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Meanings of speech and pattern.

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(Definition of speech and pattern from the Cambridge English Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)

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a game in which two, three, or four players use mallets (= long wooden hammers) to hit wooden balls through small metal hoops (= curves) fixed into the grass

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Example sentences speech pattern

Definition of 'pattern' pattern.

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Definition of 'speech' speech

Cobuild collocations speech pattern, browse alphabetically speech pattern.

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10.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns

Learning objectives.

  • Differentiate among the common speech organizational patterns: categorical/topical, comparison/contrast, spatial, chronological, biographical, causal, problem-cause-solution, and psychological.
  • Understand how to choose the best organizational pattern, or combination of patterns, for a specific speech.

A motivational poster of water running over rocks. The caption says

Twentyfour Students – Organization makes you flow – CC BY-SA 2.0.

Previously in this chapter we discussed how to make your main points flow logically. This section is going to provide you with a number of organization patterns to help you create a logically organized speech. The first organization pattern we’ll discuss is categorical/topical.


By far the most common pattern for organizing a speech is by categories or topics. The categories function as a way to help the speaker organize the message in a consistent fashion. The goal of a categorical/topical speech pattern is to create categories (or chunks) of information that go together to help support your original specific purpose. Let’s look at an example.

In this case, we have a speaker trying to persuade a group of high school juniors to apply to attend Generic University. To persuade this group, the speaker has divided the information into three basic categories: what it’s like to live in the dorms, what classes are like, and what life is like on campus. Almost anyone could take this basic speech and specifically tailor the speech to fit her or his own university or college. The main points in this example could be rearranged and the organizational pattern would still be effective because there is no inherent logic to the sequence of points. Let’s look at a second example.

In this speech, the speaker is talking about how to find others online and date them. Specifically, the speaker starts by explaining what Internet dating is; then the speaker talks about how to make Internet dating better for her or his audience members; and finally, the speaker ends by discussing some negative aspects of Internet dating. Again, notice that the information is chunked into three categories or topics and that the second and third could be reversed and still provide a logical structure for your speech


Another method for organizing main points is the comparison/contrast speech pattern . While this pattern clearly lends itself easily to two main points, you can also create a third point by giving basic information about what is being compared and what is being contrasted. Let’s look at two examples; the first one will be a two-point example and the second a three-point example.

If you were using the comparison/contrast pattern for persuasive purposes, in the preceding examples, you’d want to make sure that when you show how Drug X and Drug Y differ, you clearly state why Drug X is clearly the better choice for physicians to adopt. In essence, you’d want to make sure that when you compare the two drugs, you show that Drug X has all the benefits of Drug Y, but when you contrast the two drugs, you show how Drug X is superior to Drug Y in some way.

The spatial speech pattern organizes information according to how things fit together in physical space. This pattern is best used when your main points are oriented to different locations that can exist independently. The basic reason to choose this format is to show that the main points have clear locations. We’ll look at two examples here, one involving physical geography and one involving a different spatial order.

If you look at a basic map of the United States, you’ll notice that these groupings of states were created because of their geographic location to one another. In essence, the states create three spatial territories to explain.

Now let’s look at a spatial speech unrelated to geography.

In this example, we still have three basic spatial areas. If you look at a model of the urinary system, the first step is the kidney, which then takes waste through the ureters to the bladder, which then relies on the sphincter muscle to excrete waste through the urethra. All we’ve done in this example is create a spatial speech order for discussing how waste is removed from the human body through the urinary system. It is spatial because the organization pattern is determined by the physical location of each body part in relation to the others discussed.


The chronological speech pattern places the main idea in the time order in which items appear—whether backward or forward. Here’s a simple example.

In this example, we’re looking at the writings of Winston Churchill in relation to World War II (before, during, and after). By placing his writings into these three categories, we develop a system for understanding this material based on Churchill’s own life. Note that you could also use reverse chronological order and start with Churchill’s writings after World War II, progressing backward to his earliest writings.


As you might guess, the biographical speech pattern is generally used when a speaker wants to describe a person’s life—either a speaker’s own life, the life of someone they know personally, or the life of a famous person. By the nature of this speech organizational pattern, these speeches tend to be informative or entertaining; they are usually not persuasive. Let’s look at an example.

In this example, we see how Brian Warner, through three major periods of his life, ultimately became the musician known as Marilyn Manson.

In this example, these three stages are presented in chronological order, but the biographical pattern does not have to be chronological. For example, it could compare and contrast different periods of the subject’s life, or it could focus topically on the subject’s different accomplishments.

The causal speech pattern is used to explain cause-and-effect relationships. When you use a causal speech pattern, your speech will have two basic main points: cause and effect. In the first main point, typically you will talk about the causes of a phenomenon, and in the second main point you will then show how the causes lead to either a specific effect or a small set of effects. Let’s look at an example.

In this case, the first main point is about the history and prevalence of drinking alcohol among Native Americans (the cause). The second point then examines the effects of Native American alcohol consumption and how it differs from other population groups.

However, a causal organizational pattern can also begin with an effect and then explore one or more causes. In the following example, the effect is the number of arrests for domestic violence.

In this example, the possible causes for the difference might include stricter law enforcement, greater likelihood of neighbors reporting an incident, and police training that emphasizes arrests as opposed to other outcomes. Examining these possible causes may suggest that despite the arrest statistic, the actual number of domestic violence incidents in your city may not be greater than in other cities of similar size.


Another format for organizing distinct main points in a clear manner is the problem-cause-solution speech pattern . In this format you describe a problem, identify what you believe is causing the problem, and then recommend a solution to correct the problem.

In this speech, the speaker wants to persuade people to pass a new curfew for people under eighteen. To help persuade the civic group members, the speaker first shows that vandalism and violence are problems in the community. Once the speaker has shown the problem, the speaker then explains to the audience that the cause of this problem is youth outside after 10:00 p.m. Lastly, the speaker provides the mandatory 10:00 p.m. curfew as a solution to the vandalism and violence problem within the community. The problem-cause-solution format for speeches generally lends itself to persuasive topics because the speaker is asking an audience to believe in and adopt a specific solution.


A further way to organize your main ideas within a speech is through a psychological speech pattern in which “a” leads to “b” and “b” leads to “c.” This speech format is designed to follow a logical argument, so this format lends itself to persuasive speeches very easily. Let’s look at an example.

In this speech, the speaker starts by discussing how humor affects the body. If a patient is exposed to humor (a), then the patient’s body actually physiologically responds in ways that help healing (b—e.g., reduces stress, decreases blood pressure, bolsters one’s immune system, etc.). Because of these benefits, nurses should engage in humor use that helps with healing (c).

Selecting an Organizational Pattern

Each of the preceding organizational patterns is potentially useful for organizing the main points of your speech. However, not all organizational patterns work for all speeches. For example, as we mentioned earlier, the biographical pattern is useful when you are telling the story of someone’s life. Some other patterns, particularly comparison/contrast, problem-cause-solution, and psychological, are well suited for persuasive speaking. Your challenge is to choose the best pattern for the particular speech you are giving.

You will want to be aware that it is also possible to combine two or more organizational patterns to meet the goals of a specific speech. For example, you might wish to discuss a problem and then compare/contrast several different possible solutions for the audience. Such a speech would thus be combining elements of the comparison/contrast and problem-cause-solution patterns. When considering which organizational pattern to use, you need to keep in mind your specific purpose as well as your audience and the actual speech material itself to decide which pattern you think will work best.

Key Takeaway

  • Speakers can use a variety of different organizational patterns, including categorical/topical, comparison/contrast, spatial, chronological, biographical, causal, problem-cause-solution, and psychological. Ultimately, speakers must really think about which organizational pattern best suits a specific speech topic.
  • Imagine that you are giving an informative speech about your favorite book. Which organizational pattern do you think would be most useful? Why? Would your answer be different if your speech goal were persuasive? Why or why not?
  • Working on your own or with a partner, develop three main points for a speech designed to persuade college students to attend your university. Work through the preceding organizational patterns and see which ones would be possible choices for your speech. Which organizational pattern seems to be the best choice? Why?
  • Use one of the common organizational patterns to create three main points for your next speech.

Stand up, Speak out Copyright © 2016 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Home » Blog » General » Exploring the Meaning Behind Everyday Speech Patterns

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Exploring the Meaning Behind Everyday Speech Patterns

Welcome to my blog! In today’s post, we will delve into the fascinating world of everyday speech patterns and uncover the hidden meanings behind them. Understanding these patterns is crucial for effective communication and social emotional learning. So let’s dive in!

I. Introduction

A. Importance of understanding everyday speech patterns

Everyday speech patterns play a vital role in our daily interactions. They provide insights into our emotions, thoughts, and beliefs. By understanding these patterns, we can navigate social situations more effectively and build stronger connections with others.

B. How speech patterns reflect our emotions and thoughts

Our speech patterns are not just a string of words; they are a reflection of our inner world. The way we speak, the tone we use, and the words we choose all convey our emotions and thoughts. By paying attention to these patterns, we can gain a deeper understanding of ourselves and others.

C. Overview of the blog post

In this blog post, we will explore what everyday speech patterns are, decipher their meanings, and understand their impact on social interactions. We will also discuss strategies for developing self-awareness of our own speech patterns and enhancing social emotional learning through effective communication.

II. What are everyday speech patterns?

A. Definition and explanation

Everyday speech patterns refer to the way we speak in our daily lives. They encompass various aspects such as tone of voice, volume, speed of speech, use of pauses, hesitations, word choice, vocabulary, metaphors, idioms, and cultural influences. These patterns are deeply ingrained in our communication style and shape how we express ourselves.

B. Examples of common speech patterns

Common speech patterns include using phrases like “you know,” “um,” or “like” as fillers, speaking in a fast-paced manner when excited, or using specific idioms and metaphors to convey meaning. These patterns can vary across cultures and regions, adding richness and diversity to our conversations.

C. How speech patterns differ across cultures and regions

Speech patterns are influenced by cultural norms, regional dialects, and individual experiences. For example, in some cultures, direct communication is valued, while in others, indirect communication is preferred. Understanding these differences is essential for effective cross-cultural communication and building cultural competence.

III. The meaning behind speech patterns

A. How speech patterns convey emotions

1. Tone of voice and intonation

Our tone of voice and intonation can convey a wide range of emotions, such as anger, excitement, sadness, or sarcasm. For example, a high-pitched and fast-paced tone may indicate enthusiasm, while a monotone voice may suggest boredom or disinterest.

2. Volume and speed of speech

The volume and speed at which we speak can also reveal our emotional state. Speaking loudly and quickly may indicate excitement or urgency, while speaking softly and slowly may indicate calmness or sadness.

3. Use of pauses and hesitations

The use of pauses and hesitations can add depth and meaning to our speech. Pausing before a significant point can create suspense, while hesitations can indicate uncertainty or the need to gather one’s thoughts.

B. How speech patterns reflect thoughts and beliefs

1. Word choice and vocabulary

The words we choose and the vocabulary we use reflect our thoughts, beliefs, and level of education. For example, someone who frequently uses technical jargon may be knowledgeable in a specific field, while someone who uses simple language may prioritize clarity and accessibility.

2. Use of metaphors and idioms

Metaphors and idioms are powerful tools for conveying meaning and cultural understanding. They can add depth and richness to our speech, but they can also be misinterpreted if not understood within the appropriate cultural context.

3. Cultural and social influences on speech patterns

Our speech patterns are influenced by the culture and society we grow up in. They shape our communication style, values, and beliefs. Being aware of these influences can help us navigate intercultural communication and foster understanding and respect.

