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  • A Research Guide
  • Research Paper Topics
  • 35 Human Behavior Research Topics & Questions

35 Human Behavior Research Topics & Questions

Useful information: Does a research paper need a thesis ?

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  • When human behaviour became human?
  • What traits we consider typically human we can meet in animals?
  • Nature versus nurture. To what extentthe natural behaviour can be corrected?
  • The phenomenon of “Mowgli kids” and their behavior
  • The stages of human development and their impact on behaviour patterns
  • The impact of the family or parental substitutes on behaviour
  • Mating rituals or chivalrous romance? How do people court their love interests?
  • Habits and their development
  • How advertising uses our typical behaviour patterns?
  • The importance of happiness
  • Games and behaviour. Why do we like to play so much?
  • Cults and sects. How do people get involved?
  • The psychology of the crowd. What happens to person inside the crowd?
  • Does natural morality exist or is it a social construct?
  • Sex, gender and behaviour
  • Is it good or bad?
  • The typical responses to danger: run, fight, hide. Are they hardwired into us?
  • Nonverbal communication: is it international?
  • Depression and its impact on human behaviour
  • Do LGBTQ+ people have typical behavioural patterns?
  • The impact of social media and Internet on behaviour
  • Porn and sexual attractions
  • What is bipolar disorder in terms of behaviour?
  • Social hierarchy and behaviour
  • Are behavioural patterns connected to self-esteem?
  • Elderly people and changes in their behaviour
  • Drugs that change behaviour
  • IQ and EQ and their impact on behaviour
  • Religion and behavioural norms
  • Culture clash and behaviour of people of mixed origins
  • Correcting dysfunctional behaviour
  • Propaganda and behaviour
  • Artificially created social groups and their behaviour
  • Trauma, PTSD and behaviour
  • Defensive behaviour

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Examples of Human Behavior Research

Examples of Human Behavior Research

We humans are an intriguing species and it's no wonder researchers have always been fascinated by understanding human behavior. We recently wrote about how to study human behavior , and different ways to measure human behavior. 

On our Behavioral Research Blog, there are plenty of examples of human behaviors and research on behavior. In this blog post we are highlighting some examples of human behavior research and behavior studies.

Table of contents

What is human behavior, cognitive neuroscience.

  • Autism research in infants

Adolescent research

  • On-site observational research
  • Doctor-patient interaction
  • Healthcare research examples
  • Emotion analysis

Sensory science and eating behavior

Consumers' food choices and emotions.

  • User experience research

In science, human behavior commonly refers to the way humans act and interact: the actions, thoughts, and emotions of individuals and groups. It encompasses a wide range of activities, from physical movements and interactions with the environment, to complex mental processes such as decision-making and problem-solving. It is based on and influenced by several genetic and environmental factors, such as genetic make-up, culture, and individual attitudes and values. 

Human behavior research and human behavior studies look into several research questions, like: Why do we act the way we do? How is our behavior influenced, or measured? The study of human behavior is a broad and interdisciplinary field that draws on theories and methods from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and other related disciplines. The goal of this field is to understand why people behave in the ways that they do and to use this understanding to improve people's lives and solve real-world problems. 

The ultimate goal is to increase our understanding of the human experience and to use this knowledge to enhance individual and collective well-being.

research title example about behavior

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Cognitive neuroscience is the overlapping science of the ‘dry and the wet’ part of the brain: where dry represents the cognitive part (mind, emotions, and senses), and where wet represents the brain. This combination of scientific disciplines tries to explain the connection between neural activities in the brain and mental processes, in order to find answers to the questions of how neural circuits in the brain affect cognition.

This blog series addresses the interplay between the brain, behavior, and emotions, in the field of cognitive neuroscience:

  • Cognitive neuroscience: the basics
  • Cognitive neuroscience: Emotions
  • Cognitive neuroscience: Behavior

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Autism research: Observing infants to detect autism

Making the same movement multiple times, or making repetitive movements, is an important step in the development of a newborn child and them learning how to use their limbs. Repeating these movements is typical for motor development; but an increased frequency of repetitive movements can be an early indicator for neurodevelopmental disorders.

Purpura et al. conducted a retrospective analysis of video clips taken from home videos recorded by parents, to verify if a higher frequency of repetitive movements could differentiate infants with ASD from infants with Developmental Delay (DD) and Typical Development (TD), analyzing the age range between six and 12 months. 

Read more about their study here .

research title example about behavior

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How are adolescents’ emotions socialized by mothers and close friends? What can parents do to prevent escalating conflicts? What is the role of early childhood stress and inhibitory control adolescent substance use? These and more studies are excellent examples of adolescent research:

  • Direct observations help develop effective interventions in adolescence
  • Understanding adolescent emotions
  • Studying conflict interactions between mothers and adolescents
  • The role of inhibitory control on substance use in adolescence

On-site observational studies

In some cases observations for your study are best performed on-site. For example, you might want to observe people in a natural setting: at home, in a shop, in the classroom, or in the office.

Another case where on-site research would be beneficial is when your participants are experiencing health issues, preventing them from travelling to your lab. Conducting your research on location enables you to study people that are otherwise difficult to reach.

In this blog post, we highlighted two cases of on-site observational studies with older age groups , conducted at home or at a healthcare facility.

