85 Academic Performance Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best academic performance topic ideas & essay examples, 💡 interesting topics to write about academic performance, 👍 good essay topics on academic performance.

  • Birth Order and Academic Performance If a child is in the middle, they may have a hard time finding their place in the world. Birth order has also been suggested to have a substantial impact on cognitive development because of […]
  • Cultural Influences on Students Academic Performance Indeed as the definition is rightly put, practicing our culture is akin to cultivating our lives, with the help of tools and symbols that the society has bestowed on us. Others are of the opinion […] We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • School Uniform: Correlation Between Wearing Uniforms and Academic Performance The combination of colors for example, may affect the students’ comfort as well as the public view and perception of the institution The issue of cost should also be put in to check.
  • Lifestyle Impacting Student’s Academic Performance For example, these authors determined the links between the grade and physical activity the higher the grade, the greater the abandonment of physical activity.
  • Personality’s Influence on Academic Performance In such a case, an approach to success is to analyze the output of my traits and be receptive to the viewpoints of other individuals.
  • Texting Effects on Students Academic Performance The use of abbreviation and manipulation of the phonological sounds of words improves the imagination and creativity of students. One of the benefits of texting is that it improves academic performance by promoting the spelling […]
  • The Impacts of E-Learning and Academic Performance of Learners Research Question To assess the impact of e-sources on the academic and learning environment Aim of Research Assess the effect of e-resources on support, improving, and implementation of new forms of learning Objectives To offer […]
  • The Effect of Students Emotional Intelligence on Academic Performance The findings of the study will be used to assist students to see the importance of controlling their emotions and teachers to realize the need of integrating the components of EI into the curriculum and […]
  • Intelligence Among Students: Impact on the Academic Performance Thus, intelligence has additional values represented by social and operational skills, especially when it comes to evaluating students; they are described in the New York Times article and in the theories of the above-mentioned scholars.
  • How Sleep Deprivation Affects College Students’ Academic Performance The study seeks to confirm the position of the hypothesis that sleep deprivation leads to poor academic performance in college students.
  • The Effect of Internet Addiction on Students’ Emotional and Academic Performance The participants will be told the goals and objectives of the study, and their experience of Internet addiction will be clarified.
  • Academic Performance of College Students: Influence of Time Spent Studying and Working There is a general tendency among students who work and study at the same time consisting in the fact that students tend to spend more time at work instead of devoting their time to studies.
  • Nutrition & Students Academic Performance It is therefore imperative to evaluate how students’ compatibility with healthy eating is impacted by the cost of food and, ultimately, how this association affects their academic performance.
  • Academic Performance at St. Martin de Porres High School At the same time, one of the most important missions of a teacher is to form the skills and abilities of an educational and cognitive nature.
  • Homework and Poor Academic Performance It is widely believed that giving homework to students is one of the ethical behaviors of a professional teacher. Homework is seen as a way of enhancing independent learning as well as the utilization of […]
  • Social Media Impact on the Students Academic Performance The growing popularity of social networking and online communication has raised an issue of the influence of these activities on the daily performance of the individuals.
  • Differences in Academic Performance Outcomes Between Children With and Without Siblings However, the research problem addressed in this paper is related to the ambiguity of the implications of the relationship between having no siblings and academic performance.
  • Academic Performance Under Impact of Outside Pressure Secondly, social expectations and perceptions can cause stress for students because many of them want to be accepted and admired since low grades are stigmatized. In summary, college students experience pressure from their families and […]
  • Income Level and Academic Performance The sphere of education has many significant issues, and one of them is the school performance of students from low-income families. Therefore, my proposal is to analyze the relationship between the academic performance of students […]
  • Teacher Expectations and Student Academic Performance The most common cause of failed academic achievements is attributable to the formulation of expectations that are above par with the students’ level of understanding.
  • Breakfast Taking and Academic Performance Among Students According to many experts, eating breakfast in the morning is likely to have a major impact on how students perform in schools and this is the reason why parents have been encouraged to ensure that […]
  • Classes With Mixed Academic Performance Moreover, it can help ELL students to become more proficient in English, and even overcome the cultural shock, which may be a cause of lagging behind.
  • Test Anxiety and Academic Performance The purpose of the study in question was to investigate the relationship between academic performance and test anxiety. The study was designed to determine causality between the level of test anxiety and average grades of […]
  • Child Neglect and Academic Performance The impact of child neglect in low income elementary school age children. The author presents numerous concepts to support the importance of powerful policies in meeting the needs of the targeted children.
  • Cell Phones Influence on Academic Performance The main focus of this study is made on the influence of cell phones on the level of American students’ academic performance.
  • Students’ Library Habits and Academic Performance For instance, it would be prudent to review the effects of different schoolwork habits on academic performance and general productivity in the competitive college learning environment.
  • The Satisfaction With the Overall Academic Performance The primary goal of the questionnaire is to measure the satisfaction with the overall academic performance and determine the fundamental influences on it.
  • Students’ Academic Performance in Mathematics The process of collecting the data involved guiding students in their studies in order to monitor and to record their performance immediately.
  • Sleep Patterns’ Impact on Academic Performance Because some university classes begin as early as 7 o’clock in the morning and finish in the evening, the only option for such students is to reduce the length of night-time sleep in order to […]
  • Computer Gaming Influence on the Academic Performance The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the computer and video gaming on the academic success of the school children.
  • Students Academic Performance: Closing the Gap While neither category is directly related to the academic performance of the group, it would be reasonable to expect that the improvements in both would indirectly influence the efficiency of education in other words, the […]
  • American Students’ Academic Performance Studies conducted to compare the academic abilities of American students and students from other countries revealed that American students lag behind, especially in science, writing proficiency, and mathematics.
  • Academic Performance and Parental Influence This paper will explicate the idea that the approaches, used by Chinese mothers to foster the performance of their children in academics, are effective.
  • Students With Asperger Syndrome: Social Skills and Academic Performance Future studies could find out the variants of adaptive behavior and the differences amid cognitive ability and adaptive behavior to clarify the general characteristics of AS and interventions strategies that would specifically target AS students. […]
  • The Impact of Paid Employment on Academic Performance of Students They further argue that the school time devoted to work offers the student less time to articulate the learning concepts and therefore negatively affect the academic performance.
  • Academic Performance and Part-Time Employment Among High School Seniors
  • The Effect of Single-Sex Schooling on Students’ Academic Performance
  • Student Academic Performance Linked With the Social and Economic Development of a Country
  • Early Birds vs. Just-in-Timers: Academic Performance and Procrastination
  • Academic Performance and Self-Efficacy in Online Learning
  • Social Media and Academic Performance: Does the Intensity of Facebook Activity Relate to Good Grades?
  • How ADHD in Children Impacts Academic Performance
  • Class Absenteeism: Reasons for Non-Attendance and the Effect on Academic Performance
  • Motivational Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of the Students
  • The Influence of Peers Network Attributes on Academic Performance
  • Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Poor Academic Performance in University Students
  • The Effects of Dyslexia on Student Academic Performance
  • Internet Use and Academic Performance: An Interval Approach
  • How Technological Dependence Enhances Students Academic Performance
  • Benefits Physical Activity Has on Academic Performance
  • Improving Academic Performance and Social Support by Facilitating Adaptation in the University
  • Sleep Deprivation in Teens: Its Affect on Academic Performance
  • Online Games: Academic Performance and Student Behavior
  • Rise and Shine: The Effect of School Start Times on Academic Performance
  • Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance in Students
  • Impact of Fear of COVID-19 on Students’ Academic Performance
  • Risk Factors of Academic Performance: Experiences of School Violence
  • Does Bullying Affect a Student’s Academic Performance?
  • Predicting Student Academic Performance: Role of Knowledge Sharing and Outcome Expectations
  • Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students at Risk With Learning Disabilities
  • Games & Active Learning: Improving Academic Performance in Mathematics
  • Can Personality Traits Predict One’s Academic Performance?
  • Aggressive Behavior Effect on Academic Performance in Elementary Students
  • Correlation Between Sitting Preference in Class and Academic Performance
  • The Influence of Eating Habits on the Academic Performance of University Students
  • Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Academic Performance
  • Relevance of Extracurricular Activities for Academic Performance
  • The Link Between Academic Performance and Learning Styles
  • School-Year Employment and Academic Performance of Young Adolescents
  • Family Stress and Its Relation to Academic Performance
  • Risk Attitude, Academic Performance, and the Likelihood of Drop-Outs
  • Associations Between Dietary Intake and Academic Performance in College Students
  • Does School Uniform Improve Academic Performance?
  • The Relationship Between Extracurricular Activities and Adolescents’ Academic Performance & Self-Concept
  • Poor Health Impact on Academic Performance in Students
  • Teenage Pregnancy and Its Effect on Female Students’ Academic Performance
  • Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: Correlation or Causal Relationship
  • How Teacher Behavioral Attitude Affects Student Academic Performance
  • Parental Involvement and Its Perceived Impact on Academic Performance in Children
  • Academic Performance Based on Demography, Motivation, and Learning Styles
  • Student Academic Performance and Negative Effects of Large Class Sizes
  • Examining Gender Differences in Academic Performance
  • The Younger, the Better: Age-Related Differences in Academic Performance at University
  • Impact of Drug Abuse on Academic Performance and Physical Health
  • Academic Performance Stratification: Inequality in the Knowledge Production
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