IV. Understanding the impact of speech patterns on social interactions

A. Importance of effective communication

Effective communication is the foundation of healthy relationships and successful interactions. By understanding the impact of speech patterns, we can enhance our communication skills and build stronger connections with others.

B. How speech patterns can enhance or hinder social connections

Speech patterns can either enhance or hinder social connections depending on how they are used. Clear and empathetic communication can foster trust and understanding, while miscommunication or the use of offensive language can damage relationships.

C. Strategies for improving communication through speech patterns

To improve communication through speech patterns, we can practice active listening, be mindful of our tone and body language, use clear and concise language, and adapt our communication style to the needs of others. It is also important to be open to feedback and continuously strive for self-improvement.

V. Developing self-awareness of speech patterns

A. Recognizing our own speech patterns

Developing self-awareness of our speech patterns begins with recognizing how we speak. Pay attention to the words, phrases, and patterns you frequently use in your conversations. This awareness can help you identify areas for improvement and growth.

B. Reflecting on the meaning behind our speech patterns

Once you recognize your speech patterns, take time to reflect on their meaning. Consider how your tone, choice of words, and cultural influences shape your communication style. This reflection can deepen your understanding of yourself and others.

C. Identifying areas for improvement and growth

Identify areas for improvement and growth in your speech patterns. Are there any patterns that may hinder effective communication or create misunderstandings? Set goals for yourself and actively work towards developing more effective and empathetic communication skills.

VI. Enhancing social emotional learning through speech patterns

A. How speech patterns contribute to self-awareness

By paying attention to our speech patterns, we can develop a greater sense of self-awareness. Understanding how our speech reflects our emotions and thoughts allows us to better understand ourselves and regulate our emotions.

B. Using speech patterns to express emotions effectively

Speech patterns provide us with a powerful tool for expressing our emotions effectively. By consciously choosing our words, tone, and body language, we can communicate our feelings in a clear and respectful manner, fostering healthy emotional expression.

C. Building empathy and understanding through speech patterns

Speech patterns also play a crucial role in building empathy and understanding. By listening attentively to others’ speech patterns and being open to different perspectives, we can develop a deeper understanding of their emotions, thoughts, and experiences.

VII. Conclusion

A. Recap of key points discussed

In this blog post, we explored the meaning behind everyday speech patterns. We discussed how speech patterns reflect our emotions and thoughts, the impact of speech patterns on social interactions, and strategies for developing self-awareness and enhancing social emotional learning through effective communication.

B. Encouragement to explore and reflect on everyday speech patterns

I encourage you to take the time to explore and reflect on your own everyday speech patterns. Pay attention to the meaning behind your words and how they impact your interactions with others. This self-reflection can lead to personal growth and improved communication skills.

C. Importance of incorporating social emotional learning in daily life

Social emotional learning is a lifelong journey that can greatly enhance our personal and professional relationships. By incorporating social emotional learning into our daily lives, we can foster empathy, understanding, and effective communication.

Start your EverydaySpeech Free trial today and embark on a journey of self-discovery and growth through understanding everyday speech patterns.

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speech of pattern meaning

Module 6: Organizing and Outlining Your Speech

Topical organization, learning objectives.

Explain the topical organizational pattern for speeches and identify when it is best used.

A topical pattern is the most common way to structure speeches, particularly speeches of information, because it is relevant to nearly any topic or type of speech. However, you should make sure to explore all other organizational patterns before selecting it in case your topic fits better elsewhere. A topical structure involves dividing your central idea into topic categories or sub-topics that surround the main topic. You should devote roughly the same amount of time to each category and each category should be distinct from each other.

A set of bins labeled Stickers, Stamps, Stencils

Think of topical organization as a set of boxes, bins, or drawers. Items are organized according to which drawer they go in.

For example, a speech about the benefits of listening to music while exercising could follow a topical structure divided between the categories of how music can (1) increase stamina, (2) decrease boredom, and (3) improve coordination. Each sub-topic or main point is distinct, but ties back to the main speech topic.

The advantage of using a topical speech pattern is that it creates an organizational structure that is specific to the speech topic. Some speech topics don’t fit into any other category. They can’t be organized chronologically because dates are not involved. They can’t be organized spatially because geography or space isn’t involved. They don’t have steps to follow. They aren’t presenting a problem or a solution. It is important to eliminate all the other possible speech patterns before selecting topical. Once topical is selected, then the specific categories must be determined next. Make sure to select categories that are condensed enough for the speech time limit. For example, if you are explaining the five types of hurricanes in a five-minute speech, you may not have time to speak of each one individually and therefore would need to condense some categories together.


The disadvantage of using a topical speech pattern is that you are limited to the categories selected. It will prove difficult to include anything outside of the categories once writing begins, so be sure that the categories selected are the most important ones to focus on and limit it to no more than five categories. Also, transitioning between categories and connecting them to one another becomes more crucial in a topical outline. A transition sentence which ties category 1 to category 2, will be important in creating an organizational, logical flow of ideas. It can be easy to sound disorganized if this connection between topics is unclear or disconnected.

Now that we have examined what a topical pattern is, consider which topics fit best into this pattern. Brainstorm some topics that don’t fit elsewhere and measure them against the other organization options to be sure topical is the best one.

To Watch: Nick Fuhrman, “The One Thing All great teachers do”

In this topically organized speech, professor and environmental educator Nick Fuhrman talks about teaching. Although the title speaks to “one” thing that great teachers do, Fuhrman lists four: celebrate mistakes, appreciate difference, relay feedback, and evaluate themselves. These four topics provide the organizational structure for the speech.

You can view the transcript for “The One Thing All Great Teachers Do | Nick Fuhrman | TEDxUGA” here (opens in new window) .

What to watch for:

Elsewhere in this course we advise against using live animals as visual aids. This is true unless A) you are expert in handling the animals in public performance and B) you have explicit permission from the event organizers to share the stage with a snake.

  • The One Thing All Great Teachers Do | Nick Fuhrman | TEDxUGA. Provided by : TEDx Talks. Located at : . License : Other . License Terms : Standard YouTube License
  • Topical Organization. Authored by : Susan Bagley-Koyle with Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Topical Organization. Authored by : Misti Wills with Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution

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speech of pattern meaning

Sentence Patterns: What Are Sentence Patterns? Definition and Examples

speech of pattern meaning

If you want to learn more about sentence patterns, you've come to the right place. This article will teach you what you need to know to construct your sentences in the right order.

Sentence pattern refers to how sentences are constructed:

  • The parts of speech you use in a sentence and the order in which you put them. 

This article is part of our free online Grammar Book .

What Are Sentence Patterns?

When constructing a sentence, it's important to put your words in the right order since different parts of speech can take on different functions, so the word order will determine what role they play in the sentence.

There are pretty basic sentence patterns and more complicated ones. What's more, the pattern will depend on the type of sentence, but we'll learn more about that later. For now, let's start by taking a look at some of the most common patterns.

Basic Sentence Pattern

The most simple sentence is made up of a subject and a verb , so that's your sentence pattern for a basic sentence:

[Subject] + [Verb]

Let's take a look at a few examples of what that might look like:

I am running. The cat sleeps. Our train arrived.

Sometimes, there'll be a compound subject :

My husband and I are running.

Or a compound verb:

The cat sleeps and eats .

... or both:

The cat and the dog sleep and eat .

More Complex Patterns

It's actually quite rare to see sentences as simple as the ones shown above. They're mostly found in classrooms when used as examples on the whiteboard. In everyday language, the sentences you'll construct are a little more complex than that. Sometimes a lot more!

But the good news is the basic sentence pattern formula you saw above is the basis for all formulas. From there, you can add , remove and tweak as needed.

Let's take a look at how you might do that.

Direct Objects

The next level up from a very basic sentence like the ones shown above is to add a direct object .

You then get the following structure:

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Direct Object]

Direct objects only work with transitive verbs , which perform an action on or to something.

Here are some examples of sentences that follow this pattern:

The cat eats kibble . I took the train . My husband and I watered the garden .

Still pretty simple, right? Let's step it up a notch.

Adjectives don't complicate sentence patterns much because they can just be slotted in next to the noun they modify without affecting the rest of the sentence.

As a reminder, adjectives are modifiers that provide additional information about nouns and pronouns.

The sentence pattern would then look like this in its most basic form:

[Adjective] + [Subject] + [Verb]

This is an example of what that would look like in a sentence:

The brown cat eats kibble.  My awesome husband waters the garden. Colorful flowers have started growing. 

The pattern might vary slightly, like this:

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Adjective] + [Noun] I took the midnight train.

Note that predicate adjectives are slightly different because they typically follow a linking verb and can't be removed without making the sentence grammatically incorrect.

So the pattern formula looks a bit more like this:

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Adjective] or [Adjective Phrase] The cat was brown . My cat is the brown one. Our garden looks lush .

Indirect Objects

If you want to take things a step further , you can even add indirect objects into your sentences. That's the thing that receives the direct object.

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Indirect Object] + [Direct Object]  I give my cat kibble. We asked our daughter to help. She bought us some seeds.

If you really want to step things up a notch, you can throw in some adverbs to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

If you do that, here are some possible sentence pattern combinations:

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Adverb] We waved joyfully . [Subject] + [Verb] + [Direct Object] + [Adverb] She ate her dinner quickly . [Adjective] + [Subject] + [Adverb] + [Verb] The scared cat gently approached. 

Prepositional Phrases

You can also add prepositional phrases at the end of your sentences to provide more information or context.

These sentences can be fairly simple like this:

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Prepositional Phrase] I water my plants in the evenings .

Or it can be more complex, like this:

[Adjective] + [Subject] + [Adverb] + [Verb] + [Prepositional Phrase] My poor cat patiently waited for me to feed her .

There are many possible combinations when it comes to sentence structure, so feel free to get creative and play around with your sentence patterns!

Extra Clauses

One thing to remember about making sentences is that they don't all have just one clause. Yet all the pattern formulas I showed you above only account for sentences with a single clause. So what should you do if you need to make a sentence with more than one clause, like a compound sentence, a complex sentence , or a compound-complex sentence ?

All you have to do is combine two or more different sentence structure patterns and join them with a conjunction or the correct punctuation.

Here's an example of what that might look like if you were making a compound sentence:

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Direct Object] + [Conjunction] + [Subject] + [Verb] + [Direct Object] The cat eats kibble but the dog has raw food.

Making Your Sentence Complete

We've covered the fundamentals of the different sentence patterns, so now it's time to talk about the unsung heroes that make a sentence a sentence.


Determiners are little words placed before the subject to give more specificity about which one you are referring to.

  • Articles : a, an, the
  • Demonstratives : this, that, these, those
  • Possessives : my, yours, his, her, its, our, their
  • Quantifiers :  cardinal numbers ('one,' 'two,' 'three,' etc.);  ordinal numbers ('first,' 'second,' 'third,' etc.); indefinite adjectives ('all,' 'many,' 'few,' etc.); distributive adjectives ('each,' 'both,' 'neither,' etc.)

Determiners come right before the subject, so even though they don't have a specific mention in the sentence pattern formulas, don't forget to use them when necessary.

Note that they aren't always necessary. Use your discernment!


Conjunctions are words that link words, phrases, or clauses together to make our sentences more seamless, more elegant, and more easily understood.

There are two types:

  • coordinating
  • subordinating conjunctions.