Doctor-patient interactions and the use of humor

Science has proven that laughter is healthy. However, how often is humor actually used during doctor-patient interactions? To characterize the logistics of humor in medical encounters, e.g. frequency, who introduces it, or what it is about, researcher Phillips and her team analyzed audio/video-recorded clinical encounters to describe the frequency and other features of humor in outpatient primary and specialty care visits. 

doctor asking questions to a patient

More healthcare research examples

Healthcare research - sometimes also called "medical research" or "clinical research" - refers to research that is done to learn more about healthcare outcomes. There are plenty of healthcare research examples on our Behavioral Research Blog:

  • Evaluating ergonomics in healthcare – paramedics
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of simulation in healthcare
  • Improving patient safety
  • How to assess medical team effectiveness
  • Optimizing safety and efficiency in an OR
  • What is simulation training?

research title example about behavior

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Emotion analysis: The emotions of people who think they're nice

What does ‘nice’ actually mean in relation to psychological variables? And does it positively correlate with self-reported levels of health, happiness, and wellbeing? Researchers of i2 media research from the Goldsmiths University of London, UK, developed a tailored questionnaire to explore this and got some interesting results . 

Read this:  Must-see TED Talks on emotions

research title example about behavior

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Sensory science focusses on the effects of sensory (like taste, smell) and metabolic signals (like nutritional properties, hormones) on the physiological and neurobiological responses underlying eating behavior .

Professor Kees de Graaf (Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands) has been involved in sensory science and resarch into eating behavior for years. Things like measuring bite size, chewing behavior and frequency are vital in order to understand eating behavior. He hopes that in 5-10 years, we will be able to measure food intake in an accurate way without interfering with subjects.

Watch the movie below to learn more about his research .

Is there a relationship between food choice and a person’s mood? Bartkiene et al. examined the factors that influence our food choice , using facial expression analysis. 

User Experience Research

User experience (UX) is the overall experience of a person using a product (a website, app, game, e.g.) or service, and his or her emotions and attitudes while using it. UX research dives into these user experiences, often carried out in a lab.

A UX Lab is used for usability testing and user experience research . Users are observed in a specific environment while interacting with a product or system. Most UX research is conducted in state-of-the-art UX labs .

Understanding the digital world at the Social Media Lab -  In this unique lab, technology is applied to understanding user experience, behavior on social media, and much more.

research title example about behavior

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126 Human Behavior Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best human behavior topic ideas & essay examples, ⭐ simple & easy human behavior essay titles, 👍 good essay topics on human behavior, 🔎 most interesting human behavior topics to write about, ❓ questions about human behavior.