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Essay on Academic Performance

Students are often asked to write an essay on Academic Performance in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look

100 Words Essay on Academic Performance

What is academic performance.

Academic performance is how well a student does in school. It’s measured by grades, test scores, and teacher reports. Good academic performance shows the student is learning and understanding their schoolwork.

Factors Affecting Academic Performance

Many things can affect academic performance. For example, a student’s health, family life, and study habits can all make a difference. If a student is healthy, has a supportive family, and studies regularly, they are likely to perform well acadically.

Importance of Academic Performance

Academic performance is important as it can affect a student’s future. Good grades can lead to opportunities like scholarships and acceptance into good colleges. It also builds skills for future jobs.

Improving Academic Performance

To improve academic performance, students can set study goals, organize their time, and seek help when needed. They should also take care of their health and get enough sleep. With hard work and determination, any student can improve their academic performance.

The Role of Teachers and Parents

Teachers and parents play a key role in a student’s academic performance. They can provide support, encouragement, and resources. They can also help students overcome challenges and build confidence in their abilities.

250 Words Essay on Academic Performance

Academic performance is a measure of how well a student is doing in their studies. It is often shown through grades, scores on tests, or other forms of evaluation. Good academic performance is important as it can open doors to higher education and good jobs in the future.

Many things can affect a student’s academic performance. For example, a student’s health, their home life, and their level of motivation can all play a part. A student who is healthy, has a supportive home environment, and is motivated to learn is likely to do well in school.

Importance of Good Academic Performance

Good academic performance is important for many reasons. It can help a student get into a good college or university. It can also lead to scholarships and other opportunities. Plus, the skills a student learns while working to improve their academic performance can also help them in other areas of life.

There are many ways to improve academic performance. One way is to set clear goals and work towards them. Another way is to seek help when needed, such as getting a tutor or asking a teacher for help. It’s also important to take care of your health and make sure you have a good balance between school work and other activities.

In summary, academic performance is a key part of a student’s education. It’s influenced by many factors and can have a big impact on a student’s future. With hard work and dedication, every student has the potential to improve their academic performance.

500 Words Essay on Academic Performance

Academic performance is how well a student does in school. It is measured by the grades a student gets on tests, homework, and projects. Good academic performance is often seen as a sign of a student’s ability to learn and understand the material taught in school.

Several things can affect a student’s academic performance. These include the student’s own skills and effort, the teaching methods used in school, the student’s home environment, and even their physical health.

Firstly, a student’s own skills and effort play a big role. If a student is good at studying and works hard, they are likely to do well in school. On the other hand, if a student struggles with studying or doesn’t put in much effort, their grades may suffer.

Secondly, the teaching methods used in school can also have an impact. Different students learn in different ways. Some students may do well with lectures, while others might learn better through hands-on activities. If a school’s teaching methods match a student’s learning style, the student is more likely to do well.

Thirdly, a student’s home environment can also affect their academic performance. If a student has a quiet, comfortable place to study at home, they are more likely to do well in school. But if a student’s home is noisy or stressful, it can be hard for them to focus on their studies.

Lastly, a student’s physical health can also play a role. If a student is healthy, they can focus better and learn more. But if a student is often sick, they may miss a lot of school and struggle to keep up with their studies.

There are several ways to improve academic performance. One way is to improve study skills. This might mean learning how to take better notes, how to manage time better, or how to study more effectively.

Another way is to make sure the student is healthy. This could mean making sure the student gets enough sleep, eats healthy food, and gets regular exercise. These things can help the student focus better and learn more.

A third way is to create a good study environment at home. This might mean setting up a quiet, comfortable study area, or setting aside specific times for studying.

Academic performance is important because it can affect a student’s future. Good grades can help a student get into a good college or university, which can lead to a good job in the future. Even if a student doesn’t plan to go to college, good grades can still be helpful. They can show potential employers that the student is hardworking and capable.

