have after experiencing this force for 2.16 seconds?

Problem 21:

A 0.104-kg model rocket accelerates at 45.9 m/s/s on takeoff. Determine the upward thrust experienced by the rocket.

Problem 22:

Brandon is the catcher for the Varsity baseball team. He exerts a forward force on the 0.145-kg baseball to bring it to rest from a speed of 38.2 m/s. During the process, his hand recoils a distance of 0.135 m. Determine the acceleration of the ball and the force which is applied to it by Brandon.

Problem 23:

Alejandra is attempting to drag her 32.6-kg Golden Retriever across the wooden floor by applying a horizontal force. What force must she apply to move the dog with a constant speed of 0.95 m/s? The coefficient of friction between the dog and the floor is 0.72.

Problem 24:

The coefficient of friction between the wheels of Dawson's 1985 Ford Coupe and the dry pavement is 0.85. Determine the acceleration which the 1300-kg Coupe experiences while skidding to a stop.

Problem 25:

Nicholas, Brianna, Dylan and Chloe are practicing their hockey on frozen Bluebird Lake. As Dylan and Chloe chase after the 0.162 kg puck, it decelerates from 10.5 m/s to 8.8 m/s in 14 seconds.

a. Determine the acceleration of the puck. b. Determine the force of friction experienced by the puck. c. Determine the coefficient of friction between the ice and the puck.

Problem 26:

Unbeknownst to most students, every time the school floors are waxed, the physics teachers get together to have a barrel of phun doing friction experiments in their socks (uhm - they do have clothes on; its just that they don't have any shoes on their feet). On one occasion, Mr. London applies a horizontal force to accelerate Mr. Schneider (mass of 84 kg) rightward at a rate of 1.2 m/s/s. If the coefficient of friction between Mr. Schneider 's socks and the freshly waxed floors is 0.35, then with what force (in Newtons) must Mr. London be pulling?

Problem 27:

Dexter Eius is running through the cafeteria when he slips on some mashed potatoes and falls to the floor. (Let that be a lesson for Dexter.) Dexter lands in a puddle of milk and skids to a stop with an acceleration of -4.8 m/s/s. Dexter weighs 780 Newtons. Determine the coefficient of friction between Dexter and the milky floor.

Problem 28:

The Harrier Jump Jet is a fixed wing military jet designed for vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). It is capable of rotating its jets from a horizontal to a vertical orientation in order to takeoff, land and conduct horizontal maneuvers. Determine the vertical thrust required to accelerate an 8600-kg Harrier upward at 0.40 m/s/s.

Problem 29:

While skydiving, Dee Selerate opens her parachute and her 53.4-kg body immediately accelerates upward for an instant at 8.66 m/s/s. Determine the upward force experienced by Dee during this instant.

Problem 30:

A 1370-kg car is skidding to a stop along a horizontal surface. The car decelerates from 27.6 m/s to a rest position in 3.15 seconds. Assuming negligible air resistance, determine the coefficient of friction between the car tires and the road surface.

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Ohm's Law Practice Problems With Solutions for High School

Excel in solving any Ohm’s law problems with this comprehensive guide. It’s your ultimate toolkit for tackling homework and acing the AP Physics exam.

If you are a teacher looking for a resource to assess your students, download this Ohm’s law worksheet .

Ohm's Law Practice Problems:

Problem (1): An electronic device has a resistance of 20 ohms, and a current of 15 A passes through it. What is the voltage across the device?

Solution : Resistance, current, and voltage are related together by Ohm's law as $V=IR$. Thus, the voltage of the device is given by \begin{align*}V&=IR\\&=15\times 20\\&=300\quad {\rm V}\end{align*}

Problem (2): A $3-{\rm V}$ potential difference is applied across a $6\,{\rm \Omega}$ resistor. What is the current that flows into the resistor?

Solution : Ohm's law states the potential difference across a resistor is resistance times current, so we get \begin{align*} I&=\frac VR\\&=\frac {3}{6}\\&=0.5\quad {\rm A}\end{align*}

Problem (3): An electric device is connected to a $120-\rm V$ outlet and draws $6\,\rm A$ of current. How much heat will this device produce in $3$ minutes?

Solution : To solve this simple question, we must combine three fundamental equations as follows: \begin{gather*} \text{Ohm's law}: \, I=\frac{V}{R}\\\\ \text{Power}: P=\frac{E}{t} \\\\ \text{Electric power}: P=V\times I \end{gather*} where $E$ is energy. Recall from heat problems that heat is energy. Combining these equations yields \begin{align*} E&=Pt \\\\ &=VIt\\\\ &=(120)(6)(3\times 60\,\rm s) \\\\ &=129600\,\rm J\end{align*} or in scientific notation as \[E=1.29\times 10^5\,\rm J\] 

Problem (4): In the circuit shown below, how much current does the ammeter show?

Ammeter-lamp in a series circuit

Problem (5): In a circuit, a $10\,{\rm \Omega}$ resistor is removed and replaced by a $20\,{\rm \Omega}$ resistor. What happens to the current in the circuit? 

Solution : Since nothing is said about the voltage drop across the circuit, we assume it is constant, say $V=120\,{\rm V}$. Therefore, using Ohm's law formula, $I=\frac VR$, current $I=\frac{120}{10}=12\,{\rm A}$ flows through the $10\,{\rm \Omega}$ resistor, and $I=\frac{120}{20}=6\,{\rm A}$ through the $20\,{\rm \Omega}$ resistor. 

We can see that for the same voltage, doubling the resistances results in decreasing, or more precisely, halving, the currents. This is a clear demonstration of Ohm’s law.

Question: A circuit consists of a battery and a resistor. The resistor dissipates $2\,\rm W$. Now the resistor is replaced with one that has twice the resistance of the original. What power does the new resistor dissipate?

Solution : The power dissipated (or consumed) by a resistor is determined by one of the following formulas: \[P=V\times I=\frac{V^2}{R}=RI^2\] where $V$ is the potential drop across the resistor. 

Ohm's law tells us that the current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance, i.e., $I\propto \frac 1R$.

In this problem, the new resistor has twice the resistance of the original resistor, i.e., $R'=2R$ whereas it is connected across the same battery, $V'=V$. Thus, the current flowing through this new resistor is related to the old one as below: \begin{align*} \frac{i'}{i}&=\frac{R}{R'} \\\\ &=\frac{R}{2R} \\\\ \Rightarrow i'&=\frac 12 i\end{align*} Given the current in the replaced resistor, substitute it into one of the above power formulas, say $P'=V'i'$. \begin{align*} P'&=V'i' \\\\ &=V(\frac 12 i) \\\\ &=\frac 12 \underbrace{Vi}_{P} \\\\ &=\frac 12 \times 2 \\\\ \Rightarrow \quad P'&=\boxed{1\,\rm W} \end{align*} Therefore, the new resistor would dissipate $1\,\rm W$ of electric power.  

Question: A hair dryer is plugged into a $240\,\rm V$ outlet and draws a current of $3.6\,\rm A$.  (a) If the voltage drops by $25\%$ and nothing else changes, how much will the current be? (b) Assuming that the resistance of the device was reduced by $25\%$, what current would be drawn at $240\,\rm V$?

Solution : This type of Ohm's law question typically appears in AP Physics classes. 

(a) We are told that the voltage is reduced by $25\%$ of the original voltage, meaning that \[V_2=V_1-(0.25)V_1=0.75V_1\] In addition, it is assumed that the resistance of the device has not changed, i.e., $R_2=R_1$. Applying Ohm's law formula on both sides of this relation and solving for the unknown current $I_2$ gives us \begin{align*} R_2&=R_1 \\\\ \frac{V_2}{I_2}&=\frac{V_1}{I_1} \\\\ \Rightarrow I_2&=I_1\left(\frac{V_2}{V_1}\right) \\\\ &=(3.6)\left(\frac{0.75V_1}{V_1}\right) \\\\ &=\boxed{2.7\,\rm A} \end{align*} With a $25\%$ reduction in the original voltage, the current drawn by the device is also reduced by as much as $2.7\,\rm A$.

(b) Now, the resistance varies and reduces by $25\%$ of the original resistance, i.e., \[R_2=R_1-0.25R_1=0.75 R_1\] The voltage across the device is held constant, i.e., $V_2=V_1$. As above, applying Ohm's law formula gives us  \begin{align*} V_2&=V_1 \\\\ I_2R_2&=I_1 R_1 \\\\ \Rightarrow I_2&=I_1 \left(\frac{R_1}{R_2}\right) \\\\&=(3.6)\left(\frac{R_1}{0.75R_1}\right) \\\\ &=\boxed{4.8\,\rm A} \end{align*} The current will be $4.8\,\rm A$ if the resistance is reduced by $25\%$ at $240\,\rm V$. 