  • Culture in Human Behavior Essay The act of changing a culture can only be minimal because of the complexities of the study complexity Culture, serving as a categorical idea of people, is a school of thought that has anthropologists all […]
  • Human Behavior and Psychology in “The Good Will Hunting” by Gus Van Sant The second important person with him is his best friend Chukie, who he tells that he would love to be a laborer for the rest of his life. We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • The Influence of Nature and Nurture on Human Behavior This particular research challenged the views that were in support of nature as the sole determinant of human beings’ behavior and argued that nurture was a major contributing factor to ways in which human beings […]
  • Human Behavior Effects on the Environment However, while some people are doing all they can to protect the environment, some are participating in activities that cause harm to the environment.
  • Classical Conditioning as an Explanation of Human Behavior The main strategy used by advertisers is to associate their product and services with stimuli that evoke pleasurable feeling in general to the extent of trying to create a more specific association.
  • What Is Personality, and Is It Predictive Of Human Behavior? Personality, according to Harre & Lamb, is the entirety of feature and traits, as of manners or qualities that are particular per person.
  • The History Development of Psychology: The Understanding of Human Behavior The aim of the paper is to identify the reasons that have shaped and led to the development of the history of psychology.
  • Motivation and Human Behavior Internal motivation is the opposite, as it is not connected to the external conditions and is interlinked with the unique nature of the action and wants itself.
  • Sociology as a Way to Understanding Human Behavior and Society The examination of the individuals influenced by groups is the study of sociology whereas its main goal is to understand human behavior in the context of society and, after succeeding in this, trying to generalize […]
  • Internet Technology and Impact on Human Behavior It was the Internet that allowed the phenomenon of cyberbullying to emerge, the essence of which is the harassment of someone on the Internet by large groups of users.
  • “Contemporary Human Behavior Theory” by Robbins In the United States, all the cultural studies are based on the values of the researchers rather than on the norms of studied culture.
  • Sina’s Story: Multidimensional Approach to Understanding of Human Behavior An ideal case to analyze using multidimensional approach is the story of Sina, a woman who survived through the changing conditions of the time and the environment owing to her excellent personal characteristics.
  • Morality and Ethics: Religion Effect on Human Behavior The second objective is to articulate the effect of religions on the economy and the political establishments of a society. The existence of a lot of information on the impact of religion on society made […]
  • The Implications of Technology on Human Behavior As such it can be said that the use of technology creates cognitive and behavioral changes which in effect changes the way people perceive and interact behaviorally and socially due to the amount of time […]
  • Human Behavior Prediction It is important to understand that individuals may be tempted to act in a particular manner following their free choices; however, they have to restrain themselves, therefore acting according to the expectations of the society.
  • Effects of Computer Programming and Technology on Human Behavior Phones transitioned from the basic feature phones people used to own for the sole purpose of calling and texting, to smart phones that have amazing capabilities and have adapted the concepts of computers.
  • Empathy and Its Impact on Human Behavior In “The Baby in the Well” and “The Bad Things We Do Because of Empathy,” authors Paul Bloom and Fritz Breithaupt offer divergent perspectives on empathy and its impact on human behavior.
  • Human Behavior: Theoretical Approaches In certain regions of the world, various cultures, such as Islamic Shariah law in Pakistan, permit the relatives of a murder victim to commute the sentence of a killer in the event of an honor […]
  • Socialization and the Life Course: Human Behavior and Sociology This is a rather hyperbolized statement; however, it may be seen as a reference to how people are integrated into society and how it may form them as individuals.
  • Environmentalism and Human Behavior: A Literature Review In particular, Dietz, whose scholarly interest lies in the field of human ecology and environmental policy, traced a history of environmentalism in his article and emphasized the importance of integrating social science in environmental research.
  • Robbins’ “Contemporary Human Behavior Theory”: Overview At the beginning of the 20th century, a new idea has emerged that contradicted the scientific method and denied the objectivity or reality.
  • Implications of Theological and Psychological Reflections on Human Behavior The Bible talks about the works of the human flesh which are evident in the commission of sins and also warns about the dire consequences of not inheriting the kingdom of God.
  • Literature: Relationships and Human Behavior The story of the narrator from “The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven” demonstrates the absence of one’s connection to his parents. This example adds to the role of relationships in one’s behavior and […]
  • Gender as a Performance. Human Behavior Theory Thus, to be human is to accept the “unknowingness about the Other in the face of the Other that undoes us”. One such misconception is the innateness of gender and its immutability.
  • Research With Animals Which Gives Information About Human Behavior However, to support the conclusions that parallels in human and animal conduct does exist, it is important to make a few assumptions about similarity between humans and animals.
  • Schizophrenia: An Abnormal Human Behavior Despite there not being a cure for the disorder as yet, there are current treatments available and meant to eliminate the majority of symptoms associated with the disorder thus enabling such individuals to live healthy […]
  • Influence of Heredity and Hormones on Human Behavior There are a lot of factors which influence the way human behavior develops, Some of this factors include hormones and heredity.
  • Brain Injury: Cognitive Models of Human Behavior For motor functions, sight, and hearing, the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.
  • Human Behavior in Social Systems and Environment The systems view was based on the ideas such as the relationship among the elements in the society like if the study was based on people then they had a study on how the people […]
  • Conjunction Fallacies in Human Behavior Analysis But it may be that the conflict person is the other team member the opposite party to the conflict. As it may be seen of the hypothesis, the conjunction fallacies in human behavior appear because […]
  • Human Behavior in Fire: Petersburg Hospital There is a large car park provided to take care of the staff and visitors’ needs both on the front and exterior location of the building.
  • Technology Changing Human Behavior: Theory & Practice At the same time, it is important to remember that operant conditioning can be used to make the desired behavior a norm.
  • Non-Verbal Communication and Human Behavior It is also noteworthy to mention that people tend to avoid touching each other when maneuvering in the crowd. The presence of a friendly person also appears to make the other individual more prone to […]
  • The Role of Emotion in Understanding Human Behavior The situation is complicated by the findings in the evolutionary psychology field, which show that the ultimate aim of both emotions and cognition processes are very similar and are evolutionary-based.
  • Streamlining Human Behavior and Perception They aim to explain the mathematics behind coincidences and the influence of processes in the human brain on our perception of coincidences.
  • Ethical Absolutism and Human Behavior This essay seeks to highlight Stance’s argument that absolutism has and still is the backbone that provides the standard used to measure human behavior.
  • Disaster Reaction in Human Behavior And despite the differences in the origins of diverse disasters, they have the common features of abruptness, a serious threat to health and welfare of individuals and communities, interference with a regular mode of life, […]
  • Romantic Relationship: Human Behavior Perspectives The cognitive perspective is related to the biological/evolutionally perspective in terms of underlining the role of nature-nurture interactions in explaining behavior; however, it is different from learning and sociocultural perspectives as the latter underscore the […]
  • Social Influences on Human Behavior Failure to notify the police or other authorities in the vicinity contributed to excessive prolonging of the rape, psychological and physical torture of the victim.
  • Observing Human Behavior in an Organization The meeting was about planning for a project to upgrade the information system in the organization, and the manager and the CEO of the organization was present along with 12 members of the team handling […]
  • Human Behavior Change in the Course of a Lifetime This issue is important as the knowledge of the reasons of some kinds of people’s behavior provides individuals with the opportunity to reduce the adverse impacts and become more independent in the decision-making and actions.
  • Social Issues of Human Behavior: Nature and Nurture On the other hand, the nurture view asserts that behaviors are developed and persist according to the upbringing and the environment the individual grows up in.
  • Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment Besides, the impact that cancer has on the development of a person in this stage and the realization of goals in life is devastating.
  • Human Behavior and the Best Principles to Follow In his words, the cause and effect of everything in the world are so entangled that differentiation between the two is almost impossible.
  • Human Behavior during Evacuations According to Fahy and Proulx, “the phases of disaster response will vary significantly depending on the targeted individuals, the nature of structure, and the aspects of the situation”.
  • Contemporary Mathematical Model of Human Behavior Under Some Environmental Constraints Such a situation was seen in the Kozma, Harter & Achunala study wherein their model of human performance was able to show both the inherent adaptability of human performance in light of increasingly difficult tasks […]
  • Human Behavior Effect on the Results of Organization’s Projects An understanding of human behavior is important in the interaction of members of a team to a project and the outcome of a project in general.
  • Climate Change Needs Human Behavior Change The thesis of this essay is that human behavior change, including in diet and food production, must be undertaken to minimize climate change, and resulting misery.
  • Organization Culture and Human Behavior In order for a leader to ensure that the culture of an organization is embraced by all the stakeholders involved in project, the leader should make sure that all the team members share a common […]
  • Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work In Malka’s response tries to elaborate further on the private companies and the domains of health care that are involved as well as the consequences of the private companies.
  • Human Behavior: How Five General Perspectives Affect Marriage Social and cultural aspects also contribute to behavior of a person which is important in success of love marriage relationships. This is important to people in love as they can take time to observe and […]
  • Particulars of Human Behavior As there is a limited and hard to get to amount of material objects, moral satisfactions and other acquisitions, people’s competition becomes more aggressive and in the end, violent.
  • Human Behavior in Companies: When the Organizational Behavior Leaves Much to Be Desired The choices that the Lincoln electrics makes in its leadership strategies, however, also make it clear that the company managerial makes efficient use of the Theory Y, which claims that people have a “natural desire […]
  • Full Moon Effect on Human Behavior From another perspective the full moon and the increase in violence are just a coincidence such that the moon happens to be present when people behave strangely but that’s not its intended purpose because the […]
  • Dimensions of Human Behavior In this theory, an individual has a single identity, which is assumed by people of the same gender, and with similar roles as the individual in the society.
  • The Study of Human Behavior and Stress Article four In the article, “The Effects of Stress on Mental Health” by Paul Hata, the mental effects that stress can manifest in a person are seen to be the major underpinning for the article.
  • Animal Studies Resurgence and Its Effects on Human Behavior
  • Abnormal Behavior and Human Behavior
  • Culture Regulates Human Behavior and Identity
  • Comparing and Evaluating the Ways in Which Literature Help to Understand Human Behavior
  • Cell Phones and Its Effect on Human Behavior
  • Cognitive Ability and Human Behavior in Experimental Ultimatum Games
  • Electronic Music and Its Effect on Human Behavior
  • Dorothy Parker Exposes the Darker Side of Human Behavior
  • Deception and Its Effects on Human Behavior and Mental
  • Biological Factors That Affect Human Behavior
  • Describing the type of human behavior problems
  • Applying Human Behavior Theory of Everyday Situations and Cases
  • Behavioral Geography and Its Impact on Human Behavior
  • Researching Challenges and Opportunities for Human Behavior in the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic
  • Choosing the Right Pond: Human Behavior and the Quest for Status
  • Accounting for Human Behavior, Local Conditions and Organizational Constraints in Humanitarian Development Models
  • Drugs, Society and Human Behavior by Ray and Ksir
  • Analyzing Human Behavior Through Advertising
  • Adolescent Behavior and Its Effects on Human Behavior
  • Color and Its Effect on Human Behavior
  • How Does Music Influence Sex and Human Behavior
  • Hamlet and Shakespeare’s Perceptions of Human Behavior
  • Frankenstein and RUR: Depiction Human Behavior
  • Human Behavior and Sexual Desire
  • Explaining How One Hormone Influences Human Behavior
  • Ergonomics and Its Effect on Human Behavior
  • Gorillas, Lemurs and Human Behavior
  • Evolutionary Theory and Its Relation to Human Behavior
  • How Has Film Influenced Lifestyles and Human Behavior in the 20th Century
  • Historical Context Versus Human Behavior in “The Scarlet Letter”
  • Human Behavior and the Effects of the Full Moon
  • Gender Specificity and Human Behavior
  • How Climate Change Influences Human Behavior
  • How Stereotypes May Arise and Affect Human Behavior
  • Human Behavior and Its Relations With Knowledge
  • Ethnography About Human Behavior and Economics
  • Eugenics and Its Impact on Human Behavior
  • How Does Color Affect Human Behavior
  • General Strain Theory and Its Effect on Human Behavior
  • Exploring the Affect Society Has on the Shaping of Human Behavior
  • What Are the Five Types of Human Behaviour?
  • What Are Human Behavior and Examples?
  • What Is the Importance of Human Behavior?
  • What Is Good Human Behavior?
  • What Are the Characteristics of Human Behaviour?
  • How Does Human Behavior Develop?
  • What Is Human Behaviour in Psychology?
  • What Is Human Behavior in Sociology?
  • What Affects Human Behaviour?
  • How Does Media Affect Human Behaviour?
  • How Does Climate Change Influences Human Behavior?
  • How Does Authority Influence Human Behavior?
  • How Does Color Affect Human Behavior?
  • How Does Genetics Influence Human Behavior?
  • How Does Music Influence Human Behavior?
  • How Do Nature and Nurture Affect Human Behavior?
  • How Does Oxytocin Affect Human Behavior?
  • How Does Society Influence Individual Human Behavior?
  • How Has Film Influenced Lifestyles and Human Behavior in the 20th Century?
  • How Is Hardwired Human Behavior?
  • How Does Human Behavior Change in Different Social Situations?
  • How Human Behavior May Influence Health and Disease?
  • How Psychodynamic Therapy Works and Its Manifestations on Human Behavior?
  • How Do Psychologists Explain Human Behavior?
  • How Has Psychology Changed Human Behavior?
  • How Many Stereotypes Arise and Affect Human Behavior?
  • How Does the Human Mind Operates and Controls Human Behavior?
  • How Are Two Impulsivity Measures Used for Human Behavior?
  • Why Can Sociologists Not Rely on Common Sense to Explain Human Behavior?
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  • Published: 27 January 2022