The coordinating conjunctions join together two same parts of speech: a verb with a verb, a noun with a noun, and so on.

They are known by the acronym FANBOY:

As for subordinating conjunctions , they connect a dependent clause to an independent clause.

There are too many to list, but here are some:

Again, these haven't always been mentioned in the sentence pattern formulas above, but they should be slotted whenever needed.


Never forget the punctuation in your sentences! There are two kinds of punctuation.

  • The first is the kind you use at the end of your sentence, and that could be a period , exclamation point , or question mark .
  • The second kind is what you use inside your sentences. These include commas , semicolons , and dashes , to name a few.

Punctuation is essential in sentence formation and plays an important role in sentence patterns because lacking punctuation or punctuation placed in the wrong spot can change the sentence's meaning.

Sentence Patterns for Different Types of Sentences

So we've covered some of the most common sentence patterns, and you've learned how to create others. Seems simple enough, right? So what's the catch?

Well, as long as you're writing declarative (and even exclamatory ) sentences, you're covered. But the two other sentence types work a little differently. Let's take a look.

Interrogative Sentences

Interrogative sentences are what you use if you're asking a question.

Here are some common formulas for basic closed questions :

[Auxiliary Verb] + [Subject] + [Verb] + [Rest of the Sentence] Are you feeling nervous about tonight?  [Auxiliary Verb] + [Subject] + [Adjective] Were you tired?

And here is the most common formula for basic open questions:

[WH Word] + [Auxiliary Verb] + [Subject] + [Main Verb] + [Rest of the Sentence] Why do you love swimming so much?

As you can see, the main difference between interrogative and declarative sentences is that with the former , the subject comes later on, whereas, with the latter, they're usually placed right at the beginning of the sentence.

Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences are in a league of their own because they're the only sentence that doesn't require a sentence! That's right, you heard me correctly.

So your imperative sentence pattern could be as simple as this:

[Verb] Sit.

Of course, they can also be a lot longer and more complex than that. You can add words around the verb as you see fit, but you'll never need a subject in the imperative part of the sentence. For instance, "Please sit here" is still an imperative sentence. If you were to say, "Please sit here so you don't get tired," the second verb is not imperative, which is why we do mention the subject 'you.'

Active Vs Passive Sentences

Most sentences are formed in the active voice, but sometimes you might want to use the passive voice. If that's the case, know that your sentence pattern will look slightly different. In fact, it's almost the opposite of an active voice sentence because the object comes first, and the subject comes later.

[Object] + [Verb 'be'] [ Past Participle ] +['by'] + [Subject] The book was written by a famous author.

The active voice is usually the preferred form, so it's best to stick with that as a general rule. But there are times when the passive voice is appropriate, such as when you want to emphasize the action rather than the doer or when writing about a general truth. To learn more, check out this article .

Concluding Thoughts on Sentence Patterns

That concludes this article on sentence patterns. I hope you found it useful.

Let's summarize what we've learned:

  • Sentence patterns help you put your words in the right order so your intended meaning can come across.
  • The most basic sentence pattern is [Subject] + [Verb]
  • You can add to this structure as your sentences get more complex. 
  • Don't forget your determiners, conjunctions, and punctuation. 
  • The sentence patterns are different for interrogative, imperative, and passive sentences.

If you enjoyed this article, check out our Grammar Book . It's a free online database of grammar articles just like this one.

Learn More:

  • Simple Sentence: What Is a Simple Sentence? Definition and Examples
  • Compound Sentence: What Is a Compound Sentence? Definition and Examples
  • Sentence Structure: What Is Sentence Structure? Definition and Examples
  • Compound-Complex Sentence: What Is a Compound-Complex Sentence? Definition and Examples
  • Sentence Fragments: What Are Sentence Fragments? Definition and Examples
  • Complex Sentence: What Is a Complex Sentence? Definition and Examples
  • Sentence Types: What Are Sentence Types? Definition and Examples
  • Optative Sentence Example and Definition: What Is an Optative Sentence?
  • Assertive Sentence Examples: What is an Assertive Sentence?
  • What Are the Different Parts of a Sentence? (Overview)
  • Parallelism: What Is Parallelism? Definition and Examples
  • Gerunds: What Is a Gerund? Definition and Examples
  • Contractions: What Are Contractions? Definition and Examples
  • Metaphors: What Are Metaphors? (Definition and Examples)
  • Hyperbole: What is Hyperbole in English? Definition and Examples

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speech of pattern meaning

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9 Structure and Organization

Writing a Speech That Audiences Can Grasp

In this chapter . . .

For a speech to be effective, the material must be presented in a way that makes it not only engaging but easy for the audience to follow. Having a clear structure and a well-organized speech makes this possible. In this chapter we cover the elements of a well-structured speech, using transitions to connect each element, and patterns for organizing the order of your main points.

Have you had this experience? You have an instructor who is easy to take notes from because they help you see the main ideas and give you cues as to what is most important to write down and study for the test. On the other hand, you might have an instructor who tells interesting stories, says provocative things, and leads engaging discussions, but you have a tough time following where the instruction is going. If you’ve experienced either of these, you already know that structure and the organized presentation of material makes a big difference for listening and learning. The structure is like a house, which has essential parts like a roof, walls, windows, and doors. Organization is like the placement of rooms within the house, arranged for a logical and easy flow.

This chapter will teach you about creating a speech through an outlining process that involves structure and organization. In the earlier chapter Ways of Delivering Speeches , you learned about several different modes of speech delivery: impromptu, extemporaneous, and manuscript. Each of these suggests a different kind of speech document. An impromptu speech will have a very minimal document or none at all. An extemporaneous delivery requires a very thorough outline, and a manuscript delivery requires a fully written speech text. Here’s a crucial point to understand: Whether you plan to deliver extemporaneously or from a fully written text. The process of outlining is crucial. A manuscript is simply a thorough outline into which all the words have been written.

Flow chart from thesis to delivery

Four Elements of a Structured Speech

A well-structured speech has four distinct elements: introduction, body, connective statements, and conclusion. While this sounds simple, each of these elements has sub-elements and nuances that are important to understand. Introductions and conclusions are complex enough to warrant their own chapter and will be discussed in depth further on.

Introduction and Conclusion

The importance of a good introduction cannot be overstated. The clearer and more thorough the introduction, the more likely your audience will listen to the rest of the speech and not “turn off.” An introduction, which typically occupies 10-15% of your entire speech, serves many functions including getting the audience’s attention, establishing your credibility, stating your thesis, and previewing your main points.

Like an introduction, speech conclusions are essential. They serve the function of reiterating the key points of your speech and leave the audience with something to remember.

The elements of introductions and conclusions will be discussed in the following chapter. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to the body of the speech and its connectors.

The Body of a Speech

The body of a speech is comprised of several distinct groups of related information or arguments. A proper group is one where a) the group can be described in a single clear sentence, and b) there’s a logical relationship between everything within it. We call that describing sentence a main point . Speeches typically have several main points, all logically related to the thesis/central idea of the speech. Main points are followed by explanation, elaboration, and supporting evidence that are called  sub-points .

Main Points

A main point in a speech is a complete sentence that states the topic for information that is logically grouped together. In a writing course, you may have learned about writing a paragraph topic sentence. This is typically the first sentence of a paragraph and states the topic of the paragraph. Speechwriting is similar. Whether you’re composing an essay with a paragraph topic sentences or a drafting a speech with main points, everything in the section attached to the main point should logically pertain to it. If not, then the information belongs under a different main point. Let’s look at an example of three main points:

General Purpose: To persuade

Specific Purpose: To motivate my classmates in English 101 to participate in a study abroad program.

Thesis: A semester-long study abroad experience produces lifelong benefits by teaching you about another culture, developing your language skills, and enhancing your future career prospects.

Main point #1: A study abroad experience allows you to acquire firsthand experience of another culture through classes, extra-curricular activities, and social connections.

Main point #2: You’ll turbocharge your acquisition of second language skills through an immersive experience living with a family.

Main point #3: A study abroad experience on your resume shows that you have acquired the kind of language and cultural skills that appeal to employers in many sectors.

Notice that each main point is expressed in a complete sentence, not merely #1 Culture; #2 Language; #3 Career. One-word signals are useless as a cue for speaking. Additionally, students are often tempted to write main points as directions to themselves, “Talk about the health department” or “Mention the solution.” This isn’t helpful for you, either. Better: “The health department provides many services for low-income residents” says something we can all understand.

Finally, the important thing to understand about speechwriting is that listeners have limits as to how many categories of information they can keep in mind. The number of main points that can be addressed in any speech is determined by the time allotted for a speech but is also affected by the fact that speeches are limited in their ability to convey substantial amounts of information. For a speech of five to seven minutes, three or four main points are usually enough. More than that would be difficult to manage—for both speaker and audience.

Obviously, creating your main points isn’t the end of the story. Each main point requires additional information or reinforcement. We call these sub-points. Sub-points provide explanation, detail, elaboration, and/or supporting evidence. Consider main point #1 in the previous example, now with sub-points:

Sub-point A: How a country thinks about education is a window into the life of that culture. While on a study abroad program, you’ll typically take 3-5 classes at foreign universities, usually with local professors. This not only provides new learning, but it opens your eyes to different modes of education.

Sub-point B: Learning about a culture isn’t limited to the classroom. Study abroad programs include many extra-curricular activities that introduce you to art, food, music, sports, and other everyday elements of a country’s culture. These vary depending on the program and there’s something for everyone! The website provides information on hundreds of programs.

Sub-point C: The opportunity to socialize with peers in other countries is one of most attractive elements of studying abroad. You may form friendships that will last a lifetime. “I have made valuable connections in a country I hope to return to someday” according to a blog post by Rachel Smith, a student at the University of Kansas. [1]

Notice that each of these sub-points pertains to the main point. The sub-points contribute to the main point by providing explanation, detail, elaboration, and/or supporting evidence. Now imagine you had a fourth sub-point:

Sub-point D: And while doing all that socializing, you’ll really improve your language skills.

Does that sub-point belong to main point #1? Or should it be grouped with main point#2 or main point #3?

Connective Statements

Connectives or “connective statements” are broad terms that encompass several types of statements or phrases. They are designed to help “connect” parts of your speech to make it easier for audience members to follow. Connectives are tools that add to the planned redundancy, and they are methods for helping the audience listen, retain information, and follow your structure. In fact, it’s one thing to have a well-organized speech. It’s another for the audience to be able to “consume” or understand that organization.

Connectives in general perform several functions:

  • Remind the audience of what has come before
  • Remind the audience of the central focus or purpose of the speech
  • Forecast what is coming next
  • Help the audience have a sense of context in the speech—where are we?
  • Explain the logical connection between the previous main idea(s) and next one or previous sub-points and the next one
  • Explain your own mental processes in arranging the material as you have
  • Keep the audience’s attention through repetition and a sense of movement

Connective statement can include “internal summaries,” “internal previews” “signposts” and “bridging or transition statements.” Each of these helps connect the main ideas of your speech for the audience, but they have different emphases and are useful for different types of speeches.

Types of connectives and examples

Internal summaries emphasize what has come before and remind the audience of what has been covered.

“So far I have shown how the designers of King Tut’s burial tomb used the antechamber to scare away intruders and the second chamber to prepare royal visitors for the experience of seeing the sarcophagus.”

Internal previews let your audience know what is coming up next in the speech and what to expect regarding the content of your speech.

“In this next part of the presentation I will share with you what the truly secret and valuable part of the King Tut’s pyramid: his burial chamber and the treasury.”