Ohm's Law: Conceptual Questions

Here are some simple conceptual questions about Ohm's Law. 

Question: When you double the voltage across a conducting wire, you observe that the current increases by a factor of $4$. What can you conclude about this experiment?

Solution : The resistance of a conducting wire is defined as the ratio of the voltage drop across it to the current that passes through it, $R=\frac{\Delta V}{I}$. This relationship is commonly referred to as Ohm's law. 

For ohmic materials, the resistance, $R$, is always constant and does not change, either by changing voltage or current. 

In this question, the voltage was doubled $V'=2V$ and it was observed that the current was quadrupled $I'=4I$. Applying Ohm's law gives \begin{align*} R' &=\frac{V'}{I'} \\\\ &=\frac{2V}{4I} \\\\ &=\left(\frac 12\right) \frac VI \\\\ \Rightarrow R' &=\frac 12 R \end{align*} As you can see, the new resistance is halved, which contradicts the assumption that for an ohmic material, the $R$ value should be constant.  

Therefore, we conclude that this conducting wire does not obey Ohm's law. 

This is a clear demonstration of the limitations of Ohm’s law and its applicability to real-world materials.

It’s important to remember that Ohm’s law is an idealized model and may not hold true under all circumstances.

Question: All lamps are identical in the circuit shown. If the switch is closed, what happens to the brightness of bulb A? 

Two bulb in parallel combination

Solution : In a parallel circuit, each lamp has its own independent circuit to the battery. Therefore, if one lamp fails (i.e., its filament breaks) or is added to the circuit by an on/off switch, it will not affect the other lamp.

The brightness of the remaining lamp will stay the same because the same amount of current will continue to flow through it.

This is one of the advantages of parallel circuits in practical applications like home lighting. Even if one light goes out, the others will continue to shine brightly.

Question: In the circuit illustrated, rank each branch of the circuits, from greatest to least, according to  (a) The voltage drop across each (b) The current through each 

Three bulb in a circuit and comparing their brightness using Ohms law

Solution: We want to solve this question without any mathematical calculation.  (a)  All three branches are in parallel with each other, so the potential drop of each is the same and equal to the voltage of the battery. \[V_C=V_A=V_B\] (b) Assuming an ideal battery (without internal resistance), the top branch has two resistors, the middle branch has one, and the third branch has none. The top branch is therefore more resistant than the other branches. On the other hand, they are all the same voltage.

Ohm's law states that any branch with more resistance draws less current as a result. As a result, we have \[I_C>I_B>I_A\]

Question: In the circuit illustrated, compare the brightness of each identical bulb. (a) Which bulbs draw the most current?  (b) What will happen if lamp $A$ is burned out? or if lamp $C$ is unscrewed?

Three bulb in a circuit and comparing their brightness using Ohms law

Solution : The light bulb's brightness intensity is determined by the wattage using (power) of that bulb. The power, also, is found using one of the following formulas \[P=VI=\frac{V^2}{R}=RI^2\] The more power the bulb dissipates, the brighter it shines.

The terminals of bulb C are connected directly to the battery, so the voltage across bulb C is the same as that of the battery. 

The three bulbs are identical, so the equivalent resistance 

This circuit is made up of two parallel branches. There is more resistance in the upper branch of the circuit, so according to Ohm's law $I=\frac VR$, less current passes through this branch than in the lower branch, including one resistor (bulb). \[i_{AB}<i_C\] Therefore, bulb C is the brightest because it draws more current than the top bulbs. 

(b) Both bulbs $A$ and $B$ are connected in series and share the same current. Failing a bulb connected in series to others, say $A$, stops flowing the current through that branch. Thus, both top bulbs no longer give light and are turned off. 

The lamp $C$ is connected in parallel with the other two bulbs and unscrewing it does not affect the others on the top branch, because it is connected directly to the terminals of the battery. Therefore, It glows as before. 

Question: We have two identical light bulbs and a battery. 

(a) Will they shine brighter if they are connected in series or in parallel?  (b) In which case does the battery drain faster?

Solution : Either the amount of current that flows through a lightbulb or the amount of power that it dissipates determines how bright it is. 

(a) When two bulbs are connected in series to an ideal battery, they share a common current determined by the following Ohm's law formula: \[I_1=I_2=\frac{V}{R_1+R_2}\] Setting $R_1=R_2=R$ gets \[I_1=I_2=\frac{V}{2R}\] In the case of a parallel combination of two resistors, the equivalent resistance is given by the following well-known formula: \[R_{eq}=\frac{R_1 R_2}{R_1+R_2}\] On the other hand, Ohm's law formula, $I=\frac{V}{R}$, gives us the current that passes through the battery. \begin{align*} I_{tot}&=\frac{V}{R_{eq}} \\\\ &=(R_1+R_2)\,\frac{V}{R_1 R_2}\end{align*} Again, for two identical bulbs (or resistors), we have \[I_{tot}=2\times \frac{V}{R}\] This is the current through each parallel branch. As a result, you can see that, if the bulbs are identical, the current in the parallel case is four times that in the series combination. (b) The amount of power dissipation by a battery determines how quickly it drains, which is given by the following power formula \[P_{diss}=VI_{tot}\] where $V$ is the voltage across the battery.  As you can see above, connecting two identical bulbs in parallel will draw more current from the battery than connecting them in series. Consequently, the more current is drawn from the battery, the more power is dissipated by it. \begin{gather*} I_{parallel} > I_{series} \\\\ P_{parallel} > P_{series} \end{gather*} 

Question: In the following circuits shown, all bulbs are identical. In each circuit, a voltmeter is connected across a single bulb to measure the voltage difference across it. Rank the voltage readings from greatest to least.

Determining the voltage drop across a bulb using Ohms law

Solution : The voltage drop across each bulb is found using Ohm's law: $\Delta V=I\times R$. Assume that every lightbulb has a resistance of $R$. The only thing left to do is determine the current flowing through each bulb. 

Keep in mind that in each circuit, the voltmeter is connected in parallel to the lightbulb.

For circuit (A), the voltage drop across the only bulb of the circuit is simply determined as \[\Delta V=\Delta V_A=I_A\times R\] where $I_A$ is the current through the bulb, which in this case, is also the same current as in the battery. $\Delta V$ is also the voltage difference across the battery. 

In the case of B, the two identical bulbs are connected in series. Therefore, according to the rules of series combination, the same current flows through each bulb, and the voltage drop in each bulb adds up to the voltage of the battery.

The equivalent resistance of this combination is $R_{eq}=R+R=2R$, and the total current through the battery (which is the same current as each bulb) is \begin{align*} I&=\frac{\Delta V}{2R} \\\\ &=\frac 12 \frac{\Delta V}{R} \\\\ &=\frac 12 I_A\end{align*}  Hence, the voltage drop across the bulb shown is \[\Delta V_B=I_B\times R = \boxed{\frac 12 I_A \times R}\] In the third circuit, only another identical bulb is added to the circuit. Thus, all calculations are similar to the second circuit, but with only a slight change. \begin{gather*} R_{eq}=R+R+R=3R \\\\ I=\frac{\Delta V}{R_{eq}}=\frac{\Delta V}{3R}=\frac 13 I_A \\\\ \Delta V_C=I_C \times R \\\\ \Delta V_C=\frac 13 I_A R \\\\ \Rightarrow \boxed{\Delta V_C=\frac 13 \Delta V_A} \end{gather*} Consequently, the rank of the voltage drop across each bulb from greatest to least is as follows \[\Delta V_A>\Delta V_B > \Delta V_C\] 

Question: If the voltage across a circuit increases by five times, then what would the current through the circuit be?

Solution : Assuming the circuit is made of a material that obeys Ohm's law, a change in voltage will change the current so that the ratio of $\frac{\Delta V}{I}$ becomes constant. 

Therefore, the current also increases five times to maintain the resistance of the circuit unchanged. 

Question: In a certain electric circuit including a cell, connecting wires, and a filament lightbulb, which of the following would cause the lightbulb to shine less brightly?  (a) Decrease or increase the resistance of the circuit. (b) Increase or decrease the voltage of the battery.

Solution : As long as the current through the filament lightbulb is small, we can assume Ohm's law will be obeyed.  (a) If a lightbulb shines less brightly, it means less current is passing through the filament (resistance). According to Ohm's law, the current is inversely proportional to the resistance. Therefore, an increase in the resistance will cause a decrease in the current through the filament, resulting in a dimmer lightbulb.