The future of human behaviour research

  • Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier 1 ,
  • Jean Burgess 2 , 3 ,
  • Maurizio Corbetta 4 , 5 ,
  • Kate Crawford 6 , 7 , 8 ,
  • Esther Duflo 9 ,
  • Laurel Fogarty 10 ,
  • Alison Gopnik 11 ,
  • Sari Hanafi 12 ,
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  • Ying-yi Hong 14 ,
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  • Gabriel M. Leung 17 , 18 ,
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  • Andrew Perfors 25 ,
  • Laura M. Rival 26 ,
  • Cassidy R. Sugimoto 27 ,
  • Bertil Tungodden 28 &
  • Claudia Wagner 29 , 30 , 31  

Nature Human Behaviour volume  6 ,  pages 15–24 ( 2022 ) Cite this article

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Human behaviour is complex and multifaceted, and is studied by a broad range of disciplines across the social and natural sciences. To mark our 5th anniversary, we asked leading scientists in some of the key disciplines that we cover to share their vision of the future of research in their disciplines. Our contributors underscore how important it is to broaden the scope of their disciplines to increase ecological validity and diversity of representation, in order to address pressing societal challenges that range from new technologies, modes of interaction and sociopolitical upheaval to disease, poverty, hunger, inequality and climate change. Taken together, these contributions highlight how achieving progress in each discipline will require incorporating insights and methods from others, breaking down disciplinary silos.