In conclusion, academic performance is a measure of a student’s ability to learn and understand the material taught in school. It can be affected by many factors, including the student’s own skills and effort, the teaching methods used in school, the student’s home environment, and their physical health. There are many ways to improve academic performance, and doing well in school can have many benefits for a student’s future.

That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.

If you’re looking for more, here are essays on other interesting topics:

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  • Essay on Academic Integrity
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The Psychological Impact of Procrastination on Academic Performance

This essay about the intricate dynamics of procrastination in academic settings explores its profound psychological ramifications and tangible consequences on student performance. It highlights procrastination as a coping mechanism in the face of overwhelming pressures, leading to a cycle of stress and avoidance. Beyond academic impact, it into the erosion of self-esteem and strained relationships caused by procrastination. However, it also offers proactive strategies for overcoming procrastination, emphasizing the importance of breaking tasks into manageable goals, fostering a growth mindset, and seeking support from peers and mentors. Ultimately, it advocates for self-awareness and resilience as keys to mitigating procrastination’s effects and realizing academic potential.

How it works

Procrastination, that ever-present obstacle looming over academic endeavors, unveils intricate psychological implications often overlooked. Despite its reputation as mere habit or laziness, procrastination unveils a complex interplay of internal and external stressors that significantly impact academic performance.

At its core, procrastination serves as a coping mechanism amidst the overwhelming pressures students face. The relentless pursuit of academic excellence, alongside balancing extracurricular activities, social obligations, and personal responsibilities, provides fertile ground for procrastination to take root. Rather than confronting daunting tasks directly, students turn to procrastination as a way to alleviate the anxiety accompanying their academic endeavors.

However, the respite offered by procrastination is but a fleeting illusion. As deadlines loom closer and unfinished assignments pile up, students find themselves trapped in a cycle of panic and desperation. The very avoidance that initially brought relief now becomes a source of heightened stress and anxiety, exacerbating feelings of inadequacy and self-doubt.

Moreover, procrastination exacts a toll on students’ psychological well-being beyond academia’s realm. It chips away at their self-esteem, fostering a pervasive sense of incompetence and reinforcing negative self-talk. This, in turn, perpetuates a cycle of avoidance, further solidifying procrastination’s grip on students’ lives.

The consequences of procrastination extend beyond psychology, manifesting in tangible outcomes that impact academic success. Students who succumb to procrastination are more likely to produce subpar work, lacking the time and mental clarity required for thorough research and critical analysis. Consequently, grades suffer, opportunities for academic enrichment diminish, and long-term educational and career prospects are put at risk.

Furthermore, procrastination strains relationships with peers, instructors, and family members, as students struggle to balance their academic responsibilities with other commitments. The stress and tension stemming from procrastination spill over into interpersonal interactions, leading to conflicts and feelings of isolation.

However, overcoming procrastination is not an insurmountable challenge. By embracing proactive strategies and cultivating self-awareness, students can reclaim control over their academic pursuits and mitigate its negative effects.

One effective approach is to break tasks down into manageable chunks and establish realistic deadlines. By setting specific, achievable goals and holding oneself accountable for progress, students can alleviate the overwhelming nature of large assignments and maintain a steady pace of productivity.

Additionally, fostering a growth mindset—viewing challenges as opportunities for growth rather than indicators of failure—empowers students to transcend procrastination’s limitations. Viewing setbacks as learning experiences and cultivating resilience in the face of adversity are essential components of this mindset shift.

Furthermore, seeking support from peers, mentors, or academic advisors can provide invaluable encouragement and guidance in navigating procrastination’s challenges. Accountability partnerships, study groups, and counseling services offer opportunities for students to connect with others who have experienced similar struggles and learn from their experiences.

In conclusion, procrastination exerts a multifaceted impact on students’ academic performance, affecting both their psychological well-being and tangible outcomes. However, by recognizing its underlying causes and implementing proactive strategies for intervention, students can break free from its grasp and realize their full potential in the pursuit of knowledge and achievement. Through self-awareness, goal-setting, and a commitment to growth, students can navigate the complexities of academic life with confidence and resilience.


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126 Academic Performance Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Academic Performance Essay Topic Ideas & Examples: Boosting Your Grades

When it comes to writing an essay on academic performance, finding the right topic can be a challenging task. However, with a bit of brainstorming and creativity, you can come up with a compelling topic that will captivate your readers and enhance your academic performance. In this article, we will provide you with 126 topic ideas and examples to help you get started.

  • The impact of technology on academic performance.
  • The correlation between extracurricular activities and academic success.
  • The role of parents in influencing academic performance.
  • The effects of sleep deprivation on academic achievement.
  • How can motivation affect academic performance?
  • The benefits of using study groups for better grades.
  • The impact of social media on students' academic performance.
  • The relationship between self-esteem and academic success.
  • The effects of peer pressure on academic performance.
  • The importance of setting goals for academic achievement.
  • How can stress management techniques improve academic performance?
  • The role of teachers in enhancing students' academic performance.
  • The impact of nutrition on academic success.
  • The effects of bullying on students' academic performance.
  • The benefits of time management for better grades.
  • The relationship between physical activity and academic performance.
  • The influence of study habits on students' academic achievement.
  • The impact of classroom environment on academic success.
  • The role of technology in personalized learning and academic performance.
  • The effects of music on concentration and academic performance.
  • The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success.
  • The benefits of a growth mindset in improving academic performance.
  • The impact of parental involvement in homework on students' grades.
  • The connection between student-teacher relationships and academic achievement.
  • The effects of multitasking on academic performance.
  • The role of self-discipline in achieving academic goals.
  • The benefits of using flashcards for studying and better grades.
  • The relationship between learning styles and academic success.
  • The impact of video games on students' academic performance.
  • The effects of caffeine on concentration and academic achievement.
  • The role of positive reinforcement in motivating students to excel academically.
  • The benefits of mindfulness practices for better academic performance.
  • The relationship between classroom participation and academic success.
  • The impact of cultural diversity on students' academic performance.
  • The effects of procrastination on academic achievement.
  • The role of creativity in enhancing academic performance.
  • The benefits of using mnemonic devices for better memory and grades.
  • The relationship between reading habits and academic success.
  • The impact of socioeconomic status on students' academic performance.
  • The effects of learning disabilities on academic achievement.
  • The role of feedback in improving students' academic performance.
  • The benefits of using technology for personalized learning and better grades.
  • The relationship between self-efficacy and academic success.
  • The impact of peer tutoring on students' academic performance.
  • The effects of gender on academic achievement.
  • The role of school environment in enhancing academic performance.
  • The benefits of taking breaks during studying for better concentration and grades.
  • The relationship between classroom size and academic success.
  • The impact of standardized testing on students' academic performance.
  • The effects of homeschooling on academic achievement.