Signposts emphasize physical movement through the speech content and let the audience know exactly where they are. Signposting can be as simple as “First,” “Next,” “Lastly” or numbers such as “First,” “Second,” Third,” and “Fourth.” Signposting is meant to be a brief way to let your audience know where they are in the speech. It may help to think of these like the mile markers you see along interstates that tell you where you’re and how many more miles you will travel until you reach your destination.

“The second aspect of baking chocolate chip cookies is to combine your ingredients in the recommended way.”

Bridging or transition statements emphasize moving the audience psychologically to the next step.

“I have mentioned two huge disadvantages to students who don’t have extracurricular music programs. Let me ask: Is that what we want for our students? If not, what can we do about it?”

They can also serve to connect seemingly disconnected (but related) material, most commonly between your main points.

“After looking at how the Cherokee Indians of the North Georgia mountain region were politically important until the 1840s and the Trail of Tears, we can compare their experience with that of the Indians of Central Georgia who did not assimilate in the same way as the Cherokee.”

At a minimum, a bridge or transition statement is saying, “Now that we have looked at (talked about, etc.) X, let’s look at Y.”

diagram of connectors

There’s no standard format for connectives. However, there are a few pieces of advice to keep in mind about them:

First, connectives are for connecting main points. They are not for providing evidence, statistics, stories, examples, or new factual information for the supporting points of the main ideas of the speech.

Second, while connectives in essay writing can be relatively short—a word or phrase, in public speaking, connectives need to be a sentence or two. When you first start preparing and practicing connectives, you may feel that you’re being too obvious with them, and they are “clunky.” Some connectives may seem to be hitting the audience over the head with them like a hammer. While it’s possible to overdo connectives, it’s less likely than you would think. The audience will appreciate them, and as you listen to your classmates’ speeches, you’ll become aware of when they are present and when they are absent.

Lack of connectives results in hard-to-follow speeches where the information seems to come up unexpectedly or the speaker seems to jump to something new without warning or clarification.

Finally, you’ll also want to vary your connectives and not use the same one all the time. Remember that there are several types of connectives.

Patterns of Organization

At the beginning of this chapter, you read the analogy that a speech structure is like a house and organization is like the arrangement of the rooms. So far, we have talked about structure. The introduction, body, main point, sub-point, connectives—these are the house. But what about the arrangement of the rooms? How will you put your main points in a logical order?

There are some standard ways of organizing the body of a speech. These are called “patterns of organization.” In each of the examples below, you’ll see how the specific purpose gives shape to the organization of the speech and how each one exemplifies one of the six main organizational patterns.

Please note that these are simple, basic outlines for example purposes. The actual content of the speech outline or manuscript will be much further developed.

Chronological Pattern

Specific Purpose: To describe to my classmates the four stages of rehabilitation in addiction recovery.

Main Points:
  • The first stage is acknowledging the problem and entering treatment.
  • The second stage is early abstinence, a difficult period in the rehabilitation facility.
  • The third stage is maintaining abstinence after release from the rehab facility.
  • The fourth stage is advanced recovery after a period of several years.

The example above uses what is termed the chronological pattern of organization . Chronological always refers to time order. Organizing your main points chronologically is usually appropriate for process speeches (how-to speeches) or for informational speeches that emphasize how something developed from beginning to end. Since the specific purpose in the example above is about stages, it’s necessary to put the four stages in the right order. It would make no sense to put the fourth stage second and the third stage first.

Chronological time can be long or short. If you were giving a speech about the history of the Civil Rights Movement, that period would cover several decades; if you were giving a speech about the process of changing the oil in a car, that process takes less than an hour. Whether the time is long or short, it’s best to avoid a simple, chronological list of steps or facts. A better strategy is to put the information into three to five groups so that the audience has a framework. It would be easy in the case of the Civil Rights Movement to list the many events that happened over more than two decades, but that could be overwhelming for the audience. Instead, your chronological “grouping” might be:

  • The movement saw African Americans struggling for legal recognition before the landmark 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision.
  • The movement was galvanized and motivated by the 1955-1956 Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • The movement saw its goals met in the Civil Rights Act of 1965.

In this way, the chronological organization isn’t an overwhelming list of events. It focuses the audience on three events that pushed the Civil Rights movement forward.

Spatial Pattern

You can see that chronological is a highly-used organizational structure, since one of the ways our minds work is through time-orientation—past, present, future. Another common thought process is movement in space or direction, which is called the spatial pattern . For example:

Specific Purpose: To explain to my classmates the three regional cooking styles of Italy.

  • In the mountainous region of the North, the food emphasizes cheese and meat.
  • In the middle region of Tuscany, the cuisine emphasizes grains and olives.
  • In the southern region and Sicily, the diet is based on fish and seafood.

In this example, the content is moving from northern to southern Italy, as the word “regional” would indicate. For a more localized example:

Specific Purpose: To explain to my classmates the layout of the White House.

  • The East Wing includes the entrance ways and offices for the First Lady.
  • The most well-known part of the White House is the West Wing.
  • The residential part of the White House is on the second floor. (The emphasis here is the movement a tour would go through.)

For an even more localized example:

Specific Purpose: To describe to my Anatomy and Physiology class the three layers of the human skin.

  • The outer layer is the epidermis, which is the outermost barrier of protection.
  • The second layer beneath is the dermis.
  • The third layer closest to the bone is the hypodermis, made of fat and connective tissue.

Topical / Parts of the Whole Pattern

The topical organizational pattern is probably the most all-purpose, in that many speech topics could use it. Many subjects will have main points that naturally divide into “types of,” “kinds of,” “sorts of,” or “categories of.” Other subjects naturally divide into “parts of the whole.” However, as mentioned previously, you want to keep your categories simple, clear, distinct, and at five or fewer.

Specific Purpose: To explain to my first-year students the concept of SMART goals.

  • SMART goals are specific and clear.
  • SMART goals are measurable.
  • SMART goals are attainable or achievable.
  • SMART goals are relevant and worth doing.
  • SMART goals are time-bound and doable within a time period.

Specific Purpose: To explain the four characteristics of quality diamonds.

  • Valuable diamonds have the characteristic of cut.
  • Valuable diamonds have the characteristic of carat.
  • Valuable diamonds have the characteristic of color.
  • Valuable diamonds have the characteristic of clarity.

Specific Purpose: To describe to my audience the four main chambers of a human heart.

  • The first chamber in the blood flow is the right atrium.
  • The second chamber in the blood flow is the right ventricle.
  • The third chamber in the blood flow is the left atrium.
  • The fourth chamber in the blood flow and then out to the body is the left ventricle.

At this point in discussing organizational patterns and looking at these examples, two points should be made about them and about speech organization in general:

First, you might look at the example about the chambers of the heart and say, “But couldn’t that be chronological, too, since that’s the order of the blood flow procedure?” Yes, it could. There will be times when a specific purpose could work with two different organizational patterns. In this case, it’s just a matter of emphasis. This speech emphasizes the anatomy of the heart, and the organization is “parts of the whole.” If the speech’s specific purpose were “To explain to my classmates the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart,” the organizational pattern would emphasize chronological, altering the pattern.

Another principle of organization to think about when using topical organization is “climax” organization. That means putting your strongest argument or most important point last when applicable. For example:

Specific purpose: To defend before my classmates the proposition that capital punishment should be abolished in the United States.

  • Capital punishment does not save money for the justice system.
  • Capital punishment does not deter crime in the United States historically.
  • Capital punishment has resulted in many unjust executions.

In most people’s minds, “unjust executions” is a bigger reason to end a practice than the cost, since an unjust execution means the loss of an innocent life and a violation of our principles. If you believe Main Point III is the strongest argument of the three, putting it last builds up to a climax.

Cause & Effect Pattern

If the specific purpose mentions words such as “causes,” “origins,” “roots of,” “foundations,” “basis,” “grounds,” or “source,” it’s a causal order; if it mentions words such as “effects,” “results,” “outcomes,” “consequences,” or “products,” it’s effect order. If it mentions both, it would of course be cause/effect order. This example shows a cause/effect pattern:

Specific Purpose: To explain to my classmates the causes and effects of schizophrenia.

  • Schizophrenia has genetic, social, and environmental causes.
  • Schizophrenia has educational, relational, and medical effects.

Problem-Solution Pattern

The principle behind the problem-solution pattern is that if you explain a problem to an audience, you shouldn’t leave them hanging without solutions. Problems are discussed for understanding and to do something about them. This is why the problem-solution pattern is often used for speeches that have the objective of persuading an audience to take action.

When you want to persuade someone to act, the first reason is usually that something needs fixing. Let’s say you want the members of the school board to provide more funds for music at the three local high schools in your county. What is missing because music or arts are not funded? What is the problem ?

Specific Purpose: To persuade the members of the school board to take action to support the music program at the school.

  • Students who don’t have extracurricular music in their lives have lower SAT scores.
  • Schools that don’t have extracurricular music programs have more gang violence and juvenile delinquency.
  • $120,000 would go to bands.
  • $80,000 would go to choral programs.

Of course, this is a simple outline, and you would need to provide evidence to support the arguments, but it shows how the problem-solution pattern works.

Psychologically, it makes more sense to use problem-solution rather than solution-problem. The audience will be more motivated to listen if you address needs, deficiencies, or problems in their lives rather than giving them solutions first.

Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern

A variation of the problem-solution pattern, and one that sometimes requires more in-depth exploration of an issue, is the “problem-cause-solution” pattern. If you were giving a speech on the future extinction of certain animal species, it would be insufficient to just explain that numbers of species are about to become extinct. Your second point would logically have to explain the cause behind this happening. Is it due to climate change, some type of pollution, encroachment on habitats, disease, or some other reason? In many cases, you can’t really solve a problem without first identifying what caused the problem.

Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the age to obtain a driver’s license in the state of Georgia should be raised to 18.

  • There’s a problem in this country with young drivers getting into serious automobile accidents leading to many preventable deaths.
  • One of the primary causes of this is younger drivers’ inability to remain focused and make good decisions due to incomplete brain development.
  • One solution that will help reduce the number of young drivers involved in accidents would be to raise the age for obtaining a driver’s license to 18.

Some Additional Principles of Speech Organization

It’s possible that you may use more than one of these organizational patterns within a single speech. You should also note that in all the examples to this point (which have been kept simple for the purpose of explanation), each main point is relatively equal in emphasis; therefore, the time spent on each should be equal as well. You would not want your first main point to be 30 seconds long, the second one to be 90 seconds, and the third 3 minutes. For example:

Specific Purpose: To explain to my classmates the rules of baseball.

  • Baseball has rules about equipment.
  • Baseball has rules about the numbers of players.
  • Baseball has rules about play.

Main Point #2 isn’t really equal in size to the other two. There’s a great deal you could say about equipment and even more about the rules of playing baseball, but the number of players would take you about ten seconds to say. If Main Point #2 were “Baseball has rules about the positions on the field,” that would make more sense and be closer in level of importance to the other two.

The organization of your speech may not be the most interesting part to think about, but without it, great ideas will seem jumbled and confusing to your audience. Even more, good connectives will ensure your audience can follow you and understand the logical connections you’re making with your main ideas. Finally, because your audience will understand you better and perceive you as organized, you’ll gain more credibility as a speaker if you’re organized. A side benefit to learning to be an organized public speaker is that your writing skills will improve, specifically your organization and sentence structure.