Genuine progress in understanding human behaviour can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary community effort. Five years after the launch of Nature Human Behaviour , twenty-two leading experts in some of the core disciplines within the journal’s scope share their views on pressing open questions and new directions in their disciplines. Their visions provide rich insight into the future of research on human behaviour.

research title example about behavior

Artificial intelligence

Kate Crawford

Much has changed in artificial intelligence since a small group of mathematicians and scientists gathered at Dartmouth in 1956 to brainstorm how machines could simulate cognition. Many of the domains that those men discussed — such as neural networks and natural language processing — remain core elements of the field today. But what they did not address was the far-reaching social, political, legal and ecological effects of building these systems into everyday life: it was outside their disciplinary view.

Since the mid-2000s, artificial intelligence (AI) has rapidly expanded as a field in academia and as an industry, and now a handful of powerful technology corporations deploy these systems at a planetary scale. There have been extraordinary technical innovations, from real-time language translation to predicting the 3D structures of proteins 1 , 2 . But the biggest challenges remain fundamentally social and political: how AI is widening power asymmetries and wealth inequality, and creating forms of harm that need to be prioritized, remedied and regulated.

The most urgent work facing the field today is to research and remediate the costs and consequences of AI. This requires a deeper sociotechnical approach that can contend with the complex effect of AI on societies and ecologies. Although there has been important work done on algorithmic fairness in recent years 3 , 4 , not enough has been done to address how training data fundamentally skew how AI models interpret the world from the outset. Second, we need to address the human costs of AI, which range from discrimination and misinformation to the widespread reliance on underpaid labourers (such as the crowd-workers who train AI systems for as little as US $2 per hour) 5 . Third, there must be a commitment to reversing the environmental costs of AI, including the exceptionally high energy consumption of the current large computational models, and the carbon footprint of building and operating modern tensor processing hardware 6 . Finally, we need strong regulatory and policy frameworks, expanding on the EU’s draft AI Act of 2021.

By building a more interdisciplinary and inclusive AI field, and developing a more rigorous account of the full impacts of AI, we give engineers and regulators alike the tools that they need to make these systems more sustainable, equitable and just.

Kate Crawford is Research Professor at the Annenberg School, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Senior Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research New York, New York, NY, USA; and the Inaugural Visiting Chair of AI and Justice at the École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.

Anthropology

Laura M. Rival

The field of anthropology faces fundamental questions about its capacity to intervene more effectively in political debates. How can we use the knowledge that we already have to heal the imagined whole while keeping people in synchrony with each other and with the world they aspire to create for themselves and others?

The economic systems that sustain modern life have produced pernicious waste cultures. Globalization has accelerated planetary degradation and global warming through the continuous release of toxic waste. Every day, like millions of others, I dutifully clean and prepare my waste for recycling. I know it is no more than a transitory measure geared to grant manufacturers time to adjust and adapt. Reports that most waste will not be recycled, but dumped or burned, upset me deeply. How can anthropology remain a critical project in the face of such orchestrated cynicism, bad faith and indifference? How should anthropologists deploy their skills and bring a sense of shared responsibility to the task of replenishing the collective will?

To help to find answers to these questions, anthropologists need to radically rethink the ways in which we describe the processes and relations that tie communities to their environments. The extinction of experience (loss of direct contact with nature) that humankind currently suffers is massive, but not irreversible. New forms of storytelling have successfully challenged modernist myths, particularly their homophonic promises 7 . But there remain persistent challenges, such as the seductive and rampant power of one-size-fits-all progress, and the actions of elites, who thrive on emulation, and in doing so fuel run-away consumerism.

To combat these challenges, I simply reassert that ‘nature’ is far from having outlasted its historical utility. Anthropologists must join forces and reanimate their common exploration of the immense possibilities contained in human bodies and minds. No matter how overlooked or marginalized, these natural potentials hold the key to what keeps life going.

Laura M. Rival is Professor of Anthropology of Nature, Society and Development, ODID and SAME, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK .

Communication and media studies

Jean Burgess

The communication and media studies field has historically been animated by technological change. In the process, it has needed to navigate fundamental tensions: communication can be understood as both transmission (of information), and as (social) ritual 8 ; relatedly, media can be understood as both technology and as culture 9 .

The most important technological change over the past decade has been the ‘platformization’ 10 of the media environment. Large digital platforms owned by the world’s most powerful technology companies have come to have an outsized and transformative role in the transmission (distribution) of information, and in mediating social practices (whether major events or intimate daily routines). In response, digital methods have transformed the field. For example, advances in computational techniques enabled researchers to study patterns of communication on social media, leading to disciplinary trends such as the quantitative description of ‘hashtag publics’ in the mid-2010s 11 .

Platforms’ uses of data, algorithms and automation for personalization, content moderation and governance constitute a further major shift, giving rise to new methods (such as algorithmic audits) that go well beyond quantitative description 12 . But platform companies have had a patchy — at times hostile — relationship to independent research into their societal role, leading to data lockouts and even public attacks on researchers. It is important in the interests of public oversight and open science that we coordinate responses to such attempts to suppress research 13 , 14 .

As these processes of digital transformation continue, new connections between the humanities and technical disciplines will be necessary, giving rise to a new wave of methodological innovation. This next phase will also require more hybrid (qualitative and quantitative; computational and critical) methods 15 , not only to get around platform lockouts but also to ensure more careful attention is paid to how the new media technologies are used and experienced in everyday life. Here, innovative approaches such as the use of data donations can both aid the ‘platform observability’ 16 that is essential to accountability, and ensure that our research involves the perspectives of diverse audiences.

