MINI REVIEW article

A review of teachers' sentiments and attitudes in inclusive education in china.

\nMin Yang

  • 1 The Engineering Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan, China
  • 2 Department of Student Affairs, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, China

Students should receive appropriate and comprehensive educational opportunities regardless of their ethnicity, gender, and even probable disabilities or exceptionalities. For this purpose, governments and educational boards have agreed to investigate the concept of inclusive education as a new paradigm where students can benefit from materials and classroom environment whether they are ordinary students or students with special needs. Chinese educational government has also adopted inclusive education within its pedagogic program since the middle of the 1990s. In this regard, some well-known researchers highlighted the impact of teachers' attitudes, sentiments, and concerns in inclusive education as a driving force toward student support and rapport. Moreover, the cultural background has also been emphasized in studies of inclusive education. Hence, it is necessary to employ the proposed and standardized attitude, sentiment, and concern scales, as well as the translated version to measure the factors affecting the proper implementation of inclusive pedagogy. The present study was an attempt to review related studies on teachers' attitudes and sentiments, particularly in China. Findings suggest that cultural differences might not necessarily contribute to the successful implementation of inclusive programs; however, pre-service or in-service teachers have demonstrated that higher levels of sentiment (efficacy), as well as positive attitude, can lead to the efficient provision of materials and building a supportive classroom environment for ordinary students and more importantly student with special needs.

Introduction

Educators and educational systems have always attempted to provide equal and appropriate education to students with special needs. Nevertheless, according to Calgary Board of Health (2008) , the concept of inclusion in education started to refer to providing opportunities to all students together, particularly those who belong to minorities, come from poor families, and are vulnerable. Besides, Loreman (1999) and Andrews and Lupart (2000) believed that educating all students impartially and within a shared instructive context is the key to inclusive education.

Loreman et al. (2008) asserted that mutual acceptance among students is regarded as a crucial aspect of inclusion classrooms where students can learn more and experience improved self-efficacy and motivation. Consequently, along with significant educational success among students with exceptionalities, inclusion education has also helped ordinary students improve academically ( Demeris et al., 2008 ).

Teachers' sentiments regarding the special educational needs for target students as well as teachers' positive attitude toward inclusion in education can lead to a better understanding of students' special conditions and provision of more appropriate support ( Burke and Sutherland, 2004 ). Hobbs and Westling (1998) asserted that appropriate training as well as positive experiences with exceptional students can result in teachers' positive attitudes toward inclusion.

In addition, Forlin (2008) argued that it is imperative to design and modify teacher education programs consistent with the advent of the educational inclusion paradigm. For instance, according to Article 24 proposed by United Nation (2006) , new teacher training courses should focus on the implementation of proper techniques, materials, and communication strategies tailored at supporting all students, even those with disabilities or special needs.

Inclusion in education has been introduced and developed around the globe for the last 4 decades. Deng and Harris (2008) proposed that inclusion programs emerged in the 1980s in China with a focus on providing mandatory schooling for students with disabilities. Moreover, Yan and Deng (2018) asserted that the Chinese Department of Education introduced the Action Plan for Implementing Inclusive Education in Elementary and Secondary Schools in 2013. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct related studies to determine factors influencing and the role of teachers' attitudes and sentiment toward inclusion education. Hence, the present study aimed at investigating previous studies on inclusion in China to identify strengths and weaknesses as well as to promote them within the Chinese context.

Theoretical Background

Effective and constant education should be delivered to every child in the community. Regardless of gender, ethnicity, economic status, and disabilities, the students should have the right to be provided with equal schooling ( Ainscow et al., 2011 ). Therefore, the concept of inclusion was proposed as an approach to engage students with disabilities in learning tasks within the classroom setting. As Foreman (2001) argued, inclusive education refers to the collaboration of such students with their classmates (normal students or students with disabilities) in ordinary schools.

Sharma et al. (2015) conducted a seminal study on influential factors in the implementation of inclusion education. They reported that the following factors can affect inclusion programs: context policies, proper employment of resources, social and cultural necessities, family's roles, and revisiting and adapting school activities. Furthermore, some researchers asserted that teacher-related factors can play a significant role in the proper adaptation of inclusion education, e.g., teachers' self-efficacy, concerns, and attitudes ( Avramidis and Norwich, 2002 ; Loreman et al., 2014 ; Specht, 2016 ) as well as demographic characteristics, type of disability, and teacher-training courses ( De Boer et al., 2011 ).

In an attempt to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure teachers' sentiment, attitudes, and concerns in the implementation of inclusive education, Loreman et al. (2007) conducted a seminal study and proposed a 19-item scale regarding the perception of teachers about inclusion programs accordingly, i.e., the sentiments, attitudes, and concerns about inclusive education (SACIE) scale. They further proposed that teachers' sentiment can help them deal with classes with students who have disabilities, teachers' attitude is also directly related to the successful implementation of teaching approaches, and finally, teachers' concern stems from their uncertainty about their capabilities and preparedness for inclusion schools.

Jordan et al. (2009) contended that teachers' sentiments and attitudes are the predictors of successful inclusion programs. In addition, Forlin et al. (2009) concluded that the implementation of inclusive pedagogy has led to the development and promotion of more positive attitudes and sentiment as well as reduced concerns among educators.

Following the global movement toward inclusive education and, particularly, the UNESCO declaration on Education for ALL (1990), the Chinese government and educational policies have highlighted the need for the implementation of inclusion pedagogy ( Liu and Jiang, 2008 ). More specifically, Deng and Poon-McBrayer (2004) contended that the initial measures concerning inclusion education in China were established in 1994 after the establishment of the learning in the regular classroom (LRC) program. Consequently, it is essential to design pre-service courses for teachers to raise awareness of features of inclusive education in the Chinese context. The present study aimed to review related studies and key empirical findings are introduced in the following section.

Empirical Studies

There is a great body of research on inclusion programs as well as the effectiveness of teachers' attitudes and sentiment (efficacy) in this regard. We will discuss related studies in terms of cultural diversity and teachers' characteristics.