Roberto is thinking about giving an informative speech on the status of HIV-AIDS currently in the U.S. He has different ideas about how to approach the speech. Here are his four main thoughts:

  • pharmaceutical companies making drugs available in the developing world
  • changes in attitudes toward HIV-AIDS and HIV-AIDS patients over the last three decades
  • how HIV affects the body of a patient
  • major breakthroughs in HIV-AIDS treatment

Assuming all these subjects would be researchable and appropriate for the audience, write specific purpose statements for each. What organizational patterns would he probably use for each specific purpose?

Media Attributions

  • Speech Structure Flow © Mechele Leon is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  • Connectives
  • ↵

Public Speaking as Performance Copyright © 2023 by Mechele Leon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

speech of pattern meaning

III.2 Varying one’s speech: Discourse patterns

2.1 introduction, 2.1.1 theoretical background: discourse patterns and registers, 2.1.2 research on linguistic variation in ancient greek drama, 2.1.3 methodology in this chapter, 2.2 distribution as input for interpretation, 2.2.1 δέ, 2.2.2 καί, 2.2.3 τε, 2.2.4 γάρ, 2.2.5 γε and δῆτα, 2.2.6 ἀλλά, 2.2.7 μέν, 2.2.8 δή, 2.2.9 οὖν, 2.3 conclusions, appendix: non-significant distributions.

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Pronunciation (us):    (gb): , ipa (us): .

  Dictionary entry overview: What does speech pattern mean?  

• SPEECH PATTERN (noun)   The noun SPEECH PATTERN has 1 sense:


  Familiarity information: SPEECH PATTERN used as a noun is very rare.

  Dictionary entry details  


Sense 1

Distinctive manner of oral expression

Classified under:

Nouns denoting communicative processes and contents

accent ; speech pattern

Context example:

she had a very clear speech pattern

Hypernyms ("speech pattern" is a kind of...):

pronunciation (the manner in which someone utters a word)

Hyponyms (each of the following is a kind of "speech pattern"):

drawl (a slow speech pattern with prolonged vowels)

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Social Sci LibreTexts

14.6: Speech Organization

  • Last updated
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  • Page ID 9048

  • Ganga S. Dhanesh@National University of Singapore
  • Millersville University via Public Speaking Project

Members of different cultural groups have varying preferences for different organizational patterns such as linear and holistic.

linear pattern

Speakers from low-context cultures often use linear patterns, such as cause- and-effect, problem-solution, chronological and spatial. In these patterns the speaker develops the main idea step by step, relying on facts and data to support the main argument. The main points and sub-points are connected via transitions, internal previews and summaries. The speaker relies more on facts and data, rather than on stories and emotional appeals, and contextual understanding is not emphasized. However, other speakers, mostly from high-context cultures, use holistic and configural organizational patterns that are more indirect than the linear patterns (Lieberman, 1994).

We have no hope of solving our problems without harnessing the diversity, the energy, and the creativity of all our people. ~ Roger Wilkins

Screen Shot 2019-07-01 at 11.26.19 PM.png

holistic pattern

In holistic patterns, instead of directly and explicitly presenting key ideas, the speaker uses examples and stories to convey the main idea and leaves it to the audience to interpret the message encoded in the examples and stories told. The main points and sub- points are connected through implication rather than by clear bridges and transitions. Cheryl Jorgensen Earp (1993; as cited in Jaffe, 2004) has identified three distinct types of holistic organizational patterns: wave, spiral and star.

wave pattern

In the wave pattern, speakers adopt a crest-trough wave pattern in which they use examples and stories to slowly build up to the main point at the crest of the wave. The speaker then winds down and repeats the pattern, reiterating main points or introducing new points at the peaks. Speeches that follow the wave pattern usually end dramatically, at the crest. Ceremonial speakers often employ this pattern, using repetitive phrases to build up to the crest.

spiral pattern

A speaker employing the spiral pattern builds up dramatic intensity by moving from smaller and less-intense scenarios to bigger and more-intense scenarios, in an upward spiral. A speech about disciplining a child might use a spiral pattern. First, the speaker could say that for a small transgression a child might be given a time-out. The next scenario could describe a larger transgression and a bigger punishment such as being grounded for a day. Subsequent scenarios could build further in intensity.

star pattern

A variation of the more linear topical pattern, the star pattern presents a set of main points connected by an underlying common theme. For different audiences, speakers will start with different main points, but all main points will be united by one theme. For instance, while delivering a speech on “save the dolphins” to primary school students, the speaker might start with a main point that appeals to children, such as the “born to be free” argument, and then cover the other main points. However, when addressing marine biologists, the speaker might start with the main point that keeping dolphins in captivity is harmful to their health. Then the speaker would cover the remaining points, all tied to the theme of saving dolphins.

All patterns, whether linear or holistic, require careful and skillful planning and organization. When addressing a diverse audience, public speakers should make an effort to adjust their organizational patterns to reflect their audiences’ preference.

Screen Shot 2019-07-01 at 11.27.31 PM.png

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17 Organizational Patterns

Learning Objectives

  • Decide on an effective organizational pattern.

Now that we have gotten this far, we need to consider how we will organize our material. There are several ways you can organize your speech content to ensure your information is easy for your audience to follow. The following video explains different organizing patterns. Note that some of the organizing patterns are better for information speech and some are better for persuasive speeches.

Organizational Patterns

After deciding which main points and sub-points you must include, you can get to work writing up the speech. Before you do so, however, it is helpful to consider how you will organize the ideas. There are many ways you can organize speeches, and these approaches will be different depending on whether you are preparing an informative or persuasive speech. These are referred to as organizational patterns for arranging your main points in a speech. The chronological, topical, spatial, or causal patterns may be better suited to informative speeches, whereas the Problem-Solution, Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (Monroe, 1949) would work best for persuasive speeches.

Chronological Pattern

When you speak about events that are linked together by time, it is sensible to engage the chronological organization pattern. In a chronological speech, the main points are delivered according to when they happened and could be traced on a calendar or clock. Some professors use the term temporal to reflect any speech pattern dealing with taking the audience through time. Arranging main points in chronological order can be helpful when describing historical events to an audience as well as when the order of events is necessary to understand what you wish to convey. Informative speeches about a series of events most commonly engage the chronological style, as do many process speeches (e.g., how to bake a cake or build an airplane). Another time when the chronological style makes sense is when you tell the story of someone’s life or career. For instance, a speech about Oprah Winfrey might be arranged chronologically. In this case, the main points are arranged by following Winfrey’s life from birth to the present time. Life events (e.g., early life, her early career, her life after ending the Oprah Winfrey Show) are connected together according to when they happened and highlight the progression of Winfrey’s career. Organizing the speech in this way illustrates the interconnectedness of life events. Below you will find a way in which you can organize your main points chronologically:

Topic : Oprah Winfrey (Chronological Pattern)

Thesis : Oprah’s career can be understood by four key, interconnected life stages.

Preview : First, let’s look at Oprah’s early life. Then, we will look at her early career, followed by her years during the Oprah Winfrey show. Finally, we will explore what she is doing now.

I.       Oprah’s childhood was spent in rural Mississippi, where she endured sexual abuse from family members II.     Oprah’s early career was characterized by stints on local radio and television networks in Nashville and Chicago. III.    Oprah’s tenure as host of the Oprah Winfrey Show began in 1986 and lasted until 2011, a period of time marked by much success. IV.     Oprah’s most recent media venture is OWN: The Oprah Winfrey Network, which plays host to a variety of television shows including  Oprah’s Next Chapter .

Topical Pattern

When the main points of your speech center on ideas that are more distinct from one another, a topical organization pattern may be used. In a topical speech, main points are developed according to the different aspects, subtopics, or topics within an overall topic. Although they are all part of the overall topic, the order in which they are presented really doesn’t matter. For example, you are currently attending college. Within your college, there are various student services that are important for you to use while you are here. You may use the library, The Learning Center (TLC), Student Development office, ASG Computer Lab, and Financial Aid. To organize this speech topically, it doesn’t matter which area you speak about first, but here is how you could organize it.

Topic : Student Services at College of the Canyons

Thesis and Preview : College of the Canyons has five important student services, which include the library, TLC, Student Development Office, ASG Computer Lab, and Financial Aid.

I.       The library can be accessed five days a week and online and has a multitude of books, periodicals, and other resources to use. II.      The TLC has subject tutors, computers, and study rooms available to use six days a week. III.     The Student Development Office is a place that assists students with their ID cards, but also provides students with discount tickets and other student related       needs. IV.      The ASG computer lab is open for students to use for several hours a day, as well as to print up to 15 pages a day for free. V.       Financial Aid is one of the busiest offices on campus, offering students a multitude of methods by which they can supplement their personal finances paying             for both tuition and books.

Spatial Pattern

Another way to organize the points of a speech is through a spatial speech, which arranges the main points according to their physical and geographic relationships. The spatial style is an especially useful organization pattern when the main point’s importance is derived from its location or directional focus. Things can be described from top to bottom, inside to outside, left to right, north to south, and so on. Importantly, speakers using a spatial style should offer commentary about the placement of the main points as they move through the speech, alerting audience members to the location changes. For instance, a speech about The University of Georgia might be arranged spatially; in this example, the spatial organization frames the discussion in terms of the campus layout. The spatial style is fitting since the differences in architecture and uses of space are related to particular geographic areas, making the location a central organizing factor. As such, the spatial style highlights these location differences.

Topic : University of Georgia (Spatial Pattern)

Thesis : The University of Georgia is arranged into four distinct sections, which are characterized by architectural and disciplinary differences.

I.      In North Campus, one will find the University’s oldest building,     a sprawling treelined quad, and the famous Arches, all of which are nestled against Athens’ downtown district. II.     In West Campus, dozens of dormitories provide housing for the University’s large     undergraduate population and students can regularly be found lounging outside     or at one of the dining halls. III.    In East Campus, students delight in newly constructed, modern buildings and     enjoy the benefits of the University’s health center, recreational facilities, and     science research buildings. IV.     In South Campus, pharmacy, veterinary, and biomedical science students traverse     newly constructed parts of campus featuring well-kept landscaping and modern     architecture.

Causal Pattern

A causal speech informs audience members about causes and effects that have already happened with respect to some condition, event, etc. One approach can be to share what caused something to happen, and what the effects were. Or, the reverse approach can be taken where a speaker can begin by sharing the effects of something that occurred, and then share what caused it. For example, in 1994, there was a 6.7 magnitude earthquake that occurred in the San Fernando Valley in Northridge, California. Let’s look at how we can arrange this speech first by using a cause-effect pattern:

Topic : Northridge Earthquake

Thesis : The Northridge earthquake was a devastating event that was caused by an unknown fault and resulted in the loss of life and billions of dollars of damage.

I. The Northridge earthquake was caused by a fault that was previously unknown and located nine miles beneath Northridge. II. The Northridge earthquake resulted in the loss of 57 lives and over 40 billion dollars of damage in Northridge and surrounding communities.

Depending on your topic, you may decide it is more impactful to start with the effects, and work back to the causes (effect-cause pattern). Let’s take the same example and flip it around:

Thesis : The Northridge earthquake was a devastating event that was that resulted in the loss of life and billions of dollars in damage, and was caused by an unknown fault below Northridge.

I.      The Northridge earthquake resulted in the loss of 57 lives and over 40 billion dollars of damage in Northridge and surrounding communities. II.    The Northridge earthquake was caused by a fault that was previously unknown and located nine miles beneath Northridge.