(b) The current through the filament is related to the voltage across it by $I=\frac{\Delta V}{R}$. Assuming the resistance of the lightbulb remains constant, the current is proportional to the voltage drop. Thus, an increase in voltage causes an increase in the current through the resistor, making the lightbulb shine brighter.

Question: A $12-\rm V$ battery is connected across a lightbulb with variable resistance. As the resistance increases, what happens to each of the following quantities? (a) The current through the lightbulb. (b) The voltage across the lightbulb. (c) The power consumed by the lightbulb. 

Solution : We have a circuit with a fixed-voltage battery of $12\,\rm V$, and a lightbulb (resistor) with variable resistance. We assume that the filament of the lightbulb is made up of a material that obeys Ohm's law. 

(a) According to Ohm's law, the current through a resistance is $I=\frac{\Delta V}{R}$. The voltage is assumed to be fixed, and the only alteration is due to the increases in the resistance. Thus, increasing the resistance decreases the current through the lightbulb filament.

(b) The voltage across the bulb is held constant by a battery and does not change with a change in circuit resistance.

(c) One of the following formulas can be used to calculate the power consumed by resistance in a circuit: \[P=I\Delta V=\frac{\Delta V^2}{R}=RI^2\] If we pick out the first formula, $P=I\Delta V$, as you can see in part (a), an increase in the resistance leads to a decrease in the current, and so does power. 

Ohm's Law: Homework Problems

The following are some homework questions appearing for Ohm's law are provided and answered. 

Problem (6): In the following circuits, find the unknowns. 

electric circuit with resistance and lamp

Solution : In each of the circuits, use Ohm's law $V=IR$ and solve for the unknown. In the left circuit, the current through the resistor is asked for in milliamps. Thus, \begin{align*} I&=\frac VR\\\\&=\frac{120}{100}\\\\&=1.2\quad {\rm A}\end{align*} To convert it to milliamperes, multiply it by $1000$, so we get $I=1200\,{\rm mA}$.

In the right circuit, the resistance of the light bulb is unknown. As a result, \begin{align*} R&=\frac VI\\&=\frac {24}{600\times 10^{-3}} \\\\&=40\quad {\rm \Omega}\end{align*}

Problem (7): In a circuit, the potential drop across the $10\,\rm k\Omega$-resistor is $100\,\rm V$. What is the current through the resistor? 

Solution: Substitute all known numerical values into Ohm's law equation, $V=IR$. \begin{align*} I&=\frac VR\\\\&=\frac{100\,{\rm V}}{10000\,{\rm \Omega}}\\\\&=0.01\quad {\rm A}\end{align*}

Problem (8): The voltage-current curve for an ohmic conductor is plotted as shown in the figure below. What is the resistance of resistors 1 and 2?

voltage-current for ohmic conductor

Solution : Ohm's law tells us that resistance is the slope of the voltage vs. current curve $R =\frac{\Delta V}{I}$. Recall that the slope $m$ of a straight line between two points $A(x_1,y_1)$ and $B(x_2,y_2)$ is determined as \[m=\frac{\Delta y}{\Delta x}=\frac{y_2-y_1}{x_2-x_1}\] Thus, the slope of the voltage-current curve, which is the resistance, is obtained as below: The points $A(0,0)$ and $B(2,20)$ are on the line (1):\[R_1=\frac{20-0}{2-0}=10\quad{\rm \Omega}\] The points $A(0,0)$ and $B(4,10)$ are on the line (2):\[R_2=\frac{10-0}{4-0}=2.5\quad{\rm \Omega}\]

Problem (9): Reverse the position of the potential drop across a conductor and the current passing through it in the previous problem, so that the current-voltage curve is obtained. Now, find the resistance of resistors $1$ and $2$.

Solution : if we rearrange Ohm's law as $I=\frac{1}{R}\Delta V$, we can see that the slope of the current-voltage curve, in this case, gives the inverse of the resistance. Therefore, as in the previous problem,  the slope of the line (1) is \[\frac{1}{R_1}=\frac{20-0}{2-0}=10\] which gets the $R_1=0.1\,{\rm \Omega}$ and slope of the line (2) is \[\frac{1}{R_2}=\frac{10-0}{4-0}=2.5\] which gives $R_2=0.4\,{\rm \Omega}$. 

Problem (10): A student conducts an experiment and measures the current and voltage across two unknown resistors. Then she plots her findings in current-voltage coordinates, as shown in the figure. What can be said about resistors A and B? 

voltage-current curve for nonohmic material

Solution : Ohmic materials are the ones that have constant resistance over a wide range of applied voltages. In other words, in an ohmic conductor, the ratio of the voltage across it to the current through it, which is defined as resistance, is always constant. 

Thus, ohmic materials have a linear current-voltage relationship, and their curve passes through the origin. In contrast, materials with a resistance that changes with a potential drop or current are called non-ohmic. 

The curve of a non-ohmic material is not linear. Examples of non-ohmic materials that violate Ohm's law are diodes and transistors. 

With these explanations, as the curve of (A) is linear and passes through the origin, it is an ohmic conductor whose slope gives the reciprocal of the resistance. As in the previous problem, its resistance is calculated as $R_A=5\,{\rm \Omega}$. 

The resistor (B) has a nonlinear relationship between the voltage across it and the current, so it is a non-ohmic conductor with variable resistance. 

Problem (11): A subwoofer needs a household voltage of 110 V to push a current of 5.5 A through its coil. What is the resistance of the subwoofer?

Solution : Known are the voltage difference $V=110\,{\rm V}$ and current $I=5.5\,{\rm A}$. Ohm's law relates them as below: \begin{align*} R&=\frac VI \\ \\ &=\frac{110}{5.5} \\ \\ &=20\quad {\rm \Omega}\end{align*}

Problem (12): How much current is drawn from a circuit with a resistor of 1000 ohms if powered by a battery with 1.5 volts?

Solution : Resistance $R=1000\,{\rm \Omega}$ and voltage $V=1.5\,{\rm V}$ are known, so we have \begin{align*}I&=\frac VR\\\\&= \frac{1.5}{1000} \\\\&= 1.5\quad {\rm mA}\end{align*}

Problem (13): An electric heater has a coiled metal wire that draws a current of 100 A. The resistance of the wire is 1.1 ohms. Calculate the voltage that must be established for it. 

Solution : Current $I=100\,{\rm A}$ and resistance $R=1.1\,{\rm \Omega}$ are related as \begin{align*} V&=IR\\&=100\times 1.1\\&=110\quad {\rm V}\end{align*}

Problem (14): The maximum current that passes through a light bulb with a resistance of 5 ohms is 10 A. How much voltage must be applied across its ends before the bulb will break?

Solution : The maximum voltage can be found using Ohm's law as below: \begin{align*} V&=IR \\ &= 10\times 5\\&=50 \quad {\rm V}\end{align*} If a voltage higher than this value is applied to the circuit, the lamp will burn out.  

Problem (15): In a circuit, we replace the previous 1.5-volt battery with a 3-volt new one. What happens to this circuit? 

Solution : Ohm's law tells us that when more voltage is established across a circuit, then a higher current will flow through the resistors in that circuit, like electric heaters, light bulbs, and so on. 

More current can cause damage or failure to household appliances. For example, a light bulb with a resistance of $R=1.5\,{\rm \Omega}$ draws a current of $I=\frac{1.5}{1.5}=1\,{\rm A}$ with a $1.5$ volt battery and a current of $I=\frac{3}{1.5}=2\,{\rm A}$ with a replacement one. In these cases, the light bulb will most likely burn out. 

Ohm's law tells us that the current in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage drop across it and inversely proportional to the circuit's resistance: \[\text{Current}=\frac{\text{voltage}}{\text{resistance}}\] or \[I=\frac{V}{R}\] 

Author : Dr. Ali Nemati Page Created: 12/6/2020 Last Update: May 29, 2023

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  • Solving Law Firm’s Biggest Problem: Outsourcing Legal Billing to Improve Collection and Profitability


Streamlining and improving the billing process in law firms is often perceived as a daunting task, fraught with complexities that can challenge even the most seasoned legal professionals. Billing is a time consuming, labor-intensive necessary evil that is often fraught with inaccuracies due to inefficiencies in process and extensive operational silos which can cost a law firm potentially millions of dollars each year.

According to a recent Thomson Reuters survey , the average law firm experiences an 18% realization loss due to billing challenges. This means that nearly one-fifth of billable work is not converted into revenue, negatively impacting the firm’s profitability. 81% of law firms report issues with a significant portion of invoices remaining unpaid or delayed, creating cash flow challenges. This is a huge revenue loss that is creating major problems for law firms, but there are solutions.