Inclusive Education Across Cultures

According to Webber and Lupart (2011) , culture is believed to have an impact on inclusive education in different international contexts. For instance, Sharma et al. (2008) conducted a multi-cultural study highlighting educators' attitudes and concerns as well as sentiment about people with disabilities. They investigated 603 undergraduate teacher training programs (Australia = 245; Hong Kong of China = 182; Canada = 58; Singapore = 93). Then, the authors evaluated teachers' attitudes using attitudes toward inclusive education scale (ATIES), developed by Wilczenski (1992) . This scale consists of 16 items measuring participants' attitudes toward different aspects of inclusion: social, physical, academic, and behavioral. As a result, it was concluded that teacher training programs can lead to a significant change in pre-service students' attitudes in all contexts except Singapore.

Moreover, findings of Malinen's 2013 Ph.D. dissertation with regard to Chinese, Finnish, and South African pre-service and in-service teachers demonstrated that teachers' sentiment (efficacy) can be categorized as efficacy in collaboration, efficacy in inclusive instruction, and efficacy in managing behaviors. They also reported that these three factors are significantly correlated. Furthermore, all the participants from different countries indicated that there is a significant relationship between the prior experience of teaching students with special needs and high levels of sentiment in inclusive education.

Forlin et al. (2009) conducted a study on 603 pre-service teachers from Australia ( n = 270), Singapore ( n = 93), Canada ( n = 58), and Hong Kong of China ( n = 182) teachers. They concluded that there is no significant difference between these participants from different cultural backgrounds in terms of inclusive education attitudes, sentiment, and concerns.

Eventually, Murdaca et al. (2016) investigated four hundred Italian teachers' attitudes, sentiments, and concerns in inclusive education using the SACIE-R scale (proposed by Forlin et al., 2011 ). They confirmed that findings are consistent with other related researches, including the original study. However, the authors had to remove 4 items from the original scale due to the goodness of fit indices for the Italian context.

Attitudes, Sentiments, and Other Teacher-Related Factors

Li et al. (2016) attempted to investigate pre-service teachers' attitudes, sentiment, and concern regarding inclusion education. For this purpose, they assessed 424 freshman and sophomore Chinese students using the simplified Chinese version of the Sentiments, Attitudes, and Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale Revised (SCACIE-R) (proposed by Forlin et al., 2011 ). Li et al. (2016) concluded that there is a significant relationship between pre-service teachers' experience with people with disabilities and their attitudes and sentiment about inclusive education. They further reported that students' self-confidence has an influence, yet insignificant, on their belief regarding the implementation of inclusive education.

It is worth noting that Malinen (2013) reported the different findings among pre-service teachers form different countries. For example, Chinese students demonstrated that school patterns in which they choose to work are associated with their self-efficacy, while students in Finland reported that training is positively related to self-efficacy. Besides, male teachers in Finland showed higher capabilities of dealing with students' unfavorable behavior in the classroom. Finally, older participants could score higher in terms of self-efficacy. In addition, Malinen and Savolainen (2008) investigated a sample of 523 Chinese university students by using questionnaire on their perception of the inclusion of children with disabilities and those students with special needs were assigned into regular classrooms. Their study indicated that (a) the participants' average attitude toward inclusion was slightly negative; (b) Social justice, Meeting the special needs of the pupils with severe disabilities, Quality of education and Teachers' competence, were extracted; (c) the most important background variable that explained the attitudes was the participants' major subject in the University; and (d) the ratings for the best educational environment for a student with a disability varied based on different types and levels of disability.

Forlin et al. (2009) concluded that teachers' age might not play a significant role in their attitudes toward inclusive education. Meanwhile, age could have an effect on teachers' previous knowledge in terms of inclusion. In addition, they claimed that gender also does not make significant changes in teachers' sentiment or concern.

From the discussion aforementioned, it can be seen that following the concept of mainstream education in western societies, China has recently started to embrace inclusive education through the learning in regular classrooms (LRC) model. It was established by the Chinese ministry of education in 1994. As Feng (2010) argued, LRC includes the implementation of inclusive education to benefit students with special needs along with ordinary students in an environment of mutual acceptance. Since learning is a dynamic process associated with learners' characteristics, there is always the need for ongoing assessment of teaching students for the purpose of developing required skills and capabilities accordingly.

Implications and Suggestions for Future Research

Deng and Poon-McBrayer (2012) claimed that a lack of knowledge and experience among teachers who are supposed to work with students with special needs is inevitable. Such lack of awareness can lead to poor instruction quality, particularly in inclusive education programs. Besides, Xiao (2007) asserted that teachers may not have adequate expertise and enough time to get involved with students with disabilities in the classroom. Therefore, it seems necessary to design and implement teacher education courses or programs on how to teach effectively in a mainstream and inclusive education context. It could also include short-term pre-service and in-service courses to improve teachers' perception and skills in this regard.

Previous cross-cultural studies have concluded that the majority of pre-service teachers show similar trends concerning the impact of attitudes and sentiment on inclusive education practices. For instance, Forlin et al. (2009) concluded that pre-service teachers from Australia, Singapore, Canada, and Hong Kong of China follow similar trends in promoting positive attitudes and sentiment toward inclusive education. Nevertheless, it is recommended to conduct further cross-cultural and also longitudinal studies in order to explore new aspects of teacher training programs and the impact of teachers' characteristics in the successful practice of inclusive education.

By way of conclusion, the current study mainly explored teachers' attitudes and sentiments, particularly in the educational context of China. Besides, the findings suggest that cultural differences might not necessarily contribute to the successful implementation of inclusive programs; however, pre-service or in-service teachers have demonstrated that higher levels of sentiment (efficacy), as well as positive attitude, can lead to the efficient provision of materials and building a supportive classroom environment for ordinary students and more importantly student with special needs. Pre-service teachers should be provided with intership that can help them to gain the working experience that cannot be acquired from their own textbooks. Only in this doing so can novice teachers enhance their instruction quality.