Why might you decide to use an effect-cause approach rather than a cause-effect approach? In this particular example, the effects of the earthquake were truly horrible. If you heard all of that information first, you would be much more curious to hear about what caused such devastation. Sometimes natural disasters are not that exciting, even when they are horrible. Why? Unless they affect us directly, we may not have the same attachment to the topic. This is one example where an effect-cause approach may be very impactful.

Organizational patterns help you to organize your thoughts and speech content so that you are able to develop your ideas in a way that makes sense to the audience. Having a solid idea of which organization pattern is best for your speech will make your speech writing process so much easier!

Key Takeaways

  • Speech organizational patterns help us to arrange our speech content in a way that will communicate our ideas clearly to our audience.
  • Different organizational patterns are better for different types of speeches and topics.
  • Some organizational patterns are better for informative speeches: Chronological, spatial, topical, and narrative.
  • Although cause-effect and problem-solution can be used for an informative speech, use these patterns with caution as they are better used for persuasive speeches.

Introduction to Speech Communication by Individual authors retain copyright of their work licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Public Speaking Copyright © by Dr. Layne Goodman; Amber Green, M.A.; and Various is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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English Speech Patterns Required for Everyday Speech

English speech patterns

English everyday speech patterns include frequently used phrases. Also, learning these patterns will speed up your speaking process. They are also quite effective for communicating more practically in the English language. First of all, let’s tell you about the benefits of learning English speech patterns.

Daily speech patterns help you to communicate quickly and practically when meeting people, shopping, ordering food and traveling. Even if your knowledge of English is at a basic level, you can easily communicate by learning these patterns.

You can also make minor changes to these sentence structures. Thus, you can produce many different sentences. In this way, you will learn the general sentence structure of English. Also, English speech patterns are very advantageous in that they are easy to remember. You can write down certain English speech patterns that you have difficulty in remembering on your phone and keep them with you. In this way, if you can’t remember the phrases during the English dialogue, you can quickly browse through your notes and continue speaking.

English Speech Patterns

Greeting patterns.

First, let’s explain the greeting patterns.

What are the ‘How Are You?’ Question Patterns?

  • How are you (doing)?
  • How is it going?
  • Are you doing okay?
  • How are you feeling?

Answers to the Question ‘How are you?’

  • I could be better.
  • I am all right.
  • So so- not so great.
  • I feel well.

English Patterns Used When Meeting Someone

You can use these English speech patterns for meeting someone:

  • Let me introduce myself to you.
  • This is my friend, Michael.
  • Diana, this is the woman I was telling about you.
  • Henry, this is Mary.

‘Nice to Meet You’ Patterns

  • (Glad, Nice, Good) to meet you.
  • (It is a pleasure to meet you.)
  • (How nice to meet you.)

Patterns for Making Friends with Someone

  • Do you want to join us?
  • Mind if I join you?
  • Would you like to dance?

English Patterns Used in Food and Beverage Service Places

You can use the following English speech patterns for taking orders:

  • May I take your order, please?
  • Here or take away?/ For here or to go?
  • Would you like to see the menu?
  • Do you want to learn our speacials for today?

You can use the following English patterns when ordering:

  • We are ready to order.
  • We need more time to decide.
  • Is there anything you can suggest?
  • Do I pay you or the cashier?
  • Can you get  a glass of water?
  • What are your specialities?
  • Keep the change.
  • Can you seperate the bill, please?
  • I couldn’t finish this. Could you wrap it, please?

English Speech Patterns Related to Airplane, Train, Bus Travel

  • How can I go to the downtown?
  • Can I reserve a seat in advance?
  • Do we stop for the meals?
  • What is the fare?
  • Do I have to change the planes?
  • Will there be a layover?
  • Is it a direct flight?
  • What is the departure time?
  • What is the arrival time?

English Speech Patterns about Shopping

  • What is your size?
  • That is your colour.
  • Do you have something specific in mind?
  • May I help you?
  • That looks nice (or great on you).
  • Are you being helped?
  • How would you want to pay?

English Diary Patterns used for Hotel Accommodation

  • Can I book a room?
  • I have a reservation.
  • I need (a single/double bed) in the room.
  • Are pets allowed?

Pronunciation of English Speech Patterns

Let’s talk about how these patterns are read. You can read words very well. But accents and meanings in English speech patterns can vary. All you have to do is watch videos, listen to people, talk, and make mistakes. As a result, you begin to pronounce these sentences in the most correct way.

In order to be able to say that I know English, it is not enough to be able to read that language from written sources and understand what you read. It is very important for us as social beings to speak the language. In other words, it is necessary to talk to each other for many situations such as meeting, greeting, asking for addresses. You can socialize with English conversation dialogues that contain basic information. You can even travel in a country you don’t know at all without needing anyone.

So, are the English speech patterns enough to meet all your needs? Of course, English patterns are not enough to enjoy more when you go on holiday to a foreign country. Also, when you meet strangers for work, you will need much more than the sentences in this dialogue to impress them. In the scope of the subject, English speech patterns we can say that:  If you want to speak English fluently without any difficulty, you can learn English easily with English course.

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A man walks through knee-high water on a sidewalk next to a car parked at the curb with water over its wheels.

El Niño is starting to lose strength after fueling a hot, stormy year, but it’s still powerful − an atmospheric scientist explains what’s ahead for 2024

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Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York

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Paul Roundy receives funding from the National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

University at Albany, State University of New York provides funding as a member of The Conversation US.

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Wild weather has been roiling North America for the past few months, thanks in part to a strong El Niño that sent temperatures surging in 2023. The climate phenomenon fed atmospheric rivers drenching the West Coast and contributed to summer’s extreme heat in the South and Midwest and fall’s wet storms across the East .

That strong El Niño is now starting to weaken and will likely be gone by late spring 2024.

So, what does that mean for the months ahead – and for the 2024 hurricane season?

What is El Niño?

Let’s start with a quick look at what an El Niño is.

El Niño and its opposite, La Niña, are climate patterns that influence weather around the world. El Niño tends to raise global temperatures, as we saw in 2023, while La Niña events tend to be slightly cooler. The two result in global temperatures fluctuating above and below the warming trend set by climate change .

El Niño starts as warm water builds up along the equator in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, off South America.

A colored map shows temperature differences with a warm area just west of South America along the equator.

Typically, tropical Pacific winds blow from the east, exposing cold water along the equator and building up warm water in the western Pacific. Every three to seven years or so , however, these winds relax or turn to blow from the west. When that happens, warm water rushes to the east. The warmer-than-normal water drives more rainfall and alters winds around the world. This is El Niño .

The water stays warm for several months until, ultimately, it cools or is driven away from the equator by the return of the trade winds.

When the eastern Pacific region along the equator becomes abnormally cold, La Niña has emerged, and global weather patterns change again.

What to expect from El Niño in 2024

While the 2023-24 El Niño event likely peaked in December , it is still strong.

For the rest of winter, forecasts suggest that strong El Niño conditions will likely continue to favor unusual warmth in Canada and the northern United States and occasional stormy conditions across the southern states.

Two maps of typical winter conditions under El Nino and La Nina show the Southwest wetter and the Northwest and upper Midwest generally warmer under El Nino.

El Niño is likely to end in late spring or early summer, shifting briefly to neutral. There’s a good chance we will see La Niña conditions this fall. But forecasting when that happens and what comes next is harder.

How an El Niño ends

While it’s easy to tell when an El Niño event reaches its peak, predicting when one will end depends on how the wind blows, and everyday weather affects the winds.

The warm area of surface water that defines El Niño typically becomes more shallow toward spring. In mid-May 1998, at the end of an even stronger El Niño event , there was a time when people fishing in the warm surface water in the eastern tropical Pacific could have touched the cold water layer a few feet below by just jumping in. At that point, it took only a moderate breeze to pull the cold water to the surface, ending the El Niño event.

But exactly when a strong El Niño event reverses varies. A big 1983 El Niño didn’t end until July. And the El Niño in 1987 retreated into the central Pacific but did not fully reverse until December.

As of early February 2024, strong westerly winds were driving warm water from west to east across the equatorial Pacific.

These winds tend to make El Niño last a little longer. However, they’re also likely to drive what little warm water remains along the equator out of the tropics, up and down the coasts of the Americas. The more warm water that is expelled, the greater the chances of full reversal to La Niña conditions in the fall.

Summer and the hurricane risk

Among the more important El Niño effects is its tendency to reduce Atlantic hurricane activity .

El Niño’s Pacific Ocean heat affects upper level winds that blow across the Gulf of Mexico and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. That increases wind shear - the change in wind speed and direction with height – which can tear hurricanes apart.

The 2024 hurricane season likely won’t have El Niño around to help weaken storms. But that doesn’t necessarily mean an active season.

During the 2023 Atlantic hurricane season , El Niño’s effect on the winds was more than offset by abnormally warm Atlantic waters, which fuel hurricanes. The season ended with more storms than average.

The strange El Niño of 2023-24

Although the 2023-24 El Niño event wasn’t the strongest in recent decades, many aspects of it have been unusual.

It followed three years of La Niña conditions, which is unusually long. It also emerged quickly, from March to May 2023. The combination led to weather extremes unseen since perhaps the 1870s .

Two cars are trapped up to their widows in a mudslide that poured through a Los Angeles neighborhood. One car is parked in its driveway,

La Niña cools the tropics but stores warm water in the western Pacific. It also warms the middle latitude oceans by weakening the winds and allowing more sunshine through. After three years of La Niña, the rapid emergence of El Niño helped make the Earth’s surface warmer than in any recent year .

  • Extreme weather
  • Pacific Ocean
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation
  • Atmospheric rivers
  • Extreme storms
  • 2023 U.S. heat wave

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Mysterious Pattern in a Cave Is Oldest Rock Art Found in Patagonia

About 8,200 years ago, in one of the last places settled by humans, prehistoric peoples began painting comblike designs as the climate shifted.

A close-up view of a comb-like design is black pigment on a brown-red cave wall, with a small marker to indicate color and size placed on the wall.

By Becky Ferreira

In the stark inland desert of Patagonia in Argentina, there is a remote cave decorated with nearly 900 paintings of human figures, animals and abstract designs. Until recently, archaeologists had assumed that the rock art at this site, known as Cueva Huenul 1, was created within the past few thousand years.

But in a paper published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances, archaeologists say that one of the cave’s most mysterious motifs, a comblike pattern, first appeared some 8,200 years ago, making it by far the earliest known example of rock art in one of the last places on Earth to be settled by our species. Cave artists continued to draw the same comb design in black pigment for thousands of years, an era when other human activity was virtually absent at the site. The cave art provides a rare glimpse of a culture that may have relied on this design to communicate valuable insights across generations during a period of climatic shifts.

“We got the results and we were very surprised,” said Guadalupe Romero Villanueva, an author of the study and an archaeologist at the Argentine government agency CONICET and the National Institute of Anthropology and Latin American Thought in Buenos Aires. “It was a shock, and we had to rethink some things.”

Patagonia, which spans the southern tip of South America, was not reached by humans until about 12,000 years ago. These early inhabitants thrived at Cueva Huenul 1 for generations, leaving signs of habitation.

Then, around 10,000 years ago, the area became more arid and hostile as a result of climatic shifts. The archaeological record in the cave likewise dried up for the next several thousand years, suggesting that the site was largely abandoned because of environmental pressures.

The comb motifs overlap with this long period of hardship, according to Dr. Romero Villanueva and her colleagues, who identified the age of the paintings with radiocarbon dating. The team also found that the black paint was probably made with charred wood, perhaps from burned shrubs or cactuses.