Why is legal billing so complex?

Most unique to attorneys is that their work is often time-consuming difficult to tangibly track. Tracking billable hours accurately requires meticulous attention to detail and can be particularly challenging when dealing with tasks that don't neatly fit into predefined categories. This creates problems because clients often have unique billing preferences and expectations ranging from traditional hourly billing to flat fees, contingency fees and/or blended rates. Accommodating these distinctive preferences for each client and integrating them into a billing system adds a layer of complexity to billing that makes it extremely labor intensive. Additionally, silos that exist within law firms in the form of practice groups or other operational units can make regularity in billing guidelines either difficult to understand or completely nonexistent.

Another complexity in legal billing is the regulatory compliance and ethical guidelines that must be adhered to. Some of these issues include fee agreements, billing transparency, client confidentiality, and conflicts of interest. Staying compliant with these regulations while meeting client expectations and maintaining profitability requires a thorough understanding of legal and professional standards.

While most law firms rely on billing software to streamline the process, integrating these systems with other practice management tools and ensuring data accuracy and security can present technical challenges that require ongoing maintenance and support.

Reasons to outsource billing

By streamlining the billing processes , law firms can reduce the risk of errors, and focus on core competencies. Technical expertise and best practices ensure process optimization and service quality. Outsourcing can be a valuable solution for law firms aiming to stabilize their cash flow, reduce costs, and improve overall efficiency.

  • Access to Advanced Technology: Outsourcing billing often provides access to advanced billing technologies and software platforms that may be cost-prohibitive for smaller law firms to implement independently. These technologies can automate billing processes, provide real-time reporting and analytics, and offer insights into billing trends and patterns that allow firms to optimize their billing practices for greater efficiency and profitability Additionally, predictive AI can provide billing staff with powerful tools to wade through complex billing guidelines in a timely manner, increasing productivity within billing departments.
  • Expertise and Accuracy: Billing processes can be complex, especially in law firms where billing requirements may vary from client to client and case to case. Outsourcing billing to specialized professionals ensures that billing is handled by experts who are well-versed in legal billing practices. This expertise leads to greater accuracy in invoicing, reducing the likelihood of errors or discrepancies that could lead to disputes or delays in payment. This also leads to more standardized output.
  • Centralization: Often, billing departments in law firms are segregated either geographically or by practice area, leading to inefficiencies and lack of scalability. Centralizing billing can assist by allowing billing to be looked at holistically as a firm rather than piecemeal, leading to a more effective business model for financial processes.
  • Efficiency and Timeliness: Outsourcing billing allows law firms to streamline their billing processes and improve efficiency. Billing professionals have the necessary tools and systems in place to generate invoices promptly and ensure timely submission to clients. This helps expedite the payment cycle, leading to improved cash flow for the firm.
  • Cost Savings: While some may initially view outsourcing as an additional expense, it often proves to be a cost-effective solution in the long run. By outsourcing billing, law firms eliminate the need to hire and train in-house billing staff, invest in billing software, and bear the overhead costs associated with maintaining billing infrastructure, lowering both soft and hard operational costs and simplifying a billing budget. Additionally, outsourcing billing allows firms to scale their billing operations up or down as needed without incurring significant fixed costs.
  • Compliance and Regulation: Legal billing is subject to various regulations and compliance requirements, including those related to client confidentiality, billing transparency, and fee agreements. Outsourcing billing to professionals who are experts in these regulations helps ensure compliance and mitigates the risk of potential legal or ethical issues arising from billing practices.
  • Focus on Core Competencies: Attorneys and legal staff excel in providing legal counsel and representation, but are not usually trained in managing billing and administrative tasks, and even if they are, legal staff turning their attention to these tasks from an administrative perspective harms the firm’s bottom line by taking time away from client-facing, billable projects. By outsourcing billing, law firms can free up valuable time and resources to concentrate on what they do best, which is serving clients legal needs.
  • Enhanced Client Satisfaction: Timely and accurate billing contributes to a positive client experience. By outsourcing billing , law firms can ensure that clients receive clear, transparent invoices in a timely manner, enhancing client satisfaction and fostering long-term client relationships.

Legal billing is a challenge that costs firms millions of dollars every year. It has become such an issue that many of law firms have said this is their main priority to fix by 2025. Centralized teams face challenges due to the varied requirements of different attorneys and clients. The benefits to outsourcing billing not only will help realization rates but will foster a better relationship with clients and will help alleviate headaches of both lawyers and legal administrators as well.

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DEA Releases 2024 National Drug Threat Assessment

WASHINGTON – Today, DEA Administrator Anne Milgram announced the release of the 2024 National Drug Threat Assessment (NDTA), DEA’s comprehensive strategic assessment of illicit drug threats and trafficking trends endangering the United States.

For more than a decade, DEA’s NDTA has been a trusted resource for law enforcement agencies, policy makers, and prevention and treatment specialists and has been integral in informing policies and laws. It also serves as a critical tool to inform and educate the public.

DEA’s top priority is reducing the supply of deadly drugs in our country and defeating the two cartels responsible for the vast majority of drug trafficking in the United States. The drug poisoning crisis remains a public safety, public health, and national security issue, which requires a new approach.

“The shift from plant-based drugs, like heroin and cocaine, to synthetic, chemical-based drugs, like fentanyl and methamphetamine, has resulted in the most dangerous and deadly drug crisis the United States has ever faced,” said DEA Administrator Anne Milgram. “At the heart of the synthetic drug crisis are the Sinaloa and Jalisco cartels and their associates, who DEA is tracking world-wide. The suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and money launderers all play a role in the web of deliberate and calculated treachery orchestrated by these cartels. DEA will continue to use all available resources to target these networks and save American lives.”

Drug-related deaths claimed 107,941 American lives in 2022, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fentanyl and other synthetic opioids are responsible for approximately 70% of lives lost, while methamphetamine and other synthetic stimulants are responsible for approximately 30% of deaths.

Fentanyl is the nation’s greatest and most urgent drug threat. Two milligrams (mg) of fentanyl is considered a potentially fatal dose. Pills tested in DEA laboratories average 2.4 mg of fentanyl, but have ranged from 0.2 mg to as high as 9 mg. The advent of fentanyl mixtures to include other synthetic opioids, such as nitazenes, or the veterinary sedative xylazine have increased the harms associated with fentanyl.   Seizures of fentanyl, in both powder and pill form, are at record levels. Over the past two years seizures of fentanyl powder nearly doubled. DEA seized 13,176 kilograms (29,048 pounds) in 2023. Meanwhile, the more than 79 million fentanyl pills seized by DEA in 2023 is almost triple what was seized in 2021. Last year, 30% of the fentanyl powder seized by DEA contained xylazine. That is up from 25% in 2022.  

Social media platforms and encrypted apps extend the cartels’ reach into every community in the United States and across nearly 50 countries worldwide. Drug traffickers and their associates use technology to advertise and sell their products, collect payment, recruit and train couriers, and deliver drugs to customers without having to meet face-to-face. This new age of digital drug dealing has pushed the peddling of drugs off the streets of America and into our pockets and purses.

The cartels have built mutually profitable partnerships with China-based precursor chemical companies to obtain the necessary ingredients to manufacturer synthetic drugs. They also work in partnership with Chinese money laundering organizations to launder drug proceeds and are increasingly using cryptocurrency.

Nearly all the methamphetamines sold in the United States today is manufactured in Mexico, and it is purer and more potent than in years past. The shift to Mexican-manufactured methamphetamine is evidenced by the dramatic decline in domestic clandestine lab seizures. In 2023, DEA’s El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) documented 60 domestic methamphetamine clandestine lab seizures, which is a stark comparison to 2004 when 23,700 clandestine methamphetamine labs were seized in the United States.

DEA’s NDTA gathers information from many data sources, such as drug investigations and seizures, drug purity, laboratory analysis, and information on transnational and domestic criminal groups.

It is available to view or download.

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problem solving law question

‘Law & Order: SVU’ Season 25 Finale Brings in Stabler for Important Conversation, Plus Who’s Shot? (RECAP)

Ice T as Sgt. Odafin

Spoiler Alert

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For exclusive news and updates, subscribe to our law & order: special victims unit newsletter :.

[Warning: The below contains MAJOR spoilers for the Law & Order: SVU Season 25 Finale “Duty to Hope.”]

Pressure is high to catch a rapist in the  SVU Season 25 finale.