Jean Burgess is Professor of Digital Media at the School of Communication and Digital Media Research Centre (DMRC), Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland Australia; and Associate Director at the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Automated Decision-Making and Society (ADM+S), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia .

Computational social science

Claudia Wagner

Computational social science has emerged as a discipline that leverages computational methods and new technologies to collect, model and analyse digital behavioural data in natural environments or in large-scale designed experiments, and combine them with other data sources (such as survey data).

While the community made critical progress in enhancing our understanding about empirical phenomena such as the spread of misinformation 17 and the role of algorithms in curating misinformation 18 , it has focused less on questions about the quality and accessibility of data, the validity, reliability and reusability of measurements, the potential consequences of measurements and the connection between data, measurement and theory.

I see the following opportunities to address these issues.

First, we need to establish privacy-preserving, shared data infrastructures that collect and triangulate survey data with scientifically motivated organic or designed observational data from diverse populations 19 . For example, longitudinal online panels in which participants allow researchers to track their web browsing behaviour and link these traces to their survey answers will not only facilitate substantive research on societal questions but also enable methodological research (for example, on the quality of different data sources and measurement models), and contribute to the reproducibility of computational social science research.

Second, best practices and scientific infrastructures are needed for supporting the development, evaluation and re-use of measurements and the critical reflection on potentially harmful consequences of measurements 20 . Social scientists have developed such best practices and infrastructural support for survey measurements to avoid using instruments for which the validity is unclear or even questionable, and to support the re-usability of survey scales. I believe that practices from survey methodology and other domains, such as the medical industry, can inform our thinking here.

Finally, the fusion of algorithmic and human behaviour invites us to rethink the various ways in which data, measurements and social theories can be connected 20 . For example, product recommendations that users receive are based on measurements of users’ interests and needs: however, users and measurements are not only influenced by those recommendations, but also influence them in turn. As a community we need to develop research designs and environments that help us to systematically enhance our understanding of those feedback loops.

Claudia Wagner is Head of Computational Social Science Department at GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Köln, Germany; Professor for Applied Computational Social Sciences at RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; and External Faculty Member of the Complexity Science Hub, Vienna, Austria .

Criminology

Daniel S. Nagin

Disciplinary silos in path-breaking science are disappearing. Criminology has had a longstanding tradition of interdisciplinarity, but mostly in the form of an uneasy truce of research from different disciplines appearing side-by-side in leading journals — a scholarly form of parallel play. In the future, this must change because the big unsolved challenges in criminology will require cooperation among all of the social and behavioural sciences.

These challenges include formally merging the macro-level themes emphasized by sociologists with the micro-, individual-level themes emphasized by psychologists and economists. Initial steps have been made by economists who apply game theory to model crime-relevant social interactions, but much remains to be done in building models that explain the formation and destruction of social trust, collective efficacy and norms, as they relate to legal definitions of criminal behaviour.

A second opportunity concerns the longstanding focus of criminology on crimes involving the physical taking of property and interpersonal physical violence. These crimes are still with us, but — as the daily news regularly reports — the internet has opened up broad new frontiers for crime that allow for thefts of property and identities at a distance, forms of extortion and human trafficking at a massive scale (often involving untraceable transactions using financial vehicles such as bitcoin) and interpersonal violence without physical contact. This is a new and largely unexplored frontier for criminological research that criminologists should dive into in collaboration with computer scientists who already are beginning to troll these virgin scholarly waters.

The final opportunity I will note also involves drawing from computer science, the primary home of what has come to be called machine learning. It is important that new generations of criminologists become proficient with machine learning methods and also collaborate with its creators. Machine learning and related statistical methods have wide applicability in both the traditional domains of criminological research and new frontiers. These include the use of prediction tools in criminal justice decision-making, which can aid in crime detection, and the prevention and measuring of crime both online and offline, but also have important implications for equity and fairness due to their consequential nature.

Daniel S. Nagin is Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics at the Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA .

Behavioural economics

Bertil Tungodden

Behavioural and experimental economics have transformed the field of economics by integrating irrationality and nonselfish motivation in the study of human behaviour and social interaction. A richer foundation of human behaviour has opened many new exciting research avenues, and I here highlight three that I find particularly promising.

Economists have typically assumed that preferences are fixed and stable, but a growing literature, combining field and laboratory experimental approaches, has provided novel evidence on how the social environment shapes our moral and selfish preferences. It has been shown that prosocial role models make people less selfish 21 , that early-childhood education affects the fairness views of children 22 and that grit can be fostered in the correct classroom environment 23 . Such insights are important for understanding how exposure to different institutions and socialization processes influence the intergenerational transmission of preferences, but much more work is needed to gain systematic and robust evidence on the malleability of the many dimensions that shape human behaviour.

The moral mind is an important determinant of human behaviour, but our understanding of the complexity of moral motivation is still in its infancy. A growing literature, using an impartial spectator design in which study participants make consequential choices for others, has shown that people often disagree on what is morally acceptable. An important example is how people differ in their view of what is a fair inequality, ranging from the libertarian fairness view to the strict egalitarian fairness view 24 , 25 . An exciting question for future research is whether such moral differences reflect a concern for other moral values, such as freedom, or irrational considerations.

A third exciting development in behavioural and experimental economics is the growing set of global studies on the foundations of human behaviour 26 , 27 . It speaks to the major concern in the social sciences that our evidence is unrepresentative and largely based on studies with samples from Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic societies 28 . The increased availability of infrastructure for implementing large-scale experimental data collections and methodological advances carry promise that behavioural and experimental economic research will broaden our understanding of the foundations of human behaviour in the coming years.