“As interesting as the ages are, for us it’s more significant that they span, more or less, 3,000 years of painting basically the same motif during all this time,” said Ramiro Barberena, an author of the study and an archaeologist also at CONICET in Argentina as well as the Temuco Catholic University in Chile.

He added that this was evidence “for continuity in the transmission of information in these very small and very mobile societies.”

Though the meaning of the comb motif has been lost to time, the researchers speculate that it might have helped preserve the collective memories and oral traditions of peoples who endured this unusually hot and dry period.

The relationships between groups of ancient humans that developed and shared such rock art may have enhanced the odds of survival in this challenging environment, Dr. Barberena said.

Andrés Troncoso, an archaeologist in the department of anthropology at the University of Chile who was not involved with the research, said he agreed with that interpretation. The paper “provides a contribution to the discussion about how humans have dealt with climatic change in the past,” he said.

Though the purpose of the comb motif is likely to remain a mystery, the motif’s persistent presence in the cave opens a new window into Patagonia’s prehistoric peoples.

“You cannot help but think about these people,” Dr. Romero Villanueva said, adding: “They were at the same place, admiring the same landscape; the people living here, maybe families, were gathering here for social aspects. It’s really emotional for us.”

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The White House 1600 Pennsylvania Ave NW Washington, DC 20500

Remarks by President   Biden on the Reported Death of Aleksey   Navalny

Roosevelt Room

12:37 P.M. EST THE PRESIDENT:  Good afternoon.  I — I’m heading off to East Palestine in — in a moment, but I wanted to say a few things this morning about Aleksey Navalny. You know, like millions of people around the world, I am literally both not surprised and outraged by the news — the reported death of Aleksey Navalny. He bravely stood up to the corruption, the violence, and the — the — all the — all the bad things that the Putin government was doing.  In response, Putin had him poisoned.  He had him arrested.  He had him prosecuted for fabricated crimes.  He sentenced him to prison.  He was held in isolation.  Even all that didn’t stop him from calling out Putin’s lies.  Even in prison, he was a powerful voice of the truth, which is kind of amazing when you think about it. And he could have lived safely in exile after the assassination attempt on him in 2020 — which nearly killed him, I might add.  And — but he — he was traveling outside the country at the time.  Instead, he returned to Russia.  He returned to Russia knowing he’d likely be imprisoned or even killed if he continued his work.  But he did it anyway, because he believed so deeply in his country — in Russia.   Reports of his death, if they’re true — and I have no reason to believe they’re not — Russian authorities are going to tell their own story.  But make no mistake — make no mistake, Putin is responsible for Navalny’s death.  Putin is responsible.   What has happened to Navalny is yet more proof of Putin’s brutality.  No one should be fooled — not in Russia, not at home, not anywhere in the world.  Putin does not only target  his  [the] citizens of other countries, as we’ve seen what’s going on in Ukraine right now, he also inflicts terrible crimes on his own people.  And as people across Russia and around the world are mourning Navalny today because he was so many things that Putin was not: He was brave.  He was principled.  He was dedicated to building a Russia where the rule of law existed and of — where it applied to everybody.  Navalny believed in that Russia — that Russia.  He knew it was a cause worth fighting for and, obviously, even dying for.   This tragedy reminds us of the stakes of this moment.  We have to provide the funding so Ukraine can keep defending itself against Putin’s vicious onslaughts and war crimes.  You know, there was a bipartisan Senate vote that passed overwhelmingly in the United States Senate to fund Ukraine.  Now, as I’ve said before, and I mean this in the literal sense: History is watching.  History is watching the House of Representatives.  The failure to support Ukraine at this critical moment will never be forgotten.  It’s going to go down in the pages of history.  It really is.  It’s consequential. And the clock is ticking.  And this has to happen.  We have to help now.  You know, we have to realize what we’re dealing with with Putin.  All of us should reject the dangerous statements made by the previous president that invited Russia to invade our NATO Allies if they weren’t paying up.  He said if an Ally did not pay their dues, he’d encourage Russia to, quote, “Do whatever the hell they want.”  I — let me — I guess I should clear my mind here a little bit and not say what I’m really thinking.  But let me be clear: This is an outrageous thing for a president to say.  I can’t fathom.  I can’t fathom.  From Truman on, they’re rolling over in their graves hearing this. As long as I’m President, America stands by our sacred commitment to our NATO Allies as they have stood by their commitments to us repeatedly.  Putin and the whole world should know: If any adversary were to attack us, our NATO Allies would back us.  And if Putin were to attack a NATO Ally, the United States will defend every inch of NATO territory.  Now is the time for even greater unity among our NATO Allies to stand up to the threat that Putin’s Russia poses. You know, I send my deepest condolences to Aleksey’s staff and supporters who are going to continue his work despite this loss, despite all of Putin’s desperate attempts to stamp out the opposition.  And most of all, to his family, especially to his wife, his daughter, and his son, who have already sacrificed so much for their family and a shared dream for a better future for Russia.  So, I just want to say God bless Aleksey Navalny.  His courage will not be forgotten.  And I’m sure it will not be the only courage we see coming out of Russia in the near term.  Thank you.  I’ll be happy to take a couple questions. Q    Sir, first, was this an assassination? THE PRESIDENT:  The answer is, I — we don’t know exactly what happened, but there is no doubt that the death of Navalny was a consequence of something that Putin and his — and his thugs did.  Q    And to be clear, you warned Vladimir Putin when you were in Geneva of “devastating” consequences if Navalny died in Russian custody.  What consequences should he and Russia face? THE PRESIDENT:  That was three years ago.  In the meantime, they faced a hell of a lot of consequences.  They’ve lost and/or had wounded over 350,000 Russian soldiers.  They’ve made it into a position where they’ve been subjected to great sanctions across the board.  And we’re contemplating what else could be done.  But the — the — what we were talking about at the time there were no actions being taken against Russia.  And that — look at all that’s transpired since then. Q    Can you say whether you’re — Q    How do you think this — Q    — whether you’re looking at increasing sanctions on Russia right now? THE PRESIDENT:  We’re looking at a whole number of options.  That’s all I’ll say right now. Q    Is there anything you can do to get ammunition to the Ukrainians without the supplemental from Congress? THE PRESIDENT:  No, but it’s about time they step up — don’t you think? — instead of going on a two-week vacation.  Two weeks they’re walking away.  Two weeks.  What are they thinking?  My God, this is bizarre.  And it’s just reinforcing all the concern and — and almost — I won’t say “panic,” but real concern about the United States being a reliable ally.  This is outrageous.  Q    Are you more confident now that you’ll get the Ukraine aid given what’s happened today? THE PRESIDENT:  Well, I hope to God it helps.  But I mean, the idea we need anything more to get the Ukraine aid — I mean, — I mean, this is — in light of a former president’s statement that — saying Russia, if — if they haven’t paid their dues to us, go get them.  Come on.  What are these guys doing?  What are they doing? Q    Sir, how concerned are you about the anti-satellite capability that Russia is developing?  And what is your administration planning to do in response? THE PRESIDENT:  First of all, there is no nuclear threat to the people of America or anywhere else in the world with what Russia is doing at the moment.  Number one. Number two, anything that they’re doing and/or they will do relates to satellites and space and damaging those satellites, potentially.  Number three, I — there is no evidence that they have made a decision to go forward with doing anything in space either.  So, what we found out: There was a capacity to launch a system into space that could theoretically do something that was damaging.  Hadn’t happened yet.  And my expect- — I — my hope is it will not.  Q    Mr. President, just quickly — AIDE:  Thank you all.  Thank you. (Cross-talk.)  Q    Quickly, Mr. President, have — THE PRESIDENT:  I’ll — I’ll take one more. Q    Thank you, Mr. President.  Switching gears for a moment.  Have the Israelis presented a credible evacuation plan for the nearly 1.5 million displaced Palestinians sheltering in Rafah?  And what would the consequences be for Israel if they move ahead with a full-scale ground invasion without clear measures to protect civilians there? THE PRESIDENT:  Well, first of all, I’ve had extensive conversations with the Prime Minister of Israel over the last several days — almost an hour each.  And I’ve made the case — and I feel very strongly about it — that there has to be a — a temporary ceasefire to get the prisoners out, to get the hostages out.  And that is underway.  I’m still hopeful that that can be done.  And in the meantime, I don’t anticipate — I’m hoping that that you — that the Israelis will not make any massive land invasion in the meantime.  So, it’s my expectation that’s not going to happen.  There has to be a ceasefire temporarily to get those hostages — and, by the way, there are — we’re in a situation where there are American hostages, American citizens that are being held hostage.  It’s not just — not just Israelis; it’s American hostages as well.  And, you know, my hope and expectation is that we’ll get this hostage deal.  We’ll bring the Americans home.  And the deal is been negotiated now, and we’re going to see where it takes us. (Cross-talk.) Q    An FBI — an FBI informant — an FBI informant at the center of the impeachment inquiry into you has been indicted for allegedly lying.  Your reaction to that, and should the inquiry be dropped? THE PRESIDENT:  He is lying, and it should be dropped.  And it’s just been a — it’s been an outrageous effort from the beginning.  What he did — (Cross-talk.)  THE PRESIDENT:  No, I’m serious. (Cross-talk.)  THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you.  Thank you, all.  See you in Ohio.  12:47 P.M. EST

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Robert Downey Jr. Thanks ‘That Dude’ Christopher Nolan in BAFTAs Speech: He ‘Suggested I Attempt an Understated Approach’ to ‘Resurrect My Dwindling Credibility’

LONDON, ENGLAND - FEBRUARY 18: Robert Downey Jr. accepts the Supporting Actor Award for 'Oppenheimer' on stage during the EE BAFTA Film Awards 2024 at The Royal Festival Hall on February 18, 2024 in London, England. (Photo by Kate Green/BAFTA/Getty Images for BAFTA)

After winning the best supporting actor BAFTA for his performance in “Oppenheimer,” Robert Downey Jr. took to the stage to reflect on his career and shout out “that dude” Christopher Nolan.

“When I was 15, I wanted to be Peter O’Toole. When I was 25, I worked for Richard Attenbourgh and Anthony Hopkins. When I was 35, I finally understood why Dickie thought Tony would be a better role model for me than Peter,” Downey Jr. said. “When I was 42, I did two films for Guy Ritchie and learned how to make big Hollywood movies with a civil British flare. I then played a guy named Tony in the MCU for about 12 years.”

In Nolan’s epic biopic of J. Robert Oppenheimer, who created of the world’s first atomic bomb, Downey Jr. played Lewis Strauss, a high-ranking member of the U.S Atomic Energy Commission who became hostile to Oppenheimer and sought to prove he was disloyal to the U.S.

Downey Jr. had previously won the best actor BAFTA for “Chaplin” back in 1992, and was nominated for best supporting actor in 2009 for “Tropic Thunder.”

Downey Jr. was up against Robert De Niro for “Killers of the Flower Moon,” Jacob Elordi for “Saltburn,” Ryan Gosling for “Barbie,” Paul Mescal for “All of Us Strangers” and Dominic Sessa for “The Holdovers.”

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Powerful Nikki Haley speech should be a turning point. But in Trump's GOP, it won't be.

All the 'maybe haley stands a chance' hopes rest on the broken belief that there are enough normal republicans left to elect her. but there aren't..

speech of pattern meaning

Nikki Haley had a moment Tuesday . An authentic, human moment. The kind of moment that could, historically speaking, turn a struggling presidential primary campaign around.