Author Contributions

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: teacher training, inclusive education, attitude, sentiment, Chinese educational government, supportive classroom environment

Citation: Yang M and Yu C (2021) A Review of Teachers' Sentiments and Attitudes in Inclusive Education in China. Front. Psychol. 12:760115. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.760115

Received: 17 August 2021; Accepted: 09 September 2021; Published: 11 October 2021.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2021 Yang and Yu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Chao Yu, yc8307@ahut.edu.cn

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Teaching for Excellence and Equity pp 7–17 Cite as

A Review of the Literature on Teacher Effectiveness and Student Outcomes

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Part of the book series: IEA Research for Education ((IEAR,volume 6))

Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes, yet have simultaneously had difficulties in defining what teacher characteristics make for an effective teacher. This chapter reviews the large body of literature on measures of teacher effectiveness, underscoring the diversity of methods by which the general construct of “teacher quality” has been explored, including experience, professional knowledge, and opportunity to learn. Each of these concepts comprises a number of different dimensions and methods of operationalizing. Single-country research (and particularly research from the United States) is distinguished from genuinely comparative work. Despite a voluminous research literature on the question of teacher quality, evidence for the impact of teacher characteristics (experience and professional knowledge) on student outcomes remains quite limited. There is a smaller, but more robust set of findings for the effect of teacher support on opportunity to learn. Five measures may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience (measured by years of teaching), teacher professional knowledge (measured by education and self-reported preparation to teach mathematics), and teacher provision of opportunity to learn (measured by time on mathematics and content coverage). These factors provide the basis for a comparative cross-country model.

  • Opportunity to learn
  • Teacher education
  • Teacher experience
  • Teacher quality
  • Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

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2.1 Defining Teacher Effectiveness

Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes (Chetty et al. 2014 ; Rivkin et al. 2005 ; Rockoff 2004 ). As a consequence, there has been a strong emphasis on improving teacher effectiveness as a means to enhancing student learning. Goe ( 2007 ), among others, defined teacher effectiveness in terms of growth in student learning, typically measured by student standardized assessment results. Chetty et al. ( 2014 ) found that students taught by highly effective teachers, as defined by the student growth percentile (SGPs) and value-added measures (VAMs), were more likely to attend college, earn more, live in higher-income neighborhoods, save more money for retirement, and were less likely to have children during their teenage years. This potential of a highly effective teacher to significantly enhance the lives of their students makes it essential that researchers and policymakers properly understand the factors that contribute to a teacher’s effectiveness. However, as we will discuss in more detail later in this report, studies have found mixed results regarding the relationships between specific teacher characteristics and student achievement (Wayne and Youngs 2003 ). In this chapter, we explore these findings, focusing on the three main categories of teacher effectiveness identified and examined in the research literature: namely, teacher experience, teacher knowledge, and teacher behavior. Here we emphasize that much of the existing body of research is based on studies from the United States, and so the applicability of such national research to other contexts remains open to discussion.

2.2 Teacher Experience

Teacher experience refers to the number of years that a teacher has worked as a classroom teacher. Many studies show a positive relationship between teacher experiences and student achievement (Wayne and Youngs 2003 ). For example, using data from 4000 teachers in North Carolina, researchers found that teacher experience was positively related to student achievement in both reading and mathematics (Clotfelter et al. 2006 ). Rice ( 2003 ) found that the relationship between teacher experience and student achievement was most pronounced for students at the secondary level. Additional work in schools in the United States by Wiswall ( 2013 ), Papay and Kraft ( 2015 ), and Ladd and Sorenson ( 2017 ), and a Dutch twin study by Gerritsen et al. ( 2014 ), also indicated that teacher experience had a cumulative effect on student outcomes.

Meanwhile, other studies have failed to identify consistent and statistically significant associations between student achievement and teacher experience (Blomeke et al. 2016 ; Gustaffsson and Nilson 2016 ; Hanushek and Luque 2003 ; Luschei and Chudgar 2011 ; Wilson and Floden 2003 ). Some research from the United States has indicated that experience matters very much early on in a teacher’s career, but that, in later years, there were little to no additional gains (Boyd et al. 2006 ; Rivkin et al. 2005 ; Staiger and Rockoff 2010 ). In the first few years of a teacher’s career, accruing more years of experience seems to be more strongly related to student achievement (Rice 2003 ). Rockoff ( 2004 ) found that, when comparing teacher effectiveness (understood as value-added) to student test scores in reading and mathematics, teacher experience was positively related to student mathematics achievement; however, such positive relationships leveled off after teachers had gained two years of teaching experience. Drawing on data collected from teachers of grades four to eight between 2000 and 2008 within a large urban school district in the United States, Papay and Kraft ( 2015 ) confirmed previous research on the benefits experience can add to a novice teacher’s career. They found that student outcomes increased most rapidly during their teachers’ first few years of employment. They also found some further student gains due to additional years of teaching experience beyond the first five years. The research of Pil and Leana ( 2009 ) adds additional nuance; they found that acquiring teacher experience at the same grade level over a number of years, not just teacher experience in general (i.e. at multiple grades), was positively related to student achievement.

2.3 Teacher Professional Knowledge

A teacher’s professional knowledge refers to their subject-matter knowledge, curricular knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge (Collinson 1999 ). This professional knowledge is influenced by the undergraduate degrees earned by a teacher, the college attended, graduate studies undertaken, and opportunities to engage with on-the job training, commonly referred to as professional development (Collinson 1999 ; Rice 2003 ; Wayne and Youngs 2003 ). After undertaking in-depth quantitative analyses of the United States’ 1993–1994 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data sets, Darling-Hammond ( 2000 ) argued that measures of teacher preparation and certification were by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, after controlling for student poverty levels and language status.

As with experience, research on the impact of teacher advanced degrees, subject specializations, and certification has been inconclusive, with several studies (Aaronson et al. 2007 ; Blomeke et al. 2016 ; Hanushek and Luque 2003 ; Harris and Sass 2011 ; Luschei and Chudgar 2011 ) suggesting weak, inconsistent, or non-significant relationships with student achievement. However, several international studies comparing country means found that teacher degrees (Akiba et al. 2007 ; Gustaffsson and Nilson 2016 ; Montt 2011 ) were related to student outcomes, as did Woessman’s ( 2003 ) student-level study of multiple countries.