There have been four victims in the past six months, and their unknown subject is escalating. He uses a coat hanger to bind his victims and sexually assaults them with a gun; the latest is still in the ICU. Not making it any easier is ADA Heidi Russell (Kate Loprest), the new chief of the Trial Division, isn’t exactly making any friends—with Benson ( Mariska Hargitay ) or Carisi ( Peter Scanavino ), the only one of the two who does work for her. In fact, she’s fine with charging a man, Hedges, who seems good for the attack that occurs near the beginning of this episode (his fingerprint at the scene)—and that man even pleads guilty—but then there’s another assault.

Russell still believes that Hedges is good for the crime he’s confessed to, even though the others think he was just pressured by his incompetent public defender. And the latest attack does give them a lead: A neighbor interrupted it, and the woman was able to kick the rapist’s engraved leather holster under the stove when he ran. The engraving points to a special ops branch of the Marines. Could this man and Hedges be working together? There’s nothing to suggest that.

'SVU’ Is Finally Solving Its Rollins Problem

'SVU’ Is Finally Solving Its Rollins Problem

Benson sends everyone home to live their lives… and that’s when Fin ( Ice-T ) is surprised by a kid holding him at gunpoint as he’s throwing out the trash. This kid is Hedges’ son, and he insists his father is innocent. In the ensuing scuffle, Fin is shot in the arm, and he tells the kid to get out of there and he won’t tell anyone. He then tries to treat the wound himself and turns in the gun claiming a neighbor gave it to him, but then he collapses and ends up in the hospital. He does, when she pushes, tell Benson what happened, and she sends him to talk to Hedges in Rikers with Carisi. It’s then that they realize how his fingerprint got on the inside of a glass door in the victim’s apartment: He worked in a home and hardware store that sold it.

Touch DNA on the leather holster IDs the rapist: Glenn Duncan, an ex-Marine who was dishonorably discharged in 2019. With IDs from two victims, Benson, the squad, and ESU go to his apartment, and he immediately begins shooting at them from his window. He hits an officer, and Benson puts herself in the line of fire to drive over and get him back to the paramedics. Benson tries to talk to Glenn over the phone, but he says either he goes down shooting or goes to prison for the rest of his life. He holds his girlfriend hostage, but when ESU moves in, they’re able to save her. And Glenn is good for all the assaults. Hedges will get out. Fin goes to tell his son and brings him to pick his dad up from Rikers—and make it clear he never wants to catch him touching a gun again.

While Benson says she would love to go with Fin to tell Hedges’ son, she says she has somewhere to be: Maddie’s 16th birthday. Maddie’s mom thanks Benson for taking her daughter to therapy; she’s on the road to recovery. She suggests she needs a compass like Benson has around her neck (the one from Stabler) to navigate what’s going on in her life—and Benson tells her she can borrow the necklace! “This has gotten me through some tough times, and you can return it whenever you want. It’s not like we’re going to lose touch,” the captain points out.

The episode ends with Benson calling Stabler ( Christopher Meloni ) to check in and tell him. “The necklace, the compass that you gave me last year. …  I haven’t taken it off since you gave it to me, and I wanted to let you know it has been incredibly meaningful to me and it has guided me in terms of my healing,” she says. “I’m glad,” he tells her. He also knows exactly who she means when she reveals she lent it to someone. “Sounds like she needed it a lot more than you do,” he remarks. “I knew you’d understand,” she tells him, and the season ends with them still talking.

What did you think of the  SVU finale and Benson giving away the compass necklace for now? Let us know in the comments section, below.

Law & Order: SVU , Season 26, Fall 2024, NBC

If you or someone you know is the victim of sexual assault, contact the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network ‘s National Helpline at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911.

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Home > ETD > Doctoral > 5513

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Recommendations for solving the problem of low teacher retention for houston independent school district in houston, texas.

Jordyn L. Jarrett , Liberty University Follow

School of Education

Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)

Mondy Brewer

retention, shortage, coherence


Recommended citation.

Jarrett, Jordyn L., "Recommendations for Solving the Problem of Low Teacher Retention for Houston Independent School District in Houston, Texas" (2024). Doctoral Dissertations and Projects . 5513.

The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations to solve the problem of low teacher retention for the Houston Independent School District (HISD) in Houston, Texas. The problem was that 25% of teachers resigned from HISD (Carpenter, 2019). This makes the teacher retention rate for HISD the lowest among Houston-area school districts at only 75%. The rationale for the research was by improving the teacher retention rate, the area teacher shortage will decrease. Additionally, students in the district will be provided with qualified teachers and equitable learning opportunities. This may improve student achievement on state mandated testing. Furthermore, maintaining teachers within the district may help create coherence within colleagues and administration at the schools. The central research question was, how can the problem of low teacher retention rate for Houston Independent School District in Houston, Texas, be solved? Three methods of data collection for this applied research included interviews, a focus group, and a quantitative survey. Qualitative data was analyzed by identifying common codes. Once coding was complete, overall themes were established. The quantitative survey was analyzed on a 5-point score question by question basis. Overall percentage scores for each question were calculated. Following data analysis, findings for the study and recommendations were established. Recommendations to solve the problem of low teacher retention at HISD include increasing levels of administrative support, reducing teacher workload, and improving school resources.

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A Plan to Remake the Middle East

While talks for a cease-fire between israel and hamas continue, another set of negotiations is happening behind the scenes..

This transcript was created using speech recognition software. While it has been reviewed by human transcribers, it may contain errors. Please review the episode audio before quoting from this transcript and email [email protected] with any questions.

From New York Times, I’m Michael Barbaro. This is The Daily.


Today, if and when Israel and Hamas reach a deal for a ceasefire fire, the United States will immediately turn to a different set of negotiations over a grand diplomatic bargain that it believes could rebuild Gaza and remake the Middle East. My colleague Michael Crowley has been reporting on that plan and explains why those involved in it believe they have so little time left to get it done.

It’s Wednesday, May 8.

Michael, I want to start with what feels like a pretty dizzying set of developments in this conflict over the past few days. Just walk us through them?

Well, over the weekend, there was an intense round of negotiations in an effort, backed by the United States, to reach a ceasefire in the Gaza war.

The latest ceasefire proposal would reportedly see as many as 33 Israeli hostages released in exchange for potentially hundreds of Palestinian prisoners.

US officials were very eager to get this deal.

Pressure for a ceasefire has been building ahead of a threatened Israeli assault on Rafah.

Because Israel has been threatening a military offensive in the Southern Palestinian city of Rafah, where a huge number of people are crowded.

Fleeing the violence to the North. And now they’re packed into Rafah. Exposed and vulnerable, they need to be protected.

And the US says it would be a humanitarian catastrophe on top of the emergency that’s already underway.

Breaking news this hour — very important breaking news. An official Hamas source has told The BBC that it does accept a proposal for a ceasefire deal in Gaza.

And for a few hours on Monday, it looked like there might have been a major breakthrough when Hamas put out a statement saying that it had accepted a negotiating proposal.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says the ceasefire proposal does not meet his country’s requirements. But Netanyahu says he will send a delegation of mediators to continue those talks. Now, the terms —

But those hopes were dashed pretty quickly when the Israelis took a look at what Hamas was saying and said that it was not a proposal that they had agreed to. It had been modified.

And overnight —

Israeli troops stormed into Rafah. Video showing tanks crashing over a sign at the entrance of the city.

— the Israelis launched a partial invasion of Rafah.

It says Hamas used the area to launch a deadly attack on Israeli troops over the weekend.

And they have now secured a border crossing at the Southern end of Gaza and are conducting targeted strikes. This is not yet the full scale invasion that President Biden has adamantly warned Israel against undertaking, but it is an escalation by Israel.

So while all that drama might suggest that these talks are in big trouble, these talks are very much still alive and ongoing and there is still a possibility of a ceasefire deal.

And the reason that’s so important is not just to stop the fighting in Gaza and relieve the suffering there, but a ceasefire also opens the door to a grand diplomatic bargain, one that involves Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians, and would have very far-reaching implications.

And what is that grand bargain. Describe what you’re talking about?

Well, it’s incredibly ambitious. It would reshape Israel’s relationship with its Arab neighbors, principally Saudi Arabia. But it’s important to understand that this is a vision that has actually been around since well before October 7. This was a diplomatic project that President Biden had been investing in and negotiating actually in a very real and tangible way long before the Hamas attacks and the Gaza war.

And President Biden was looking to build on something that President Trump had done, which was a series of agreements that the Trump administration struck in which Israel and some of its Arab neighbors agreed to have normal diplomatic relations for the first time.

Right, they’re called the Abraham Accords.

That’s right. And, you know, Biden doesn’t like a lot of things, most things that Trump did. But he actually likes this, because the idea is that they contribute to stability and economic integration in the Middle East, the US likes Israel having friends and likes having a tight-knit alliance against Iran.