During a news conference many thought would involve her dropping out of the GOP primary race, which she’s losing badly to Donald Trump , Haley effectively said “damn the torpedoes” and made clear she’s not going anywhere.

Later in her speech, she brought up her soldier husband , Michael, who’s on deployment in Africa with the South Carolina National Guard, the same husband Trump recently mocked by saying, “Where is he? He’s gone!”

“As I prepare for what lies ahead, Michael is at the forefront of my mind,” Haley said, tearing up and struggling to continue . “I wish Michael was here today, and I wish our children and I could see him tonight, but we can’t. He’s serving on the other side of the world, where conflict is the norm, where terrorists hide among the innocent, where Iran’s terrorist proxies are now attacking America’s troops.”

Haley gives GOP voters a rare moment of humanity. They won't care.

It was a powerfully emotional moment, a rare bit of humanity in the slick and often-robotic realm of modern politics. I’d like to say this will be the moment Haley’s campaign took off, this will be the point where Republican voters recognize just how low Trump has put the bar for basic human decency and see how much better they could with their vote.

But that’s not going to happen.

I applaud Haley for staying in this race, and it’s clear from the money she has supporting her that there are wealthy conservatives who believe she has a shot , even if it involves Trump getting convicted in one of his many criminal trials or the babbling 77-year-old’s incoherence and paranoia overwhelming him and driving him out of the race.

Republicans want no part of Haley. If you want Biden to win, you should thank them for that.

But all the “maybe Haley stands a chance” hopes rest on the broken belief that there are enough normal Republicans left to elect her. And there aren’t. 

Haley's qualifications don't mean a thing – too many GOP voters want Trump's cruelty

During her speech, Haley pointed out : "Despite being a de facto incumbent, Donald Trump lost 49% of the vote in Iowa . In New Hampshire, Trump lost 46% of the vote . That's not good.”

She’s right that it’s not good, but wrong about why. What’s not good is that close to 50% of Republican voters still want a guy who is facing 91 state and federal felony charges, has been found liable of sexual abuse and fraud, presently owes about a half-billion dollars in legal fines, is spending millions in donor money on his legal expenses and now peddles gaudy Trump-branded sneakers to make a buck.

Despite everything – and despite Haley’s transparently superior qualifications, intelligence and demeanor – those voters still want the guy who may well be a convicted felon by the time the November election rolls around.

THAT is the problem. And neither Haley nor the hopeful-and-wealthy people backing her Quixotic campaign can fix that, because, quite frankly, you can’t fix stupid.

Trump sneakers? Whichever presidential candidate offers the best footwear gets my vote.

Haley's human moment at her press conference, in the end, won't matter

Haley had a moment Tuesday, there’s no doubt about that. It was moving, and any decent American, regardless of politics, should respect her, her husband and her family for their sacrifice. That’s the kind of stuff that used to matter. It’s the kind of stuff that should still matter.

But in today’s Republican Party, it won’t matter a bit.

Follow USA TODAY columnist Rex Huppke on X, formerly Twitter,  @RexHuppke  and Facebook


  1. PPT

    speech of pattern meaning

  2. Speech Pattern Fundamentals and How You Communicate

    speech of pattern meaning

  3. Why Simple Speech Patterns Are More Effective in Presentations

    speech of pattern meaning

  4. Examples of speech patterns.

    speech of pattern meaning

  5. PPT

    speech of pattern meaning

  6. speech_pattern_analysis

    speech of pattern meaning


  1. Parts of speech


  3. XQC Speech Pattern

  4. A Different Speech Pattern

  5. Figures of speech(Part:-1)


  1. Speech Pattern Fundamentals and How You Communicate

    A speech pattern is a characteristic mode of verbal expression. These mannerisms are noteworthy because each person has their own version. Knowing how to describe speech patterns can dramatically improve your ability to create media content. But if you prefer to watch a video instead, click here: This post was updated in April 2021

  2. Speech pattern

    noun distinctive manner of oral expression "she had a very clear speech pattern " synonyms: accent see more Cite this entry Style: MLA "Speech pattern." Dictionary,, pattern. Accessed 13 Feb. 2024. Copy citation Examples from books and articles All sources

  3. Speech Patterns: Definition, Examples, and Advice for Actors

    JUMP TO What is a speech pattern? How to adapt speech patterns for different roles What is a speech pattern? A speech pattern is the distinctive way a person or character talks....

  4. Pattern Definition & Meaning

    pat· tern ˈpa-tərn Synonyms of pattern 1 : a form or model proposed for imitation : exemplar 2 : something designed or used as a model for making things a dressmaker's pattern 3 : an artistic, musical, literary, or mechanical design or form the geometrical pattern of the carpet the strict pattern of rhythm and rhyme for a sonnet Gigi Marino 4

  5. SPEECH PATTERN definition in American English

    (pætəʳn ) countable noun A pattern is the repeated or regular way in which something happens or is done. Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers Definition of 'speech' speech (spiːtʃ ) uncountable noun Speech is the ability to speak or the act of speaking. Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's Dictionary.

  6. speech pattern collocation

    collocation in English meanings of speech and pattern These words are often used together. Click on the links below to explore the meanings. Or, see other collocations with pattern or speech . speech noun uk / spiːtʃ / us / spiːtʃ / the ability to talk, the activity of talking, or a piece of ... See more at speech pattern noun

  7. SPEECH PATTERN definition and meaning

    Definition of 'speech' speech (spiːtʃ ) uncountable noun Speech is the ability to speak or the act of speaking. Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers COBUILD Collocations speech pattern betting patterns climate patterns gene pattern intricate pattern pattern persists pattern reflects

  8. 10.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns

    The spatial speech pattern organizes information according to how things fit together in physical space. This pattern is best used when your main points are oriented to different locations that can exist independently. The basic reason to choose this format is to show that the main points have clear locations.

  9. Exploring the Meaning Behind Everyday Speech Patterns

    The meaning behind speech patterns. A. How speech patterns convey emotions. 1. Tone of voice and intonation. Our tone of voice and intonation can convey a wide range of emotions, such as anger, excitement, sadness, or sarcasm. For example, a high-pitched and fast-paced tone may indicate enthusiasm, while a monotone voice may suggest boredom or ...

  10. Speech Organizational Patterns

    The five patterns of organization for a speech are chronological, spatial, cause and effect, problem-solution, and topical. Organizational patterns are sometimes referred to as methods of...

  11. 6.2: Organizational Patterns of Arrangement

    Spatial Pattern. Another way to organize the points of a speech is through a spatial speech, which arranges main points according to their physical and geographic relationships.The spatial style is an especially useful organization pattern when the main point's importance is derived from its location or directional focus.

  12. Writing Patterns

    The writing pattern called definition is used to explain the meaning of a word or phrase. 3:29: Words that signal this pattern are: is, refers to, means, is defined as, is called, is characterized by, and entails. 3:43: The structure of this writing pattern consists of a definition of the key word or phrase followed by examples or additional ...

  13. Speech pattern

    1. speech pattern - distinctive manner of oral expression; "he couldn't suppress his contemptuous accent"; "she had a very clear speech pattern" accent pronunciation - the manner in which someone utters a word; "they are always correcting my pronunciation" drawl - a slow speech pattern with prolonged vowels

  14. Topical Organization

    A topical pattern is the most common way to structure speeches, particularly speeches of information, because it is relevant to nearly any topic or type of speech. However, you should make sure to explore all other organizational patterns before selecting it in case your topic fits better elsewhere.

  15. Sentence Patterns: What Are Sentence Patterns? Definition and Examples

    Sentence patterns help you put your words in the right order so your intended meaning can come across. The most basic sentence pattern is [Subject] + [Verb] You can add to this structure as your sentences get more complex. Don't forget your determiners, conjunctions, and punctuation. The sentence patterns are different for interrogative ...

  16. Structure and Organization

    Speeches typically have several main points, all logically related to the thesis/central idea of the speech. Main points are followed by explanation, elaboration, and supporting evidence that are called sub-points. Main Points. A main point in a speech is a complete sentence that states the topic for information that is logically grouped together.

  17. Speech Organization

    Speech organization refers to the way that a person organizes what he or she plans to say in a speech. It involves arranging the speech's information in a logical way. In other words, a speaker ...

  18. III.2 Varying one's speech: Discourse patterns

    The term "discourse pattern" was developed in Construction Grammar (CxG), a cognitive approach to language use. This approach assumes that all the linguistic knowledge of speakers and writers is stored in symbolic pairings of form and meaning, called "constructions.".

  19. What does speech pattern mean? definition, meaning and audio

    1. distinctive manner of oral expression Familiarity information: SPEECH PATTERN used as a noun is very rare. Dictionary entry details • SPEECH PATTERN (noun) Sense 1 Meaning: Distinctive manner of oral expression Classified under: Nouns denoting communicative processes and contents Synonyms: accent; speech pattern Context example:

  20. 14.6: Speech Organization

    A speaker employing the spiral pattern builds up dramatic intensity by moving from smaller and less-intense scenarios to bigger and more-intense scenarios, in an upward spiral. A speech about disciplining a child might use a spiral pattern. First, the speaker could say that for a small transgression a child might be given a time-out.

  21. Organizational Patterns

    These are referred to as organizational patterns for arranging your main points in a speech. The chronological, topical, spatial, or causal patterns may be better suited to informative speeches, whereas the Problem-Solution, Monroe's Motivated Sequence (Monroe, 1949) would work best for persuasive speeches. Chronological Pattern

  22. English Speech Patterns Required for Everyday Speech

    Daily speech patterns help you to communicate quickly and practically when meeting people, shopping, ordering food and traveling. Even if your knowledge of English is at a basic level, you can easily communicate by learning these patterns. You can also make minor changes to these sentence structures. Thus, you can produce many different sentences.

  23. What to expect from El Niño in 2024

    El Niño and its opposite, La Niña, are climate patterns that influence weather around the world. El Niño tends to raise global temperatures, as we saw in 2023, while La Niña events tend to be ...

  24. Mysterious Pattern in a Cave Is Oldest Rock Art Found in Patagonia

    About 8,200 years ago, in one of the last places settled by humans, prehistoric peoples began painting comblike designs as the climate shifted. Archaeologists say that one of the cave's most ...

  25. Remarks by President Biden on the Reported Death of Aleksey Navalny

    THE PRESIDENT: Well, I hope to God it helps. But I mean, the idea we need anything more to get the Ukraine aid — I mean, — I mean, this is — in light of a former president's statement that ...

  26. Robert Downey Jr. Thanks 'Dude' Christopher Nolan in BAFTAs Speech

    After winning the best supporting actor BAFTA for his performance in "Oppenheimer," Robert Downey Jr. took to the stage to reflect on his career and shout out "that dude" Christopher Nolan.

  27. Kim Murphy (she/her) RMT on Instagram: "S H A M E By definition "Shame

    13 likes, 1 comments - kimmurphyrmt on August 28, 2023: "S H A M E By definition "Shame is the intensely painful feeling or experience of believing that we are flawed and therefore unworthy of love, belonging and connection." My neurodiverse brain is always looking for patterns and like you have experienced shame many times. Because the thing is, WE ALL FEEL SHAME at some point.

  28. Haley stays in GOP race, shows raw emotion in speech. It won't matter

    Haley's qualifications don't mean a thing - too many GOP voters want Trump's cruelty. During her speech, Haley pointed out: "Despite being a de facto incumbent, Donald Trump lost 49% of the vote ...