2.3.1 Undergraduate Education

In their meta-analysis of teacher effectiveness, Wayne and Youngs ( 2003 ) found three studies that showed some relationship between the quality of the undergraduate institution that a teacher attended and their future students’ success in standardized tests. In a thorough review of the research on teacher effectiveness attributes, Rice ( 2003 ) found that the selectivity of undergraduate institution and the teacher preparation program may be related to student achievement for students at the high school level and for high-poverty students.

In terms of teacher preparation programs, Boyd et al. ( 2009 ) found that overall these programs varied in their effectiveness. In their study of 31 teacher preparation programs designed to prepare teachers for the New York City School District, Boyd et al. ( 2009 ) drew from data based on document analyses, interviews, surveys of teacher preparation instructors, surveys of participants and graduates, and student value-added scores. They found that if a program was effective in preparing teachers to teach one subject, it tended to also have success in preparing teachers to teach other subjects as well. They also found that teacher preparation programs that focused on the practice of teaching and the classroom, and provided opportunities for teachers to study classroom practices, tended to prepare more effective teachers. Finally, they found that programs that included some sort of final project element (such as a personal research paper, or portfolio presentation) tended to prepare more effective teachers.

Beyond the institution a teacher attends, the coursework they choose to take within that program may also be related to their future students’ achievement. These associations vary by subject matter. A study by Rice ( 2003 ) indicated that, for teachers teaching at the secondary level, subject-specific coursework had a greater impact on their future students’ achievement. Similarly Goe ( 2007 ) found that, for mathematics, an increase in the amount of coursework undertaken by a trainee teacher was positively related to their future students’ achievement. By contrast, the meta-analysis completed by Wayne and Youngs ( 2003 ) found that, for history and English teachers, there was no evidence of a relationship between a teacher’s undergraduate coursework and their future students’ achievement in those subjects.

2.3.2 Graduate Education

In a review of 14 studies, Wilson and Floden ( 2003 ) were unable to identify consistent relationships between a teacher’s level of education and their students’ achievement. Similarly, in their review of data from 4000 teachers in North Carolina, Clotfelter et al. ( 2006 ) found that teachers who held a master’s degree were associated with lower student achievement. However, specifically in terms of mathematics instruction, teachers with higher degrees and who undertook more coursework during their education seem to be positively related to their students’ mathematics achievement (Goe 2007 ). Likewise, Harris and Sass ( 2011 ) found that there was a positive relationship between teachers who had obtained an advanced degree during their teaching career and their students’ achievement in middle school mathematics. They did not find any significant relationships between advanced degrees and student achievement in any other subject area. Further, using data from the United States’ Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), Phillips ( 2010 ) found that subject-specific graduate degrees in elementary or early-childhood education were positively related to students’ reading achievement gains.

2.3.3 Certification Status

Another possible indicator of teacher effectiveness could be whether or not a teacher holds a teaching certificate. Much of this research has focused on the United States, which uses a variety of certification approaches, with lower grades usually having multi-subject general certifications and higher grades requiring certification in specific subjects. Wayne and Youngs ( 2003 ) found no clear relationship between US teachers’ certification status and their students’ achievement, with the exception of the subject area of mathematics, where students tended have higher test scores when their teachers had a standard mathematics certification. Rice ( 2003 ) also found that US teacher certification was related to high school mathematics achievement, and also found that there was some evidence of a relationship between certification status and student achievement in lower grades. Meanwhile, in their study of grade one students, Palardy and Rumberger ( 2008 ) also found evidence that students made greater gains in reading ability when taught by fully certified teachers.

In a longitudinal study using data from teachers teaching grades four and five and their students in the Houston School District in Texas, Darling-Hammond et al. ( 2005 ) found that those teachers who had completed training that resulted in a recognized teaching certificate were more effective that those who had no dedicated teaching qualifications. The study results suggested that teachers without recognized US certification or with non-standard certifications generally had negative effects on student achievement after controlling for student characteristics and prior achievement, as well as the teacher’s experience and degrees. The effects of teacher certification on student achievement were generally much stronger than the effects for teacher experience. Conversely, analyzing data from the ECLS-K, Phillips ( 2010 ) found that grade one students tended to have lower mathematics achievement gains when they had teachers with standard certification. In sum, the literature the influence of teacher certification remains deeply ambiguous.

2.3.4 Professional Development

Although work by Desimone et al. ( 2002 , 2013 ) suggested that professional development may influence the quality of instruction, most researchers found that teachers’ professional development experiences showed only limited associations with their effectiveness, although middle- and high-school mathematics teachers who undertook more content-focused training may be the exception (Blomeke et al. 2016 ; Harris and Sass 2011 ). In their meta-analysis of the effects of professional development on student achievement, Blank and De Las Alas ( 2009 ) found that 16 studies reported significant and positive relationships between professional development and student achievement. For mathematics, the average effect size of studies using a pre-post assessment design was 0.21 standard deviations.

Analyzing the data from six data sets, two from the Beginning Teacher Preparation Survey conducted in Connecticut and Tennessee, and four from the United States National Center for Education Statistics’ National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Wallace ( 2009 ) used structural equation modeling to find that professional development had a very small, but occasionally statistically significant effect on student achievement. She found, for example, that for NAEP mathematics data from the year 2000, 1.2 additional hours of professional development per year were related to an increase in average student scores of 0.62 points, and for reading, an additional 1.1 h of professional development were related to an average increase in student scores of 0.24 points. Overall, Wallace ( 2009 ) identified professional development had moderate effects on teacher practice and some small effects on student achievement when mediated by teacher practice.

2.3.5 Teacher Content Knowledge

Of course, characteristics like experience and education may be imperfect proxies for teacher content knowledge; unfortunately, content knowledge is difficult to assess directly. However, there is a growing body of work suggesting that teacher content knowledge may associated with student learning. It should be noted that there is an important distinction between general content knowledge about a subject (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) specifically related to teaching that subject, each of which may be independently related to student outcomes (Baumert et al. 2010 ).