President Biden agrees with the Saudis and with the Israelis, that Iran is really the top threat to everybody here. So, how can you build on this? How can you expand it? Well, the next and biggest step would be normalizing relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia.

And the Saudis have made clear that they want to do this and that they’re ready to do this. They weren’t ready to do it in the Trump years. But Mohammed bin Salman, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, has made clear he wants to do it now.

So this kind of triangular deal began to take shape before October 7, in which the US, Israel, and Saudi Arabia would enter this three way agreement in which everyone would get something that they wanted.

And just walk through what each side gets in this pre-October 7th version of these negotiations?

So for Israel, you get normalized ties with its most important Arab neighbor and really the country that sets the tone for the whole Muslim world, which is Saudi Arabia of course. It makes Israel feel safer and more secure. Again, it helps to build this alliance against Iran, which Israel considers its greatest threat, and it comes with benefits like economic ties and travel and tourism. And Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has been very open, at least before October 7th, that this was his highest diplomatic and foreign policy priority.

For the Saudis, the rationale is similar when it comes to Israel. They think that it will bring stability. They like having a more explicitly close ally against Iran. There are economic and cultural benefits. Saudi Arabia is opening itself up in general, encouraging more tourism.

But I think that what’s most important to the Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Salman, is what he can get from the United States. And what he has been asking for are a couple of essential things. One is a security agreement whose details have always been a little bit vague, but I think essentially come down to reliable arms supplies from the United States that are not going to be cut off or paused on a whim, as he felt happened when President Biden stopped arms deliveries in 2021 because of how Saudi was conducting its war in Yemen. The Saudis were furious about that.

Saudi Arabia also wants to start a domestic nuclear power program. They are planning for a very long-term future, possibly a post-oil future. And they need help getting a nuclear program off the ground.

And they want that from the US?

And they want that from the US.

Now, those are big asks from the us. But from the perspective of President Biden, there are some really enticing things about this possible agreement. One is that it will hopefully produce more stability in the region. Again, the US likes having a tight-knit alliance against Iran.

The US also wants to have a strong relationship with Saudi Arabia. You know, despite the anger at Mohammed bin Salman over the murder of the Saudi dissident Jamal Khashoggi, the Biden administration recognizes that given the Saudis control over global oil production and their strategic importance in the Middle East, they need to have a good relationship with them. And the administration has been worried about the influence of China in the region and with the Saudis in particular.

So this is an opportunity for the US to draw the Saudis closer. Whatever our moral qualms might be about bin Salman and the Saudi government, this is an opportunity to bring the Saudis closer, which is something the Biden administration sees as a strategic benefit.

All three of these countries — big, disparate countries that normally don’t see eye-to-eye, this was a win-win-win on a military, economic, and strategic front.

That’s right. But there was one important actor in the region that did not see itself as winning, and that was the Palestinians.


First, it’s important to understand that the Palestinians have always expected that the Arab countries in the Middle East would insist that Israel recognize a Palestinian state before those countries were willing to essentially make total peace and have normal relations with Israel.

So when the Abraham Accords happened in the Trump administration, the Palestinians felt like they’d been thrown under the bus because the Abraham Accords gave them virtually nothing. But the Palestinians did still hold out hope that Saudi Arabia would be their savior. And for years, Saudi Arabia has said that Israel must give the Palestinians a state if there’s going to be a normal relationship between Israel and Saudi Arabia.

Now the Palestinians see the Saudis in discussions with the US and Israel about a normalization agreement, and there appears to be very little on offer for the Palestinians. And they are feeling like they’re going to be left out in the cold here.

Right. And in the minds of the Palestinians, having already been essentially sold out by all their other Arab neighbors, the prospect that Saudi Arabia, of all countries, the most important Muslim Arab country in the region, would sell them out, had to be extremely painful.

It was a nightmare scenario for them. And in the minds of many analysts and US officials, this was a factor, one of many, in Hamas’s decision to stage the October 7th attacks.

Hamas, like other Palestinian leaders, was seeing the prospect that the Middle East was moving on and essentially, in their view, giving up on the Palestinian cause, and that Israel would be able to have friendly, normal relations with Arab countries around the region, and that it could continue with hardline policies toward the Palestinians and a refusal, as Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has said publicly, to accept a Palestinian state.

Right. So Michael, once Hamas carries out the October 7th attacks in an effort to destroy a status quo that it thinks is leaving them less and less relevant, more and more hopeless, including potentially this prospect that Saudi Arabia is going to normalize relations with Israel, what happens to these pre-October 7th negotiations between the US, Saudi Arabia, and Israel?

Well, I think there was a snap assumption that these talks were dead and buried. That they couldn’t possibly survive a cataclysm like this.

But then something surprising happened. It became clear that all the parties were still determined to pull-off the normalization.

And most surprisingly of all, perhaps, was the continued eagerness of Saudi Arabia, which publicly was professing outrage over the Israeli response to the Hamas attacks, but privately was still very much engaged in these conversations and trying to move them forward.

And in fact, what has happened is that the scope of this effort has grown substantially. October 7th didn’t kill these talks. It actually made them bigger, more complicated, and some people would argue, more important than ever.

We’ll be right back.

Michael, walk us through what exactly happens to these three-way negotiations after October 7th that ends up making them, as you just said, more complicated and more important than ever?

Well, it’s more important than ever because of the incredible need in Gaza. And it’s going to take a deal like this and the approval of Saudi Arabia to unlock the kind of massive reconstruction project required to essentially rebuild Gaza from the rubble. Saudi Arabia and its Arab friends are also going to be instrumental in figuring out how Gaza is governed, and they might even provide troops to help secure it. None of those things are going to happen without a deal like this.


But this is all much more complicated now because the price for a deal like this has gone up.

And by price, you mean?

What Israel would have to give up. [MUSIC PLAYING]

From Saudi Arabia’s perspective, you have an Arab population that is furious at Israel. It now feels like a really hard time to do a normalization deal with the Israelis. It was never going to be easy, but this is about as bad a time to do it as there has been in a generation at least. And I think that President Biden and the people around him understand that the status quo between Israel and the Palestinians is intolerable and it is going to lead to chaos and violence indefinitely.

So now you have two of the three parties to this agreement, the Saudis and the Americans, basically asking a new price after October 7th, and saying to the Israelis, if we’re going to do this deal, it has to not only do something for the Palestinians, it has to do something really big. You have to commit to the creation of a Palestinian state. Now, I’ll be specific and say that what you hear the Secretary of State, Antony Blinken, say is that the agreement has to include an irreversible time-bound path to a Palestinian state.

We don’t know exactly what that looks like, but it’s some kind of a firm commitment, the likes of which the world and certainly the Israelis have not made before.

Something that was very much not present in the pre-October 7th vision of this negotiation. So much so that, as we just talked about, the Palestinians were left feeling completely out in the cold and furious at it.

That’s right. There was no sign that people were thinking that ambitiously about the Palestinians in this deal before October 7th. And the Palestinians certainly felt like they weren’t going to get much out of it. And that has completely changed now.

So, Michael, once this big new dimension after October 7th, which is the insistence by Saudi Arabia and the US that there be a Palestinian state or a path to a Palestinian state, what is the reaction specifically from Israel, which is, of course, the third major party to this entire conversation?

Well, Israel, or at least its political leadership, hates it. You know, this is just an extremely tough sell in Israel. It would have been a tough sell before October 7th. It’s even harder now.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is completely unrepentantly open in saying that there’s not going to be a Palestinian state on his watch. He won’t accept it. He says that it’s a strategic risk to his country. He says that it would, in effect, reward Hamas.

His argument is that terrorism has forced a conversation about statehood onto the table that wasn’t there before October 7th. Sure, it’s always in the background. It’s a perennial issue in global affairs, but it was not something certainly that the US and Israel’s Arab neighbors were actively pushing. Netanyahu also has — you know, he governs with the support of very right-wing members of a political coalition that he has cobbled together. And that coalition is quite likely to fall apart if he does embrace a Palestinian state or a path to a Palestinian state.

Now, he might be able to cobble together some sort of alternative, but it creates a political crisis for him.

And finally, you know, I think in any conversation about Israel, it’s worth bearing in mind something you hear from senior US officials these days, which is that although there is often finger pointing at Netanyahu and a desire to blame Netanyahu as this obstructionist who won’t agree to deals, what they say is Netanyahu is largely reflecting his population and the political establishment of his country, not just the right-wingers in his coalition who are clearly extremist.