In my essay, I will explore the impact of technology on academic performance by analyzing the benefits and drawbacks of digital learning tools in the classroom.

I will discuss how extracurricular activities such as sports and clubs can positively influence students' academic success through building teamwork skills and time-management abilities.

My essay will focus on the role of parents in influencing academic performance, examining the impact of parental involvement in homework, communication with teachers, and providing a supportive learning environment.

I will analyze the effects of sleep deprivation on academic achievement, discussing the importance of adequate sleep for cognitive functioning and offering strategies for better sleep hygiene.

In my essay, I will explore the relationship between motivation and academic performance, discussing different motivational theories and strategies to enhance students' drive to succeed academically.

Remember, these are just a few examples to get your creative juices flowing. You can modify or combine these topics to fit your interests and academic goals. By selecting a topic that resonates with you, you will be more motivated to research and write an engaging essay, ultimately boosting your academic performance. Good luck!

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Academic Performance Essay Examples for Free

At some point, most students worry about their academic performance. Some may have difficulty understanding the material, while others may find it hard to stay motivated.

One of the ways to address these issues is by using free resources, such as those found in our essay examples database. Students can learn about proper formatting, citation styles, and more by looking at academic paper examples. In addition, paper examples can provide inspiration for topics to write about.

Assessment Activities in the Classroom

Introduction The educational process involves not only teaching educational materials but a competent assessment of how students have learned them. This essay will discuss various aspects of the assessment activities that will be essential to determining student achievements. The focus will be on the possibility of referring specific students to...

Educational Evaluation Tools for Medical Students

Types of Educational Evaluation Tools Educational evaluation tools are used for assessing students’ learning progress. They provide different alternatives, apart from traditional exams, for assessing the learners’ performance. The evaluation results in aid decision-making that enhances effective learning and, thus, excellent performance. Evaluating individual students helps identify their potential abilities...

No Homework Policy: Analysis of Research Study

Introduction In teaching practice, homework is widely accepted as a form of educational activity whose primary purpose is to help learners improve their academic performance. However, scholars have undertaken to determine whether homework produces the perceived benefits for students, often with mixed results. The purpose of this is to critique...

No Homework Policy in Primary Schools of Abu Dhabi

Introduction Background Across the United Arab Emirates (UAE), debates regarding the ban on homework are emerging after a ministry decision to scrap homework at several public schools in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The decision was back in 2020 when 23 and 233 schools in Dubai and Abu Dhabi respectively abolished...

Lack of Parental Involvement Leads to Poor Student Achievement

Introduction In this doctoral study, the author investigates the correlation between the lack or presence of parental involvement and the academic achievement of students. It was established that the absence of parental involvement leads to poor academic achievement, and there are numerous factors to that. As such, poor relationships between...

Are Electronics Making Students Lazier When It Comes to Learning?

Technological advancement has drastically changed our daily life. The world is speeding up, and the information search and communication pace is incredibly fast, allowing humanity to progress. It is in people’s nature to try to find the easiest way to achieve a goal, so electronics and gadgets have become a...

Personal Development of Academic Skills

Introduction Academic skills are essential for students to succeed in school. These skills include critical thinking, communicating, writing, and research. Without these skills, it would not be easy to succeed in academics. These skills are crucial for academic excellence and in pursuing one’s career. This reflection addresses the challenges I...

Instant Messaging Impact on Educational Achievements

In a highly globalized and digitized world, modern youth use technologies as their primary means of communication. From texting to chatting and from online gaming to making posts on various digital platforms, a large bulk of communication is done online. Importantly, social media, which represent web-based and mobile services, have...

Independent Studying and Its Effect on the Student’s Academic Achievements

Introduction The focus of this research is independent studying and its effect on the student’s academic achievements. Independent study is a kind of learning process in which a single student works independently with little to no supervision (Schouwenburg, 1995). In most cases, a student and their educator agree on a...

Adverse Effects of Virtual Learning on Academic Performance

Introduction The introduction of computer technology in education has evolved to include more online learning than attending physical classrooms. Various forms of technology facilitate learning over long distances through online programs such as virtual classrooms. With the rapid advancements of technological programs that enhance online education practices, more people embrace...

Good Learner Performance and Recreational Activities

Introduction In this study, we investigate whether there is a direct relationship between learning and other extracurricular activities. After the research involving ten people, five boys and five girls, out of 25 students, it is possible to draw fairly straightforward conclusions about the proposed topic. That analyzed the materials obtained...

Specialized Diagnostic Assessments in Education

Assessment helps to understand the pupils’ abilities, capacities, and type of thinking. They are valuable tools for maintaining a shared understanding of disciplines. The variability of assessment has led to the creation of uniform grading rules. Assessments create opportunities for children to develop at their own pace and to the...

Formative Assessments and Raising Attainment Levels

Tracking the progress of students and helping them can be a difficult task. The main aim of the research is to gather insights concerning the formative assessment methods and how they can be impactful in bettering the learning ability of a learner. The reason for this is due to the...

DIBELS: The Cognitive Foundations of Reading and Its Acquisition

DIBELS is a literacy assessment program that helps identify and offer assistance to lagging students. The key tests in the DIBELS program are the LNF, ISF, PSF, and NWF tests. Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) is a one minute test that asks the student to name uppercase and lowercase letters written...

Social Factors of Academic Achievement in Postgraduate Students

Rationale Academic success among students in higher education is motivated by various factors. In the modern world, various techniques and tools are available to researchers to assess the impact of one aspect or another on student success in learning. It is also important that, based on the analysis of various...

Testing Reliability in Education

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Academic Performance of Daniel

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Motivation is an essential aspect of learning since it facilitates the student to retain information and view learning as a positive activity. There are several theories that highlight the different approaches to motivation promotion and enhancement. Thus, educators can practically apply the approaches, which correlates with higher satisfaction in the...

Portfolio Method of Student Assessment

The portfolio is a method of assessing student performance, through the analysis of students’ learning materials. One of the main obstacles to this method is the need for subjective qualitative assessment and the increased time for analysis. The positive side is the opportunity for the student and teacher to get...

Perceived Academic Effects of Instant Messaging Use

The authors explain the connection between IM use and intellectual impairment by examining its use among students. The deduction made is that the number of students using technology is increasing. However, little effort has been made to determine its effect on education, because most studies done on the topic have...

The Racial Knowledge Disparity in the U.S.