Studies from the United States (see for example, Chingos and Peterson 2011 ; Clotfelter et al. 2006 ; Constantine et al. 2009 ; Hill et al. 2005 ; Shuls and Trivitt 2015 ) have found some evidence that higher teacher cognitive skills in mathematics are associated with higher student scores. Positive associations between teacher content knowledge and student outcomes were also found in studies based in Germany (Baumert et al. 2010 ) and Peru (Metzler and Woessman 2012 ), and in a comparative study using Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) data undertaken by Hanushek et al. ( 2018 ). These findings are not universal, however, other studies from the United States (Blazar 2015 ; Garet et al. 2016 ; Rockoff et al. 2011 ) failed to find a statistically significant association between teacher content knowledge and student learning.

The studies we have discussed all used some direct measure of teacher content knowledge. An alternative method of assessing mathematics teacher content knowledge is self-reported teacher preparation to teach mathematics topics. Both TIMSS and IEA’s Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M, conducted in 2007–2008) have included many questions, asking teachers to report on their preparedness to teach particular topics. Although Luschei and Chudgar ( 2011 ) and Gustafsson and Nilson ( 2016 ) found that these items had a weak direct relationship to student achievement across countries, other studies have suggested that readiness is related to instructional quality (Blomeke et al. 2016 ), as well as content knowledge and content preparation (Schmidt et al. 2017 ), suggesting that instructional quality may have an indirect effect on student learning.

2.4 Teacher Behaviors and Opportunity to Learn

Although the impact of teacher characteristics (experience, education, and preparedness to teach) on student outcomes remains an open question, there is much a much more consistent relationship between student achievement and teacher behaviors (instructional time and instructional content), especially behaviors related instructional content. Analyzing TIMSS, Schmidt et al. ( 2001 ) found an association between classroom opportunity to learn (OTL), interpreted narrowly as student exposure to instructional content, and student achievement. In a later study using student-level PISA data, Schmidt et al. ( 2015 ) identified a robust relationship between OTL and mathematics literacy across 62 different educational systems. The importance of instructional content has been recognized by national policymakers, and has helped motivate standards-based reform in an effort to improve student achievement, such as the Common Core in the United States (Common Core Standards Initiative 2018 ). However, we found that there was little research on whether teacher instructional content that aligned with national standards had improved student learning; the only study that we were able to identify found that such alignment had only very weak associations with student mathematics scores (Polikoff and Porter 2014 ). Student-reported data indicates that instructional time (understood as classroom time on a particular subject) does seem to be related to mathematics achievement (Cattaneo et al. 2016 ; Jerrim et al. 2017 ; Lavy 2015 ; Rivkin and Schiman 2015 ; Woessman 2003 ).

2.5 Conclusion

This review of the literature simply brushes the surface of the exceptional body of work on the relationship between student achievement and teacher characteristics and behaviors. Whether analyzing US-based, international, or the (limited) number of comparative studies, the associations between easily measurable teacher characteristics, like experience and education, and student outcomes in mathematics, remains debatable. In contrast, there is more evidence to support the impact of teacher behaviors, such as instructional content and time on task, on student achievement. Our goal was to incorporate all these factors into a comparative model across countries, with the aim of determining what an international cross-national study like TIMSS could reveal about the influence of teachers on student outcomes in mathematics. The analysis that follows draws on the existing body of literature on teacher effectiveness, which identified key teacher factors that may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience, teacher professional knowledge (measured by education and self-reported preparation to teach mathematics), and teacher provision of opportunity to learn (time on mathematics and content coverage).

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Teacher’s attitude towards inclusive education: A literature review

Profile image of Tanushree Dhara

Teachers are the key persons to implement the inclusive education in our society. In various studies researchers have argued how positive attitudes of teacher influence the concept of inclusion and inclusive education. This study is conducted to investigate teacher&#39;s attitude towards inclusive education, variables related to their attitude and if social participation of students with special needs in mainstream schools get influenced by these variables. A review of 31 literature that involve 2213 teacher&#39;s, revealed that the majority of teachers hold positive attitude towards inclusive education. Although their attitude towards the inclusive education is positive in terms of disability type (e.g. orthopaedically impaired, visually impaired, hearing impaired, gifted or creative and deprived children.). Some studies also reported negative or neutral attitude towards inclusion. No studies reported clear or complete positive attitude in their findings. Different definitions of t...

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Attitudes of Primary School Teachers Toward Inclusive Education

Jasmina radojlovic.

1 College of Health Studies Milutin Milankovic, Belgrade, Serbia

Tatjana Kilibarda

2 Department in Cuprija, The Academy of Applied Preschool Teaching and Health Studies Krusevac, Cuprija, Serbia

Svetlana Radevic

3 Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Milena Maricic

4 Department School of Applied Health Science Studies, Academy of Applied Studies Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Katarina Parezanovic Ilic

5 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Milan Djordjic

6 Department of Communication Skills, Ethics and Psychology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Sofija Colovic

Branimir radmanovic.

7 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Marija Sekulic

8 Department of Hygiene and Ecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Ognjen Djordjevic

9 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

Jovan Niciforovic

10 Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Hotel Management and Tourism in Vrnjacka Banja, University of Kragujevac, Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia

Ivana Simic Vukomanovic

Katarina janicijevic, snezana radovanovic, associated data.

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

The aims of our study are related to examining the relevance of teachers' attitudes toward the implementation of inclusive education. In addition, its subject is related to the implications on inclusive education policies, limitations of the existing study along with the recommendations for our future research endeavors.

The research is a cross-sectional study type. The sample included 64 primary school teachers in the lower grades of primary school (grades 1–4), selected by using simple random sampling, in three primary schools on the territory of Belgrade, Serbia in 2021 (26, 17, and 21 primary school teachers). The Questionnaire for Teachers, which was used as a research instrument, was taken from the Master's Thesis Studen Rajke, which was part of the project “Education for the Knowledge Society” at the Institute for Educational Research in Belgrade. Dependent variables measured in the study referred to the attitudes of primary school teachers toward inclusive education. Categorical variables are represented as frequencies and the Chi-square test was used to determine if a distribution of observed frequencies differed from the expected frequencies.