But actually the prevailing views of the Israeli public. And the Israeli public and their political leaders across the spectrum right now with few exceptions, are not interested in talking about a Palestinian state when there are still dozens and dozens of Israeli hostages in tunnels beneath Gaza.

So it very much looks like this giant agreement that once seemed doable before October 7th might be more important to everyone involved than ever, given that it’s a plan for rebuilding Gaza and potentially preventing future October 7th’s from happening, but because of this higher price that Israel would have to pay, which is the acceptance of a Palestinian state, it seems from everything you’re saying, that this is more and more out of reach than ever before and hard to imagine happening in the immediate future. So if the people negotiating it are being honest, Michael, are they ready to acknowledge that it doesn’t look like this is going to happen?

Well, not quite yet. As time goes by, they certainly say it’s getting harder and harder, but they’re still trying, and they still think there’s a chance. But both the Saudis and the Biden administration understand that there’s very little time left to do this.

Well, what do you mean there’s very little time left? It would seem like time might benefit this negotiation in that it might give Israel distance from October 7th to think potentially differently about a Palestinian state?

Potentially. But Saudi Arabia wants to get this deal done in the Biden administration because Mohammed bin Salman has concluded this has to be done under a Democratic president.

Because Democrats in Congress are going to be very reluctant to approve a security agreement between the United States and Saudi Arabia.

It’s important to understand that if there is a security agreement, that’s something Congress is going to have to approve. And you’re just not going to get enough Democrats in Congress to support a deal with Saudi Arabia, who a lot of Democrats don’t like to begin with, because they see them as human rights abusers.

But if a Democratic president is asking them to do it, they’re much more likely to go along.

Right. So Saudi Arabia fears that if Biden loses and Trump is president, that those same Democrats would balk at this deal in a way that they wouldn’t if it were being negotiated under President Biden?

Exactly. Now, from President Biden’s perspective, politically, think about a president who’s running for re-election, who is presiding right now over chaos in the Middle East, who doesn’t seem to have good answers for the Israeli-Palestinian question, this is an opportunity for President Biden to deliver what could be at least what he would present as a diplomatic masterstroke that does multiple things at once, including creating a new pathway for Israel and the Palestinians to coexist, to break through the logjam, even as he is also improving Israel’s relations with Saudi Arabia.

So Biden and the Crown Prince hope that they can somehow persuade Bibi Netanyahu that in spite of all the reasons that he thinks this is a terrible idea, that this is a bet worth taking on Israel’s and the region’s long-term security and future?

That’s right. Now, no one has explained very clearly exactly how this is going to work, and it’s probably going to require artful diplomacy, possibly even a scenario where the Israelis would agree to something that maybe means one thing to them and means something else to other people. But Biden officials refuse to say that it’s hopeless and they refuse to essentially take Netanyahu’s preliminary no’s for an answer. And they still see some way that they can thread this incredibly narrow needle.

Michael, I’m curious about a constituency that we haven’t been talking about because they’re not at the table in these discussions that we are talking about here. And that would be Hamas. How does Hamas feel about the prospect of such a deal like this ever taking shape. Do they see it as any kind of a victory and vindication for what they did on October 7th?

So it’s hard to know exactly what Hamas’s leadership is thinking. I think they can feel two things. I think they can feel on the one hand, that they have established themselves as the champions of the Palestinian people who struck a blow against Israel and against a diplomatic process that was potentially going to leave the Palestinians out in the cold.

At the same time, Hamas has no interest in the kind of two-state solution that the US is trying to promote. They think Israel should be destroyed. They think the Palestinian state should cover the entire geography of what is now Israel, and they want to lead a state like that. And that’s not something that the US, Saudi Arabia, or anyone else is going to tolerate.

So what Hamas wants is to fight, to be the leader of the Palestinian people, and to destroy Israel. And they’re not interested in any sort of a peace process or statehood process.

It seems very clear from everything you’ve said here that neither Israel nor Hamas is ready to have the conversation about a grand bargain diplomatic program. And I wonder if that inevitably has any bearing on the ceasefire negotiations that are going on right now between the two of them that are supposed to bring this conflict to some sort of an end, even if it’s just temporary?

Because if, as you said, Michael, a ceasefire opens the door to this larger diplomatic solution, and these two players don’t necessarily want that larger diplomatic solution, doesn’t that inevitably impact their enthusiasm for even reaching a ceasefire?

Well, it certainly doesn’t help. You know, this is such a hellish problem. And of course, you first have the question of whether Israel and Hamas can make a deal on these immediate issues, including the hostages, Palestinian prisoners, and what the Israeli military is going to do, how long a ceasefire might last.

But on top of that, you have these much bigger diplomatic questions that are looming over them. And it’s not clear that either side is ready to turn and face those bigger questions.

So while for the Biden administration and for Saudi Arabia, this is a way out of this crisis, these larger diplomatic solutions, it’s not clear that it’s a conversation that the two parties that are actually at war here are prepared to start having.

Well, Michael, thank you very much. We appreciate it.

On Tuesday afternoon, under intense pressure from the US, delegations from Israel and Hamas arrived in Cairo to resume negotiations over a potential ceasefire. But in a statement, Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu made clear that even with the talks underway, his government would, quote, “continue to wage war against Hamas.”

Here’s what else you need to know today. In a dramatic day of testimony, Stormy Daniels offered explicit details about an alleged sexual encounter with Donald Trump that ultimately led to the hush money payment at the center of his trial. Daniels testified that Trump answered the door in pajamas, that he told her not to worry that he was married, and that he did not use a condom when they had sex.

That prompted lawyers for Trump to seek a mistrial based on what they called prejudicial testimony. But the judge in the case rejected that request. And,

We’ve seen a ferocious surge of anti-Semitism in America and around the world.

In a speech on Tuesday honoring victims of the Holocaust, President Biden condemned what he said was the alarming rise of anti-Semitism in the United States after the October 7th attacks on Israel. And he expressed worry that too many Americans were already forgetting the horrors of that attack.

The Jewish community, I want you to know I see your fear, your hurt, and your pain. Let me reassure you, as your president, you’re not alone. You belong. You always have and you always will.

Today’s episode was produced by Nina Feldman, Clare Toeniskoetter, and Rikki Novetsky. It was edited by Liz O. Baylen, contains original music by Marion Lozano, Elisheba Ittoop, and Dan Powell, and was engineered by Alyssa Moxley. Our theme music is by Jim Brunberg and Ben Landsverk of Wonderly.

That’s it for The Daily. I’m Michael Barbaro. See you tomorrow.

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  • May 9, 2024   •   34:42 One Strongman, One Billion Voters, and the Future of India
  • May 8, 2024   •   28:28 A Plan to Remake the Middle East
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Hosted by Michael Barbaro

Featuring Michael Crowley

Produced by Nina Feldman ,  Clare Toeniskoetter and Rikki Novetsky

Edited by Liz O. Baylen

Original music by Marion Lozano ,  Elisheba Ittoop and Dan Powell

Engineered by Alyssa Moxley

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If and when Israel and Hamas reach a deal for a cease-fire, the United States will immediately turn to a different set of negotiations over a grand diplomatic bargain that it believes could rebuild Gaza and remake the Middle East.

Michael Crowley, who covers the State Department and U.S. foreign policy for The Times, explains why those involved in this plan believe they have so little time left to get it done.

On today’s episode

problem solving law question

Michael Crowley , a reporter covering the State Department and U.S. foreign policy for The New York Times.

A young man is looking out at destroyed buildings from above.

Background reading :

Talks on a cease-fire in the Gaza war are once again at an uncertain stage .

Here’s how the push for a deal between Israel and Saudi Arabia looked before Oct. 7 .

From early in the war, President Biden has said that a lasting resolution requires a “real” Palestinian state .

Here’s what Israeli officials are discussing about postwar Gaza.

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The Daily is made by Rachel Quester, Lynsea Garrison, Clare Toeniskoetter, Paige Cowett, Michael Simon Johnson, Brad Fisher, Chris Wood, Jessica Cheung, Stella Tan, Alexandra Leigh Young, Lisa Chow, Eric Krupke, Marc Georges, Luke Vander Ploeg, M.J. Davis Lin, Dan Powell, Sydney Harper, Mike Benoist, Liz O. Baylen, Asthaa Chaturvedi, Rachelle Bonja, Diana Nguyen, Marion Lozano, Corey Schreppel, Rob Szypko, Elisheba Ittoop, Mooj Zadie, Patricia Willens, Rowan Niemisto, Jody Becker, Rikki Novetsky, John Ketchum, Nina Feldman, Will Reid, Carlos Prieto, Ben Calhoun, Susan Lee, Lexie Diao, Mary Wilson, Alex Stern, Dan Farrell, Sophia Lanman, Shannon Lin, Diane Wong, Devon Taylor, Alyssa Moxley, Summer Thomad, Olivia Natt, Daniel Ramirez and Brendan Klinkenberg.