The achievement gaps related to ethnicity and socioeconomic status of students are rather a common situation in the U.S. Naturally, the disparity between academic performance is provoked by numerous factors strongly associated with the student’s race and income. However, while the socioeconomic achievement gap tends to occur due to the...

Teacher’s Evaluation of Student Learning

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Academic Performance of Dual Language Learners

The concept of dual language learners (DLLs) refers to children not older than five years and at least one caregiver who uses a foreign language at home. This way, such children speak English at school and outside and master their native language at home. In addition to that, DLLs are...

Parenting Styles, Academic Achievement and the Influence of Culture

The article acknowledges the existing body of research on the topic of correlations between different parenting styles and levels of academic success. When stating its purpose, it references the current consensus in the educational and psychological fields that states that an authoritative parenting style is superior in its capacity to...

The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement

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Yoga for Improving the Academic Performance

An academic performance at school is one of the essential indicators of student success and the effectiveness of teaching methods. This article study at yoga as a tool for enhancing academic performance in high-poverty schools to determine its applicability in the educational process. A literature review has shown that while...

Sleep Deprivation and Its Effects on College Students

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Social Class and Its Impact on Student Performance

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Seven Steps to Be Successful in College

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  • Academic Performance 83
  • Adult Education 72
  • Approaches to Learning 177
  • Benefits of Education 320
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  • Culture & Education 48
  • Curriculum Development 91
  • Education & Perception 56
  • Education Programs 175
  • Education System 373
  • Educational Practices 144
  • Educational Resources 58
  • Educational Stages 44
  • Learning Styles 95
  • Learning Theories 212
  • Pedagogical Competencies 34
  • Pedagogy 97
  • Principles of Learning 59
  • Problems of Education 561
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  • Studying Abroad 21
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Essays on Academic Performance

The academic performance of students can be improved by altering their eating habits, through the inclusion of healthy snacks in their daily routines. According to the research study conducted by Anderson, Justin " Elizabeth (62), it was determined that eating healthy diets and maintaining physical body activity can help in...

Words: 1605

Athletics is a globally recognized sporting activity where many people have made a career out of it. Many parents coerce their children into the sport because of the health benefits associated with physical exercise where some find a hobby and passion in life. However, the question of whether parents should...

Words: 2073

The instruction will teach them how to become independent learners, among other things. The instruction will help the student's listening skills both grow and advance. Students should be able to efficiently read a passage and respond to questions about it by the conclusion of this lesson. Student should have no trouble explaining what...

Words: 1647

This is crucial to self-regulation and the cornerstone of the majority of tactics. Setting goals enables a student to identify areas for improvement. (OMelia, 1954). For instance, a teacher can demonstrate to the students how to manage their time effectively and possibly advise them to stop engaging in leisure activities...

Words: 1295

The article Why some schools have ditched academic and athletic awards by Caroline Alphonso discusses the reservations some school staff members have about the incentive programs used to inspire primary school students. The elimination of the academic and athletic awards is supported by some of the directors, including...

My Life's Mistakes and Their Impact My life's mistakes have molded me into the person I am today. Everybody has failed in some way at some time in their lives. Success is not something that comes easily; it must be worked for and often involves loss. I've always viewed failure as...

Words: 1287

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Before the term began, I had the idea of having typical English classes where students learned about composition and comprehension before finishing their own assignments. But I was mistaken; I ended up having the most extraordinary experience of my life thanks to the new ideas and instructional strategies that had...

Miami Dade College Scholarship Eligibility Miami Dade College is a democracy school that transforms lives through excellent, approachable teaching and learning experiences, so attending there is something I've always wanted to do. Additionally, the facility provides money in the form of scholarships that are not contingent on the student's academic or...

Significant changes have recently been made in the educational sphere. The learning processes are mostly the result of technology. Salpeter claims that by implementing six crucial strategies, schools can get their students ready for success in the twenty-first century. Understanding the fundamental concepts, developing learning techniques to encourage critical thinking,...

The Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT) The Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT) is a crucial instrument for reading assessment that aids teachers in gauging their students' reading proficiency and identifying those who need extra support. A test protocol is typically carried out to determine whether the test is successful in achieving the...

I have a university degree with honors, but I have no work experience. I believe that having average grades in my degree program may limit my opportunities, particularly if that is the main issue being addressed. I may not have received top grades in all of my classes, but I...

In a math lesson with ten students that was observed, I covered the subject of solving word problems. This lesson's learning goal was to teach students how to use addition and subtraction to answer a variety of word problems. I expected my pupils to use their knowledge from the previous...

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Home — Essay Samples — Education — Academic Performance — The Role of School Discipline, Rules, and Academic Performance


The Role of School Discipline, Rules, and Academic Performance

  • Categories: Academic Performance Discipline

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Words: 1908 |

10 min read

Published: Jul 7, 2022

Words: 1908 | Pages: 4 | 10 min read

Table of contents

Introduction, concept of discipline, types of discipline, effective discipline skills, theoretical framework, the conceptual framework.

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The impact of writing on academic performance for medical students

Songeui kim.

1 Department of Psychology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Ji Won Yang

2 Interdisciplinary Program in Cognitive Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Seunghee Lee

3 Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Jungjoon Ihm

4 Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Jooyong Park

Associated data.

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Writing is a useful learning activity that promotes higher-order thinking, but there are limited studies that prove its effectiveness. In previous research, researchers tested the effect of summary writing on students’ comprehension and found no significant difference from that of re-studying texts. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to expand previous findings and investigate the effect of two types of writing tasks on medical students’ academic performance, specifically in the transfer of knowledge.

An experiment was conducted with 139 medical students from Seoul National University College of Medicine. They were randomly assigned to three study conditions: self-study (SS), expository writing (EW), and argumentative writing (AW) group. Each group studied the given material by the method they were assigned, and they were tested on their comprehension and transfer of knowledge using rote-memory type items and transfer type items respectively.

The results showed that the two writing groups displayed better performance than the SS group in transfer type items, while there was no difference in scores between the EW and AW group. However, the three groups showed no significant difference in their scores for rote-memory type items. Also, there was a positive correlation between the writing scores and transfer type item scores in the AW group.


This study provides empirical evidence for writing to be adopted in medical education for greater educational benefits. Our findings indicate that writing can enhance learning and higher-order thinking, which are critical for medical students.

“Writing organizes and clarifies our thoughts. Writing is how we think our way into a subject and make it our own. Writing enables us to find out what we know—and what we don’t know—about whatever we’re trying to learn.” [ 1 ] As Zinsser once stated, we can clarify what we know and what we do not know through writing. The process of writing requires writers to have a clear understanding of the subject matter [ 2 ] and make use of cognitive abilities. Specifically, writing helps students develop higher-order thinking skills that involve three cognitive processes - analysis, evaluation, and creation [ 3 ]. At the beginning of the writing process, students should first create a sound argument and express it clearly. Afterward, they should constantly analyze and evaluate what has been written to make a persuasive claim without logical fallacies.