One in three teachers (32.8%) thought that inclusion was useful for children with disabilities (29.7%), of them thought that schools did not have the conditions for inclusive education, whereas one in four teachers (25.0%) believed that inclusion was not good. No statistically significant differences were found in the attitudes of professors, when observed in terms of their gender, age and length of service.

Investing more resources and time in developing and implementing special education policies can promote successful inclusive education.

Introduction

Inclusive education means quality education for all students, respecting their diversity in terms of educational needs (UNESCO, 2009 ). The inclusion of students with disabilities in typical schools with their peers is part of the global human rights movement, which refers to the possibility that students with disabilities can fully participate in all activities that make up modern society (Rajšli-Tokoš, 2020 ).

The history of inclusive education dates back since the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality (Salamanka, Spain, 7–10 June 1944), which enabled substantial progress, simultaneously opening room for improvement and introducing a more dynamic approach of schools toward all children, irregardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, language or other state of mind, as well as the educational system oriented toward the students with various educational needs, by means of which the inclusive education platform was eventually established (United Nations Educational, 1994 ). The necessity of implementing inclusive education was confirmed at the UNESCO World Conference on Special Needs Education (UNESCO, 2003 ). The principles of inclusive education were presented for the second time at the World Education Forum meeting in Dakar in the year of 2000 (The Dakar Framework for Action, 2000 ), and finally, they were confirmed in the Millennium Declaration (Bhaskara, 2003 ). A few years later, at the Second European Ministerial Conference, which took place in Malaga, Spain, the Council of Europe (Council of Europe, 2003 ) declared that education is the fundamental means enabling children with disabilities to successfully integrate into the community and it established the legal framework needed for including special needs children in regular schools by providing necessary support and thus promoting the ways in which their education could be improved (Council of Europe, 2006 ).

There is a large number of studies which indicated that inclusive education has its own advantages as regards cognitive, social and affective development of students. They also show that inclusive education, compared to segregated education, offers more opportunities to develop social, emotional, and behavioral skills not only of children who need additional support, but also of children of typical development in terms of their enhancing the level of understanding and acceptance of diversity (Magyar et al., 2020 ; Molina Roldán et al., 2021 ; van Kessel et al., 2021 ). The results of various research studies have shown that students without difficulties have positive attitudes, positive beliefs, and express readiness when it comes to accepting students with disabilities along with having a positive attitude toward joint teaching with them, which is a very important factor for successful inclusion (Radisavljevic-Janic et al., 2018 ; Alnahdi and Schwab, 2021 ).

Additionally, it was confirmed that teachers were the key actors in the implementation of inclusive education and that their positive attitudes played a significant role in the successful administration of this educational transformation (De Boer et al., 2011 ). However, whereas the effects of teachers' attitudes toward the application of inclusion policies have been widely recognized, there is not a significant number of studies examining the factors shaping such attitudes.

Only a few studies revealed the effects of factors (age, gender, length of service (years), training, experience with inclusive education and type of student disability) on the attitudes of teachers toward inclusive education (Avramidis and Norwich, 2002 ; Alghazo et al., 2003 ; Forlin et al., 2009 ; Woodcock, 2013 ).

In this context, our study's primary goal is to examine attitudes of teachers toward inclusive education, sociodemographic factors affecting such attitudes along with the factors stated by teachers as being alleviating/aggravating factors for the inclusion process in education, which could be perceived as excellent basis for creating specialized programs and measures for the purpose of enhancing the inclusive education.

Materials and Methods

Study design.

The research is a cross-sectional study type.

The Study Participants

The sample included 64 primary school teachers in the lower grades of primary school (grades 1–4), employed in three primary schools in the territory of Belgrade, Serbia, who were selected by using simple random sampling (26, 17, and 21 primary school teachers of both gender, with the average age of 43.1 ± 8.4 years). Data collection was realized in the second term of school year 2020/21, by means of a teacher survey. The school principals gave their consent to administering such teacher surveys or questionnaires.

The Procedure for Data Acquisition

Teacher survey questionnaires were administered after delivering detailed written instructions which had been distributed in schools. Teacher survey questionnaires were voluntarily completed, and self-administered with respondents filling in their own answers. Before the start of the research, the respondents were acquainted with the goal and procedure of the research and gave their written consent to participate in the study. For the purpose of ensuring objectiveness of the results and capturing accurate data, during the procedure for data acquisition, researchers were leading teachers during the process of filling in their own answers in accordance with the methodically anticipated protocol. Before underlying the aims of the research and delivering instructions for the purpose of filling in the questionnaires given, the respondents were told that the data obtained in such a manner were going to be used for scientific purposes only, that all the answers were highly classified and that the analysis of data was going to be performed collectively, not individually. After placing an emphasis on the fact that filling in the questionnaires was anonymous, the researchers asked the respondents to be honest, to give answers to the questions independently, without sharing any mutual comments or chatting with other respondents. The respondents were given the manual for filling in the questions included in the questionnaire. The time expected to complete the questionnaire was 20 min ± several minutes.

Instruments/Measures

The Questionnaire for Teachers, which was used as a research instrument, was taken from the Master's Thesis Studen Rajke (Studen, 2008 ), which was part of the project “Education for the Knowledge Society” at the Institute for Educational Research in Belgrade. The Teachers' Questionnaire examines the level of willingness that the primary school teachers have in order to accept children with disabilities, their experiences in working with children with disabilities, and their suggestions that would lead to more successful outcomes for children with disabilities. The questionnaire also contains a five-point scale consisting of 22 statements related to the importance of certain psychological and pedagogical measures undertaken for the purpose of successful implementation of inclusive education and factors that may be aggravating for the inclusive process. The independent variables examined in the research are sociodemographic characteristics of primary school teachers (such as gender, age, length of service). Dependent variables measured in the study referred to the attitudes of primary school teachers toward inclusive education (their readiness for inclusion, assessment of conditions for inclusion, difficulties, and benefits of inclusive education, providing support to children and parents involved in the inclusive education, the importance of psychological and pedagogical measures undertaken for the purpose of successful implementation of inclusive teaching, assessment of factors that may be aggravating for the inclusive process). The reliability of The Questionnaire for teachers in a sample of adult respondents was 0.86.