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Michael Crowley covers the State Department and U.S. foreign policy for The Times. He has reported from nearly three dozen countries and often travels with the secretary of state. More about Michael Crowley



  1. How to Answer a Legal Problem Question

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  2. Law --Problem solving Assignment Example

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  3. Example Commercial Law Problem Question

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  4. Guide to Writing a Legal Problem Solving Answer

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  5. Sample Problem Question

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  6. Guide to Answering Problem Questions

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  1. Problem Question Help Guide

    Even though every problem question is different, there are some simple steps that you can follow for any scenario that will help you tackle it in a simple, clear and effective way. First things first, read the scenario. It might sound obvious, but you need to know what you're up against!

  2. How to Answer Law Questions Using the IRAC Method (Lecturer's Tips

    The rule defines which specific law is applicable to the legal issue(s) you have identified in your problem question. Identifying the legal rule which applies to your scenario involves some digging through your study materials to find the right cases and/or statute sections which will help you answer the legal question(s) which you asked in the first step (i.e. the legal issues).

  3. Example Problem Questions

    The example problem questions below were written by students to help you with your own studies. If you are looking for help with your problem question then we offer a comprehensive writing service provided by fully qualified academics in your field of study. Law Essay Writing Service.

  4. PDF Guidance on how to answer problem questions

    assessed while doing a law degree. A problem question usually takes the form of a factual scenario describing some event or events that have occurred. You are asked to 'sort out' this scenario in a legal sense - often by being asked to 'advise' one of the parties. This, in a way, is 'practice' for the real world of

  5. PDF How to approach and tackle a problem question

    Problem questions are so called because they typically involve a legal problem, that is, a factual scenario which requires the given law to be applied in pursuit of its resolution. It is unlikely, therefore, that any problem scenario you are given will be a settled or non-contentious issue. There will always be something to discuss.

  6. Tackling Problem Essay Questions in Law

    Problem questions are usually presented on law courses and this tutorial relates to law problem questions - but the methods described can easily be adapted to any other type of problem question. The formula for tackling a law/legal problem question is as follows: Offer a brief introduction identifying the relevant area of law and any major ...

  7. How do I answer problem questions?

    The best way to answer problem questions is to learn the technique. Examiners will expect you to answer problem questions in a particular way. Like with any type of exam, honing your technique is your best bet for problem questions too. In the case of problem questions, it's all about learning to apply your knowledge to the scenario.

  8. Writing Law Problem Questions

    This guide will explain how to answer a problem essay with eight handy tips. 1. Read the Facts. The first step to answering any law problem question is to read the entirety of the facts you are given. Do not just jump into answering the question. Take your time and ensure that you fully understand all the issue involved in the case.

  9. Legal problem solving: IRAC

    Legal problem solving is an essential skill for the study and practice of law. There are a number of legal problem solving models, with the most popular being IRAC (Issue, Rule, Application, Conclusion) and MIRAT (Material facts, Issue, Rule/Resources, Arguments, Tentative conclusion). Read more about MIRAT in this article Meet MIRAT: Legal ...

  10. Problem Questions for Law Students A Study Guide

    Law students rarely have experience answering problem questions before university, and lecturers concentrate on teaching content rather than the exam skills needed. This book bridges the gap on how to transpose knowledge and research into structured and coherent answers to problem questions while earning a law degree. Aimed at undergraduates, international students, and foundation and SQE ...

  11. Legal problem solving: Example 1 (Contract)

    Legal problem solving: Contracts example. A client approaches you for advice on a matter relating to breach of contract. Click the buttons below to read the facts of the scenario, and see how you could break it down using IRAC.

  12. The Art of Solving Legal Problem Questions

    The Four-Step Process: IRAC. The IRAC process for answering problem questions is my favourite acronym to use, and it stands for issue, rule, application, and conclusion. So, first you identifying the issue that you are dealing with and advising on; second, you identify the relevant legal rule applies; thirdly, you apply the rule to the issue at ...

  13. PDF Problem Solving for First-year Law Students J W S & T D. Rakoff

    First, the lawyer must find out from the facts and the client's goals what legal issues are relevant to solving the client's problem. Although in ordinary casebook courses students are told that the subject is, say, "Torts," in real life few clients come into a lawyer's office announcing: "I have a torts problem.".

  14. Law: Legal problem solving (IRAC)

    Legal problem solving is an essential skill for the study and practice of law. To do this, you'll need to: provide a conclusion on each legal issue. You will do legal problem solving in a range of assessments including problem questions for in-semester assessments, legal memos and often in final assessments. The format and audience will ...

  15. IRAC: How to Answer Law Problem Questions

    Problem questions can be quite problematic, if you don't know what to do. Luckily, they are also the easiest questions to answer — if you know your onions. The general technique that you can use to deal with any problem question is the simple formula: IRAC. If you understand how to use IRAC, dealing with problem questions will seem less ...

  16. Tort of Negligence Problem Question Case Study

    Tort of Negligence Problem Question. Molly is a single mother. She takes her daughter Rhonda (a two year old infant) to a local playground. While lighting a cigarette, Molly starts talking with another young parent, Dilbert. Molly is distracted by Dilbert's good looks and gritty charm. Meanwhile, Rhonda starts to wander over to the road.

  17. How To Answer Law Questions (Essay & Problem Questions)

    How to answer law questions: Over the years, law schools and law universities have evolved two methods of asking test or exam questions. They are the problem and essay questions patterns. Basically, these two ways of asking questions require a totally different ways of answering them that are different from the traditional ways of answering questions in the primary, secondary, and tertiary ...

  18. PDF How to Answer Problem Questions

    Heres the truth: problem questions are long. An essay question might only be a couple of lines but a problem question can often run for an entire page of A4. In an exam when it is you vs. the clock this can be an intimidating prospect and, to save on time, a lot of students will just dive straight in and start writing. That is a false economy.

  19. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton's Laws

    Sketch the situation, using arrows to represent all forces. Determine the system of interest. The result is a free-body diagram that is essential to solving the problem. Apply Newton's second law to solve the problem. If necessary, apply appropriate kinematic equations from the chapter on motion along a straight line.

  20. Ohm's Law Practice Problems

    Ohm's Law Formula. V = IR V = I R. In the formula for Ohm's Law, V V represents voltage measured in volts (V), I I is the current measured in amperes (A), and R R is the resistance measured in ohms (Ω). This formula is the cornerstone for analyzing and understanding electrical circuits, requiring two variables to solve.

  21. Newton's Law Problem Sets

    Problem 22: Brandon is the catcher for the Varsity baseball team. He exerts a forward force on the .145-kg baseball to bring it to rest from a speed of 38.2 m/s. During the process, his hand recoils a distance of 0.135 m. Determine the acceleration of the ball and the force which is applied to it by Brandon.

  22. Snell's law practice problems with answers

    Problem (3): A slab of glass has an index of refraction of 1.5 and is submerged in water with n=1.33 n = 1.33. A beam of monochrome light is incident on the slab and is refracted. (a) Find the angle of refraction if the angle of incidence is 30^\circ 30∘. (b) Now, assume that the light is initially in the glass and incident on the glass-water ...

  23. Ohm's Law Practice Problems With Solutions for High School

    Ohm's Law Practice Problems With Solutions for High School. Excel in solving any Ohm's law problems with this comprehensive guide. It's your ultimate toolkit for tackling homework and acing the AP Physics exam. If you are a teacher looking for a resource to assess your students, download this Ohm's law worksheet. Ohm's Law Practice Problems:

  24. Solving Law Firm's Biggest Problem: Outsourcing Legal Billing to

    Streamlining and improving the billing process in law firms is often perceived as a daunting task, fraught with complexities that can challenge even the most seasoned legal professionals. Billing ...

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    WASHINGTON - Today, DEA Administrator Anne Milgram announced the release of the 2024 National Drug Threat Assessment (NDTA), DEA's comprehensive strategic assessment of illicit drug threats and trafficking trends endangering the United States. For more than a decade, DEA's NDTA has been a trusted resource for law enforcement agencies, policy makers, and prevention and treatment ...

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    The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations to solve the problem of low teacher retention for the Houston Independent School District (HISD) in Houston, Texas. The problem was that 25% of teachers resigned from HISD (Carpenter, 2019). This makes the teacher retention rate for HISD the lowest among Houston-area school districts at only 75%. The rationale for the research was by ...

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