These higher-order thinking skills are needed for medical students to grow as successful medical professionals [ 4 ]. Doctors need to diagnose the problem of a patient, mentally represent the situation, plan appropriate treatments, and evaluate the whole process to check against other possibilities [ 5 – 7 ]. With limited research regarding the learning effects of writing in medical education, some medical schools make use of writing in their classrooms. By way of illustration, students of Maastricht College of Medicine are required to submit a portfolio that includes reflection papers on the roles and abilities of medical professionals, scientists, and health care providers, respectively [ 8 ]. Since these essays are written multiple times over semesters or years, students have the opportunity to reflect upon their whole learning process and look back on what they have learned.

While writing should be emphasized to foster higher-order thinking skills for future medical professionals, previous literature reports conflicting evidence on the effect of writing [ 9 – 11 ]. Representatively, Spirgel and Delaney (2016) concluded that summary writing was not effective than re-studying learning materials [ 12 ]. They also found that students better remembered only the items that were included in the summary compared to those that were omitted. However, it is early to conclude that students cannot learn enough from practicing writing, because in the previous research, they only measured students’ comprehension using rote-memory test items without testing the transfer of knowledge. In the end, applying learned knowledge to different areas is as important as understanding difficult concepts to deal with new patients and novel situations every day. When learners apply information, strategies, and skills they have learned to new contexts, transfer of knowledge occurs [ 13 ]. In this context, while summary writing may not have been more effective in memorizing learned contents [ 9 ], there is evidence that writing facilitates the transfer of knowledge. For example, Boscolo and Mason (2001) found that learning historical events through writing could be transferred to learning concepts in a different domain, science [ 14 ]. Considering that the ultimate goal of education should be to improve thinking skills and application of knowledge, the effects of writing on learning should also be measured in the context of the transfer of knowledge along with accurate memorization [ 15 , 16 ].

Besides, different types of writing could have different effects on students’ learning because each writing task focuses on different skill sets. For instance, summary writing requires skills such as classification, comparison, definition, and illustration; it requires a structured interpretation of the texts and thus can be more effective in improving comprehension [ 17 ]. On the other hand, through argumentation, students can engage in a deeper and more mature level of learning [ 18 ]. When writing an argumentative essay writers need to establish contested claims while formulating an explanation, generating counterarguments, and assessing them to support their own opinions [ 3 ]. While both types of writing can help students develop thinking skills, writing an argumentative essay involves more reasoning [ 19 ] and promotes critical thinking, like analyzing and synthesizing an argument [ 20 ]. All in all, depending on which type of task teachers use, writing can be more effective in stimulating the transfer of knowledge and higher-order thinking beyond comprehension.

Thus, in this study, we investigated the effects of writing on the transfer of knowledge in a medical education setting. If there is empirical evidence that writing can help learn factual knowledge and enhance higher-order thinking skills at the same time, writing can then be used to complement traditional methods of learning to foster medical professionals who have broader perspectives. We developed the following study design: medical students were first divided into three studying conditions, those who study by themselves (self-study: SS), those who study by writing a summary text (summary writing: SW), and those who study by writing an argumentative essay (argumentative writing: AW). Then, we measured students’ academic performance through a final test that assessed both rote-memory and transfer of knowledge. Our hypotheses are as follows: First, all groups (SS, SW, and AW) will show no significant difference in their performance in rote-memory type items. Second, students in the writing groups (SW and AW) will score higher in transfer-type items; specifically, students who study by writing an argumentative essay (AW) will perform better than those who write a summary text (SW).


Participants were recruited at the Seoul National University College of Medicine. Among 139 individuals, 48 were female. Twenty-three participants who failed to follow the directions were excluded from the study. Therefore, only the data from the remaining 116 participants were analyzed ( M age = 19.22, SD age = 0.79).

The participants were instructed to study 4-page-long written material. The study methods varied depending on their assigned groups. The subject matter dealt with the relationship between youth’s cognitive development and musical skills. This subject was chosen because it is less likely to be affected by background knowledge since related courses are not provided to the medical school students. Also, it was convenient to devise final test questions and the writing tasks based on the topic as the material covered diverse concepts and theories. We were also able to refer to an already existing set of test questions on this topic, verified and used in the National Teacher Certification Examination in Korea.

Experiment procedure

Participants were randomly assigned to either of the three groups: the SS (self-study) group, the SW (summary writing) group, and the AW (argumentative writing) group. For the SS group, participants were instructed to study the written material by themselves for 25 min. For the writing groups, participants were instructed to write a half-page long essay on the given material for 25 min. The SW group was instructed to summarize the given text, while the AW group was instructed to create an argument based on what they learned. Specifically, the SW group was told to write more than three paragraphs, the total length of over a half-page. The group had to summarize various stages in youth’s cognitive development of music, which was mainly handled in the learning material. On the other hand, the AW group was instructed to write an argumentative essay. The length of the writing required was identical to the SW group. The task required the participants to pretend they were elementary school music teachers and propose a music class based on the cognitive development theories introduced in the material. Four developmental theorists of music were suggested by Zimmerman, Hargreaves, Gardner, and Swanwick & Tillman, each theory having distinctive views [ 21 ]. Students had to choose one of the theories and argue what they chose was better than the others. Following the study session, participants were asked to solve the Remote Associates Test, which also served as a filler task, for 15 min. Finally, they were given 20 min to complete a final test on the learning material.

Remote associates test (RAT)

Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a test commonly used to assesses creativity [ 22 ]. This goes in context with one of the cognitive processes of higher-order thinking- creation or creative thinking [ 23 ]. To see how creative thinking is related to writing and final performance, fifteen questions were selected and used from the question pool published by Mednick [ 24 , 25 ]. The student being tested has to think of a fourth word that is somehow related to the three words given and all questions have one definite answer.

Measurement of academic performance

Final test questions were comprised of the rote-memory type and transfer type items. The ten rote-memory type items asked direct factual information on the given material and were worth 13 points. There were four transfer type items, which required the students to think a step further and apply what they learned to new situations. These items required not only an overall comprehension of the given material but also an application of it to different situations, which were worth 16 points. Thus, the maximum score of students could achieve was 29 points. Although most of the questions required the participants to write a short or narrative answer, these items had definite answers and guidelines for evaluating students’ performance. Furthermore, to rule out any subjective evaluation by the experimenters, three raters’ agreement for the scores on transfer type items was measured using Intraclass correlation. The coefficient value showed high agreement among the three raters (ICC (3, k ) = .930).