Statistical Data Analysis

Statistical data processing was performed using SPSS software package, version 18.0. The results of the research are presented in Tables 1 – 4 . Categorical variables are represented as frequencies and the Chi-square test was used to determine if a distribution of observed frequencies differed from the expected frequencies. A probability of <5% was considered statistically significant.

Sociodemografic characteristics of primary school teachers and attitudes toward inclusive education.

Factors that complicate the process of inclusion in education.

As the figures indicate, males accounted for 31.3% of the total number of primary school teachers, whereas females accounted for 68.7%. The average age of respondents was 43.1 ± 8.4 years. The majority of respondents were aged between 40 and 49 years (39.4%), whereas the least number of respondents was in the group with an age of more than 60 years (3.9%).

A total of 23.4% of professors had a length of service of up to 5 years, 29.7% had a length of service from 5 to 9 years, a third had a length of service from 10 to 14 years, and 12.5% had a length of service of over 15 years. The largest percentage of them, 60.9%, believe that inclusive education requires a selective approach according to the type and severity of developmental pathology, 20.3% of them believe that it is an inalienable right of every child, whereas 18.8% believe that it is a utopia. Almost a third of professors (31.3%) stated that in their previous pedagogical work, they had experience with children with disabilities, while slightly more than half of them (54.7%) rarely had this particular experience.

Only one in five primary school teachers (20.3%) stated positively that there were conditions in the school for the inclusion of children with disabilities. As the most common problems they had in the educational work with this category of students, the teachers of primary education stated the difficult adoption of the material (82.8%) and the realization of emotional control by 17.2%.

One in three teachers (32.8%) thought that inclusion was useful for children with disabilities (29.7%), of them thought that schools did not have the conditions for inclusive education, while one in four teachers (25.0%) believed that inclusion was not good. Every second professor (56.3%) thought that children with disabilities would be more successful in mastering the material in a special school, while 43.8% of them thought that they would be more successful in a regular school, but if there were schools that corresponded to material and organizational standards of the most developed countries. Observed by gender, the attitudes of teachers did not show a statistically significant difference, while according to work experience there are differences when it comes to attitudes toward inclusive education, to difficulties in working with children with disabilities and to the benefits of inclusive education ( Table 1 ).

Despite positive attitudes toward inclusive education, teachers' attitudes were only partially positive when it came to attitudes toward children with disabilities ( Table 2 ). Observed attitudes showed a statistically significant difference.

Attitudes of primary school teachers toward children with disabilities.

The professors also pointed out which factors would make it easier for a child with developmental disabilities to follow regular classes ( Table 3 ) complete with the factors that most often complicated the inclusion process in practice ( Table 4 ). Observed factors showed a statistically significant difference.

Factors that would facilitate the process of inclusion in education.

The significance of implementing inclusion in the education system complete with the association of early inclusive education with educational outcomes of children with disabilities is evident (Samadi and McConkey, 2018 ). Numerous countries have made considerable progress in this particular area, by means of legal regulation which regulates the provision of services to children with disabilities (Magyar et al., 2020 ). However, data obtained so far indicate that in some of the countries children with disabilities still attend special schools and are often excluded from the educational system. In order to enhance the inclusion system, local and national politics have to be precisely conceptualized with clearly defined objectives, whereas the school environment has to provide adequate support for children with disabilities (Werner et al., 2021 ).

Teachers are recognized as the key actors and their attitude toward inclusion is of high relevance for the successful implementation of inclusive education strategies, but the factors influencing these attitudes have been given insufficient attention in the studies conducted in our territories. Despite the fact that substantial action has already been taken in relation to this particular area, the implementation of inclusive education in practice has encountered numerous difficulties. It is our teachers who place an emphasis on the fact that inclusive education is an inalienable right of every child, they accentuate its usefulness in terms of understanding individual differences among children, but they also point out that regular schools have no conditions or capacities to carry out inclusive education.

Additionally, other research studies demonstrate that teachers justify the concept of inclusive education in terms of children's rights (Kayama, 2010 ; Okyere et al., 2019 ), but they also express their concern regarding numerous challenges they are currently juggling in their daily work with children with disabilities. The lack of professional competencies along with the lack of adequate conditions aimed at developing successful inclusive educational practice are the main reasons given by teachers which present a major hindrance to the successful implementation of inclusive education (Savic and Prosic-Santovac, 2017 ), which is indicated by our research findings.

Interestingly, the results obtained from several studies show that certain gender specific patterns are recognizable when it comes to attitudes of teachers toward inclusive education, with female teachers showing a more positive attitude toward inclusive education, whereas other studies indicated no gender specific differences in forming the aforementioned attitudes (Alghazo et al., 2003 ; Woodcock, 2013 ).

Concerning the age relevance, some studies demonstrate that the age of teachers has no significant effect on forming their attitudes toward inclusive education (Avramidis and Norwich, 2002 ), whereas other studies show that older teachers have more negative attitudes toward inclusion (De Boer et al., 2011 ). In addition, they indicate that inclusive education training programs have a positive effect on attitudes of younger teachers, which is probably due to the fact that older teachers have rarely attended courses on inclusive teaching or have not been provided with relevant in-service training at all (Forlin et al., 2009 ). Our research results show that sex have no significant impact on their attitudes toward inclusive education.

Another study outlined that the lack of teachers' self-esteem regarding teaching students with disabilities was associated with their forming negative attitudes toward inclusion (Avramidis et al., 2020 ), whereas the study which took into consideration the factors such as the type and size of the school building and its classrooms complete with the characteristics of students such as gender or whether the child received support in the academic or non-academic areas of school education—indicated that the aforementioned factors had no significant effects on the attitudes of teachers toward inclusive education (Vaz et al., 2015 ).