Writing scores

To measure participants’ writing performance, we scored their essays based on the criteria proposed by Lumley [ 26 ]. Specifically, we scored students’ writing on three criteria. First, we rated whether the writing was cohesive and organized (3 points). Second, whether it was appropriate to the task and given materials (2 points), in addition to whether the writing was easily comprehendible (2 points). Third, whether all aspects of presentation conventions including spelling, punctuation, and structure are handled skillfully (3 points). In total, the maximum writing score was 10 points.

Statistical analysis

To examine the effect of different study conditions on academic performance, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear regression analysis, and correlation analysis were performed. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 23 software (SPSS, Chicago, L, USA) and R (3.6.2. version; R Foundation, Vienna, Austria). The statistical significance for all tests was set as α < 0.05.

To begin with, ANCOVA was conducted to compare the academic performance of the students in the three groups. To summarize the results shown in Table  1 , there was a significant difference in total test scores between the three groups ( P  = 0.002, η p 2  = 0.102). The difference in scores for transfer type items was also significant ( P  < 0.001, η p 2  = 0.249). However, no difference was found in the scores for rote-memory type items ( P  = 0.899, η p 2  = 0.002).

Academic performance by group and type of final test items

F (also known as value of F-distribution) describe the probability distribution, notably in the analysis of variance. P (also known as p -value) means statistical significance in the probability. η p 2 (partial eta-score) is an effect size that is measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon in statistics. Data are shown as mean (standard deviation). SS Self-study, SW Summary writing, AW Argumentative writing. For each group, total scores, rote-memory item scores and transfer type item scores are given. Gender and age were adjusted

Analyzing the differences in more detail, the two writing groups showed significantly higher total test scores than the SS group ( P  = 0.007, η p 2  = 0.064). The SS group scored significantly lower than the SW group (13.34 vs. 17.11, P  = 0.003, η p 2  = 0.077); however, no significant difference was found between the SS group and the AW group (13.34 vs. 16.54, P  = 0.109, η p 2  = 0.023). The average total score of the AW group was not significantly different from that of the SW group (16.54 vs. 17.11, P  = 0.197, η p 2  = 0.015).

For rote-memory type items, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The performance of the writing groups was not significantly higher than that of the SS group ( P  = 0.937, η p 2  = 0.000). To re-emphasize, the score of the SS group for rote-memory type items was not significantly different from those of the SW group or the AW group (9.26 vs. 9.14, P  = 0.858, η p 2  = 0.000; 9.26 vs. 9.57, P  = 0.756, η p 2  = 0.001). The performance of the AW group was not significantly different from that of the SW group either(9.14 vs. 9.57, P  = 0.648, η p 2  = 0.002).

Regarding transfer type items, the writing groups performed significantly better than the SS group ( P  < 0.001, η p 2  = 0.155). The SS group scored significantly lower than the SW group (4.09 vs. 7.97, P  < 0.001, η p 2  = 0.171), and the AW group (4.09 vs. 6.97, P  = 0.006, η p 2  = 0.067). However, the scores of the AW group and the SW group were not significantly different (6. 97 vs. 7.97, P  = 0.077, η p 2  = 0.028) (Table  2 ).

Comparison of total scores, rote-memory item scores, and transfer type item scores between groups

F (also known as value of F-distribution) describe the probability distribution, notably in the analysis of variance. P (also known as p-value) means statistical significance in the probability. η p 2 (partial eta-score) is an effect size that measures the magnitude of a phenomenon in statistics. df is an abbreviation of degree of freedom. SS Self-Study, SW Summary writing, AW Argumentative writing. For each group, total scores, rote-memory item scores and transfer type item scores are given. Gender and age were adjusted

Data from the RAT task and the writing scores from participants in the writing groups were further analyzed. Correlation analysis for RAT scores for all three groups did show a weak positive correlation with performance in rote-memory items ( r( 114) = 0.18, P  = 0.045). However, for participants in the writing groups, RAT scores did not show any significant correlation with the main study variables as demonstrated in Table  3 .

Correlations between main study variables

* P  < 0.05, ** P  < 0.01, *** P  < 0.001

Lastly, the correlation between participants’ writing scores and their final performance was measured. Higher writing scores or performance should reflect higher levels of participation in learning. As a result, the writing scores of participants for all writing conditions combined showed a weak positive correlation with both performances in rote-memory ( r (68) = 0.34, P  = 0.003) and transfer type items ( r( 68) = 0.27, P  = 0.022). However, linear regression analyses controlled for age and gender variables indicated that the writing scores significantly predicted performance on transfer type items for participants only in the AW group ( R 2  = 0.26, F (3, 31) = 5.123, P  = 0.001) (Table  4 ).

Multiple regression analysis of writing scores and performance on transfer type items

β is a dimensional parameter vector that is known as effects or regression coefficient. SE is an abbreviation of standard error. t (also known as t -statistic) is abbreviated from hypothesis test statistic. P (also known as p -value) means statistical significance in the probability. * P  < 0.05, ** P  < 0.01, *** P  < 0.001

Memorizing a large amount of knowledge still plays an important role in medical education. However, simply memorizing the given facts cannot foster students’ ability to grow as successful health professionals [ 27 ]. They need to train higher-order thinking skills to apply what they learned to novel situations as they cannot merely rely on memorization when dealing with various patients with different symptoms. This is why we investigated the effect of writing, which promotes higher-order thinking. By dividing the participants into three groups, those who study by themselves (SS), those who study by writing a summary text (SW), and those who study by writing an argumentative essay (AW), we tested each group’s performance on both rote-memory and the transfer of knowledge. While replicating previous literature on the effect of writing on students’ memory, our study has focused on finding empirical evidence that writing fosters the transfer of knowledge and higher-order thinking skills as well.

Following the first hypothesis that there would be no difference between groups in rote-memory scores, participants who learned through writing did not show significantly higher performance in rote-memory type items. These results are consistent with the previous research by Spirgel and Delaney, which reported that summary writing was not any more effective than restudying the text in solving short answer and multiple-choice questions [ 12 ]. Since the SS group learned the given material most similarly to re-studying the text, the fact that the SS group and the two writing groups performed similarly in rote-memory type items replicates previous works.

Expanding previous research on the effect of writing on learning, students were tested on their transfer of knowledge as well as how well they remember the information.  Following the second hypothesis, participants who learned through writing showed significantly higher performance in transfer type items than those who engaged in self-studying. Compared to students who just read the given material to comprehend and memorize the information, students who were involved in the writing task had to analyze what they had read and present what they had learned in their own words. Therefore, writing which requires higher-order thinking skills, such as analysis and evaluation, leads to a deeper level of learning [ 18 ] and a higher level of transfer of knowledge.