Our study showed that teachers reported that the inclusion process could be more easily facilitated by the classroom adaptations accompanied by a class size reduction. However, we did not take into consideration the characteristics of students with disabilities in terms of their gender and level of school achievement in the inclusive environment, which may be the subject of our future research.

Taking into account the fact that the teachers included in our study reported insufficient curriculum planning for teaching children with disabilities, it is more than evident how necessary it is to introduce special curriculum programs for inclusion education. They emphasize that reforms of excessive coursework and curricula should be delivered, along with the adaptation of teaching contents to the abilities of these children and the application of active, interactive and participatory teaching methods. In addition, they indicated the necessity of continuous provision of professional assistance to the teacher by special educators/experts, such as defectologists and social pedagogues.

A large number of research evidence speak out in favor of the fact that it was the provision of support to teachers that positively influenced their attitudes toward inclusion, indicating that after the completion of inclusion training programs—the level of positive attitudes of teachers toward inclusion was significantly raised. Additionally, they emphasized that various types of social support (such as informational, instrumental or emotional support) may be provided by various actors (colleagues, supervisors, etc.) (Desombre et al., 2021 ; Hassanein et al., Hassanein et al.).

Nevertheless, the findings of other studies revealed that in the case if children or adults with disabilities were among teachers' family members or their circles of friends, teachers were more open to embracing the concept of inclusion, and that the very knowledge they possessed on the specific disability of their students had a positive impact on their attitudes toward inclusion (Vaz et al., 2015 ).

Teachers have to actively participate in the process of inclusion implementation and they have to be ready to handle all the new challenges presented at each level of the education system. They primarily need adequate support, cooperation, provision of professional experience and specific preparation of individual class sessions for the purpose of achieving as high-quality level of inclusive education as possible. Multidisciplinary work, professional development, attitudes and perception of teachers along with adequate cooperation with their students' family members and provision of positive support to students—play a significant role in inclusive education (Rojo-Ramos et al., 2021 ).

The inclusion of special needs children presents one of a kind challenge for the societies worldwide. Therefore, we need to take concrete actions and establish organizations of such a kind in all societies for the purpose of implementing adequate and high-quality inclusive education for this group of children specifically. Educational institutions should transform and adjust their educational programs in order to respond to this new growing challenge, whereas teachers should use their positive attitudes toward inclusive education to assume the leading role (Tétreault et al., 2014 ).

The advantages of our particular study are related to providing insight into the factors perceived as positively or negatively affecting the formation of positive attitudes toward inclusive education. It can contribute to creating measures, the focus of which will be on the enhancement and development of positive attitudes of teachers toward inclusive education. It is more than clear that there is a number of mutually linked factors and that each of the factors should be given considerable attention and be subjected to a detailed analysis. However, our study encountered certain limitations of its own. Namely, the sample included the teachers from urban areas only, whereas the teachers from neighboring suburban and rural areas were not included in the study. Additionally, the following factors were not included in the study: general attitudes of teachers toward people with disabilities in the society as a whole, and possible culturological differences between them. Furthermore, we did not take into consideration the degree of their concern or stress caused by the actual physical contact with children with disabilities, nor did we consider the financial fees for their work. We did not consider the attitudes of students and their parents toward inclusive education, investigations in this particular area will be a significant component of the future research studies, especially because of the fact that the teachers included in our study had already emphasized that the following factors complicated the process of inclusion in education: resistance of other children toward children with disabilities and resistance of parents of children of typical development toward inclusion. All the aforementioned facts indicated the necessity and recommendations for our future research directions. Due to our current study, numerous questions have been raised which are going to be part of our future research endeavors.

Conclusions

In order to guarantee the smooth inclusion of children with disabilities, various studies of this type are needed to identify the factors that hinder inclusive education in order to formulate strategies that can improve the inclusion of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities in the education system. Developing policies that support such strategies could improve this implementation. Experts specialized in different fields should gather in order to identify practical solutions to the challenges of creating an inclusive environment for children with special needs. Investing more resources and time in developing and implementing special education policies can promote successful inclusive education. The implementation of inclusive education is a very complex process and if it is considered from different perspectives, we could create a possibility of using the results of all the research conducted so far as well as all the future research results as the basis for initiating national programs and strategies on inclusive education. Our study represents only the starting point of our aspirations to render the inclusive education process in our territories as high-quality and comprehensive as possible.

Data Availability Statement

Author contributions.

JR conceptualized the research. JR, TK, SRade, and MM conducted the literature review, a preliminary analysis of the data, and a first draft of the manuscript. SRado and MS revised the data analysis. KP, MD, SC, BR, and OD revised the manuscript and provided feedback and corrections. JN, IS, KJ, and JR revised the final version of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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  20. Teachers' Attitudes: A Great Influence on Teaching and Learning of

    LITERATURE REVIEW Attitude and Its Formation Attitudinal formation is determined by a number of motivational bases . According to David (2013 ) citing Rusell (1971) There are four motivational bases for attitude formation. These include utilitarian, value- ... Attitudes of teachers towards teaching Social studies in secondary schools

  21. The impact of teacher attitude and teaching approaches on student

    Previous literature indicates that successful learning in a second language, such as English, highly depends on teachers' attitudes (Mahfoodh, 2017). The attitude that a teacher shows during class to the students who are studying English (as a medium of instruction) can significantly influence students' emotions (Krischler and Pit-ten Cate, 2019).

  22. Factors Affecting Attitude Toward Learning Mathematics: A Case of

    Literature review pertaining to mathematics education revealed that there is a lack of research studies that consider math course levels as a factor that could impact attitudes toward math. ... Relationship between teachers' attitude and students' academic achievement in Mathematics in some selected Senior Secondary Schools in south-western ...

  23. Attitudes of Primary School Teachers Toward Inclusive Education

    Regular primary schoolteachers' attitudes towards inclusive education: a review of the literature. Int. J. Inclusive Educ. 15, 331-353. 10.1080/13603110903030089 [Google Scholar] Desombre C., Delaval M., Jury M. (2021). Influence of social support on teachers' attitudes toward inclusive education. Front.