In addition to measuring the transfer of knowledge, two different writing tasks – summary and argumentative writing – were introduced in the experiment to test whether they have different effects on students’ learning. However, unlike the expectations, there were no differences between the two writing conditions, and the SW and the AW group showed similar performance in transfer type items. This pattern may be due to some characteristics of the writing task or our participant group. To elaborate, the summary writing task required participants in the SW group to delineate and summarize all four theories introduced in the given text. On the other hand, in the argumentative writing task, participants could write their claim by focusing on only one of the theories they preferred. Therefore, the SW group may have had an advantage over the AW group in answering the final test questions that dealt with the whole text. Next, the scores between the two writing groups may not have shown any difference due to the specificity of medical students. Medical students may already be familiar with writing summaries as they must have had memorized a large amount of knowledge in school. Conversely, students may lack experience in writing an argumentative essay and have weaker argumentation skills.

Results from further linear regression analysis imply similar conclusions (Table ​ (Table4). 4 ). Writing scores of both the SW and the AW group showed a weak positive correlation with performance in rote-memory and transfer type items (Table ​ (Table3). 3 ). However, linear regression results showed some different patterns on the effect of writing for the two writing groups (Fig.  1 ). While participants in the SW group achieved similar scores on transfer type items regardless of their writing scores, the test performance of participants in the AW group increased according to their writing scores. Since writing scores show a significant linear relationship with performance in transfer type items only in the AW condition, participants with poor writing skills in this group may not have benefited enough from the writing task. This also implies students who did not actively participate in the argumentative writing task may have lowered the average of the group performance, regardless of how argumentative writing promotes deeper learning than summary writing. Meanwhile, no significant relationship between writing and performance in transfer type items was found in the SW group, which suggests there was little individual variance in the learning effect of summary writing. Such different dynamics between the two different types of writing could have resulted in lower test scores in the AW group, or higher test scores in the SW group, bringing academic performance within the two writing groups to a similar level.

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Linear Regression between writing scores and academic performance. Regression results representing how writing scores (0–10) affect students’ academic performance on transfer type items(0–16) for the two writing groups. Red points indicating summary writing(SW) group; blue points indicating argumentative writing(AW) group. For participants in SW groups, no clear pattern was found between performance and writing scores. On the other hand, participants in the AW group showed a linear relationship between transfer type item scores and writing scores

Last but not least, further analyses between RAT scores and the main study variables were performed to see whether creativity, or creative thinking which falls under higher-order thinking, is related to writing and final performance. RAT scores were only positively correlated with scores for rote-memory type items. This may be attributed to the fact that RAT focuses on measuring convergent thinking abilities, and not divergent thinking [ 28 ]. Creativity mainly consists of convergent thinking and divergent thinking; however, these two concepts are different. While convergent thinking skills involve the production of a single predetermined solution to a given problem like RAT, divergent thinking skills require the exploration of multiple possible solutions to generate creative ideas. In this sense, transfer type items that require the application of knowledge in various contexts may be closely related to divergent thinking than convergent thinking. The different focus of each assessment tool could have been the reason why the RAT did not show any significant correlations with the writing scores or performance in transfer type items.

To sum up, we were able to find some empirical evidence that writing can be a useful learning activity for medical students. First, we were able to replicate previous research by showing those who studied through writing performed similarly with those who self-studied the text in rote-memory items. Second, we went further to show writing has a significant influence on the level of transfer of knowledge for both summary and argumentative tasks, although no significant difference was found between the two conditions.

This study, however, still has some limitations. First, overall performance scores showed a floor effect. Specifically for transfer type items, the mean score of the three groups ranged from 4 to 7 points, much below the maximum of 16 points. Such an effect could have been due to the unfamiliar subject matter or high difficulty level of the items, which were selected from the National teacher certification examination in Korea. Nevertheless, the writing groups achieved significantly higher scores in transfer type items compared to the SS group. For future studies, it would be meaningful to replicate our results with a larger sample size and materials more closely related to what medical students study within the curriculum. Also, a more relevant measure of cognitive processes involved with higher-order thinking must be considered. The task used in our study was the RAT, which assesses creativity, specifically convergent thinking skills. Since almost no significant correlations were found between RAT scores and the main study variables, implementing and explaining other measurements will help us better understand the cognitive processes behind the effect of writing on learning. Lastly, due to time constraints, we could not fully investigate the effect of writing on academic performance in the long run. As we have seen from the linear regression results, students with weaker argumentation skills may not have fully benefited from the writing activity. Thus, if we help students increase their argumentation skills and practice argumentative writing over several periods, the benefits of writing on learning may turn out to be bigger. In this sense, it would be worthy of investigating whether the AW group shows better performance than the SW group after more training, and experiment with what other long-term benefits writing can bring to the medical students.

The current study provided new evidence to encourage the use of writing to complement the traditional ways of teaching in the medical education curriculum. Teachers are therefore encouraged to utilize writing in the classroom to help students develop thinking and apply what they learned to novel situations.

Writing could be used as a useful learning tool that promotes higher-order thinking. As students have to analyze the given information and evaluate it to express their ideas in a compact piece of writing, higher-order thinking is promoted throughout the process. Therefore, our findings provide empirical evidence for writing to be adopted in medical classroom settings for greater benefits, in light of the transfer of knowledge. Overall, students who learned through writing showed a similar level of memorization with those who engaged in self-studying but higher performance in transfer type items. However, no particular difference in performance between SW and AW group was found, suggesting future studies are needed to identify what specific writing activities are helpful for medical school students. All in all, by actively using writing assignments in class, we expect medical students to acquire knowledge and foster higher-order thinking skills at the same time.


Not Applicable.


Authors’ contributions.

All authors have read and approved the manuscript. Conceptualization: KS; Methodology: KS, PJ; Formal analysis: YJ, LJ; Data curation: YJ, LJ; Investigation: KS, YJ, LJ; Writing - original draft preparation: KS; Writing - review and editing: LS, IJ, PJ.

Availability of data and materials

Ethics approval and consent to participate.

The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Seoul National University School of Dentistry (approval No. S-D20190016). All participants were aware that they were taking part in this research and gave informed consent in writing in addition to confirming that they would allow us to use their collected data anonymously for publication. All the data were anonymously collected and analyzed.

Consent for publication

Competing interests.

All authors have no potential conflicts of interest.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Contributor Information

Jungjoon Ihm, Email: rk.ca.uns@721jji .

Jooyong Park, Email: rk.ca.uns@krapyooj .


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