Bertil Tungodden is Professor and Scientific Director of the Centre of Excellence FAIR at NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway .

Development economics

Esther Duflo

The past three decades have been a wonderful time for development economics. The number of scholars, the number of publications and the visibility of the work has dramatically increased. Development economists think about education, health, firm growth, mental health, climate, democratic rules and much more. No topic seems off limits!

This progress is intimately connected with the explosion of the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and, more generally, with the embrace of careful causal identification. RCTs have markedly transformed development economics and made it the field that it is today.

The past three decades (until the COVID-19 crisis) have also been very good for improving the circumstances of low-income people around the world: poverty rates have fallen; school enrolment has increased; and maternal and infant mortality has been halved. Although I would not dare imply that the two trends are causally related, one of the reasons for these improvements in the quality of life — even in countries where economic growth has been slow — is the greater focus on pragmatic solutions to the fundamental problems faced by people with few resources. In many countries, development economics researchers (particularly those working with RCTs) have been closely involved with policy-makers, helping them to develop, implement and test these solutions. In turn, this involvement has been a fertile ground for new questions, which have enriched the field.

I imagine future change will, once again, come from an unexpected place. One possible driver of innovation will come from this meeting between the requirements of policy and the intellectual ambition of researchers. This means that the new challenges of our planet must (and will) become the new challenges of development economics. Those challenges are, I believe, quite clear: rethinking social protection to be better prepared to face risks such as the COVID-19 pandemic; mitigating, but unfortunately also adapting to, climate changes; curbing pollution; and addressing gender, racial and ethnic inequality.

To address these critical issues, I believe the field will continue to rely on RCTs, but also start using more creatively (descriptively or in combination with RCTs) the huge amount of data that is increasingly available as governments, even in poor countries, digitize their operations. I cannot wait to be surprised by what comes next.

Esther Duflo is The Abdul Latif Jameel Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at the Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, USA; and cofounder and codirector of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) .

Political science

Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier

Political science remains one of the most pluralistic disciplines and we are on the move towards engaged pluralism. This takes us beyond mere tolerance to true, sincere engagement across methods, methodologies, theories and even disciplinary boundaries. Engaged pluralism means doing the hard work of understanding our own research from the multiple perspectives of others.

More data are being collected on human behaviour than ever before and our advances in methods better address the inherent interdependencies of the data across time, space and context. There are new ways to measure human behaviour via text, image and video. Data creation can even go back in time. All these advancements bode well for the potential to better understand and predict behaviour. This ‘data century’ and ‘golden age of methods’ also hold the promise to bridge, not divide, political science, provided that there is engaged methodological pluralism. Qualitative methods provide unique insights and perspectives when joined with quantitative methods, as does a broader conception of the methodologies underlying and launching our research.

I remain a strong proponent of leveraging dynamics and focusing on heterogeneity in our research questions to advance our disciplines. Doing so brings in an explicit perspective of comparison around similarity and difference. Our questions, hypotheses and theories are often made more compelling when considering the dynamics and heterogeneity that emerges when thinking about time and change.

Striving for a better understanding of gender, race and ethnicity is driving deeper and fuller understandings of central questions in the social sciences. The diversity of the research teams themselves across gender, sex, race, ethnicity, first-generation status, religion, ideology, partisanship and cultures also pushes advancement. One area that we need to better support is career diversity. Supporting careers in government, non-profit organizations and industry, as well as academia, for graduate students will enhance our disciplines and accelerate the production of knowledge that changes the world.

Engaged pluralism remains a foundational key to advancement in political science. Engaged pluralism supports critical diversity, equity and inclusion work, strengthens political scientists’ commitment to democratic principles, and encourages civic engagement more broadly. It is an exciting time to be a social scientist.

Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier is Vernal Riffe Professor of Political Science, Professor of Sociology (courtesy) and Distinguished University Professor at the Department of Political Science, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, USA; and immediate past President of the American Political Science Association .

Cognitive psychology

Andrew Perfors

Cognitive psychology excels at understanding questions whose problem-space is well-defined, with precisely specified theories that transparently map onto thoroughly explored experimental paradigms. That means there is a vast gulf between the current state of the art and the richness and complexity of cognition in the real world. The most exciting open questions are about how to bridge that gap without sacrificing rigour and precision. This requires at least three changes.

First, we must move beyond typical experiments. Stimuli must become less artificial, with a naturalistic structure and distribution. Similarly, tasks must become more ecologically valid: less isolated, with more uncertainty, embedded in natural situations and over different time-scales.

Second, we must move beyond considering individuals in isolation. We live in a rich social world and an environment that is heavily shaped by other humans. How we think, learn and act is deeply affected by how other people think and interact with us; cognitive science needs to engage with this more.

Third, we must move beyond the metaphor of humans as computers. Our cognition is deeply intertwined with our emotions, motivations and senses. These are more than just parameters in our minds; they have a complexity and logic of their own, and interact in nontrivial ways with each other and more typical cognitive domains such as learning, reasoning and acting.

How do we make progress on these steps? We need reliable real-world data that are comparable across people and situations, reflect the cognitive processes involved and are not changed by measurement. Technology may help us with this, but challenges surrounding privacy and data quality are huge. Our models and analytic approaches must also grow in complexity — commensurate with the growth in problem and data complexity — without becoming intractable or losing their explanatory power.

Success in this endeavour calls for a different kind of science that is not centred around individual laboratories or small stand-alone projects. The biggest advances will be achieved on the basis of large, rich, real-world datasets from different populations, created and analysed in collaborative teams that span multiple domains, fields and approaches. This requires incentive structures that reward team-focused, slower science and prioritize the systematic construction of reliable knowledge over splashy findings.

Andrew Perfors is Associate Professor and Deputy Director of the Complex Human Data Hub, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia .

Cultural and social psychology

Ying-yi Hong

I am writing this at an exceptional moment in human history. For two years, the world has faced the COVID-19 pandemic and there is no end in sight. Cultural and social psychology are uniquely equipped to understand the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically examining how people, communities and countries are dealing with this extreme global crisis — especially at a time when many parts of the world are already experiencing geopolitical upheaval.

During the pandemic, and across different nations and regions, a diverse set of strategies (and subsequent levels of effectiveness) were used to curb the spread of the disease. In the first year of the pandemic, research revealed that some cultural worldviews — such as collectivism (versus individualism) and tight (versus loose) norms — were positively associated with compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures as well as with fewer infections and deaths 29 , 30 . These worldview differences arguably stem from different perspectives on abiding to social norms and prioritizing the collective welfare over an individual’s autonomy and liberty. Although in the short term it seems that a collectivist or tight worldview has been advantageous, it is unclear whether this will remain the case in the long term. Cultural worldviews are ‘tools’ that individuals use to decipher the meaning of their environment, and are dynamic rather than static 31 . Future research can examine how cultural worldviews and global threats co-evolve.

The pandemic has also amplified the demarcation of national, political and other major social categories. On the one hand, identification with some groups (for example, national identity) was found to increase in-group care and thus a greater willingness to sacrifice personal autonomy to comply with COVID-19 measures 32 . On the other hand, identification with other groups (for example, political parties) widened the ideological divide between groups and drove opposing behaviours towards COVID-19 measures and health outcomes 33 . As we are facing climate change and other pressing global challenges, understanding the role of social identities and how they affect worldviews, cognition and behaviour will be vital. How can we foster more inclusive (versus exclusive) identities that can unite rather than divide people and nations?

Ying-yi Hong is Choh-Ming Li Professor of Management and Associate Dean (Research) at the Department of Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China .

Developmental psychology

Alison Gopnik

Developmental psychology is similar to the kind of book or band that, paradoxically, everyone agrees is underrated. On the one hand, children and the people who care for them are often undervalued and overlooked. On the other, since Piaget, developmental research has tackled some of the most profound philosophical questions about every kind of human behaviour. This will only continue into the future.

Psychologists increasingly recognize that the minds of children are not just a waystation or an incomplete version of adult minds. Instead, childhood is a distinct evolutionarily adaptive phase of an organism, with its own characteristic cognitions, emotions and motivations. These characteristics of childhood reflect a different agenda than those of the adult mind — a drive to explore rather than exploit. This drive comes with motivations such as curiosity, emotions such as wonder and surprise and remarkable cognitive learning capacities. A new flood of research on curiosity, for example, shows that children actively seek out the information that will help them to learn the most.

The example of curiosity also reflects the exciting prospects for interdisciplinary developmental science. Machine learning is increasingly using children’s learning as a model, and developmental psychologists are developing more precise models as a result. Curiosity-based AI can illuminate both human and machine intelligence. Collaborations with biology are also exciting: for example, in work on evolutionary ‘life history’ explanations of the effects of adverse experiences on later life, and new research on plasticity and sensitive periods in neuroscience. Finally, children are at the cutting edge of culture, and developmental psychologists increasingly conduct a much wider range of cross-cultural studies.

But perhaps the most important development is that policy-makers are finally starting to realize just how crucial children are to important social issues. Developmental science has shown that providing children with the care that they need can decrease poverty, inequality, disease and violence. But that care has been largely invisible to policy-makers and politicians. Understanding scientifically how caregiving works and how to support it more effectively will be the most important challenge for developmental psychology in the next century.

Alison Gopnik is Professor of Psychology and Affiliate Professor of Philosophy at the Department of Psychology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA .

Science of science

Cassidy R. Sugimoto

Why study science? The goal of science is to advance knowledge to improve the human condition. It is, therefore, essential that we understand how science operates to maximize efficiency and social good. The metasciences are fields that are devoted to understanding the scientific enterprise. These fields are distinguished by differing epistemologies embedded in their names: the philosophy, history and sociology of science represent canonical metasciences that use theories and methods from their mother disciplines. The ‘science of science’ uses empirical approaches to understand the mechanisms of science. As mid-twentieth-century science historian Derek de Solla Price observed, science of science allows us to “turn the tools of science on science itself” 34 .

Contemporary questions in the science of science investigate, inter alia, catalysts of discovery and innovation, consequences of increased access to scientific information, role of teams in knowledge creation and the implications of social stratification on the scientific enterprise. Investigation of these issues require triangulation of data and integration across the metasciences, to generate robust theories, model on valid assumptions and interpret results appropriately. Community-owned infrastructure and collective venues for communication are essential to achieve these goals. The construction of large-scale science observatories, for example, would provide an opportunity to capture the rapidly expanding dataverse, collaborate and share data, and provide nimble translations of data into information for policy-makers and the scientific community.

The topical foci of the field are also undergoing rapid transformation. The expansion of datasets enables researchers to analyse a fuller population, rather than a narrow sample that favours particular communities. The field has moved from an elitist focus on ‘success’ and ‘impact’ to a more-inclusive and prosopographical perspective. Conversations have shifted from citations, impact factors and h -indices towards responsible indicators, diversity and broader impacts. Instead of asking ‘how can we predict the next Nobel prize winner?’, we can ask ‘what are the consequences of attrition in the scientific workforce?’. The turn towards contextualized measurements that use more inclusive datasets to understand the entire system of science places the science of science in a ripe position to inform policy and propel us towards a more innovative and equitable future.

Cassidy R. Sugimoto is Professor and Tom and Marie Patton School Chair, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA .

Sari Hanafi

In the past few years, we have been living through times in which reasonable debate has become impossible. Demagogical times are driven by the vertiginous rise of populism and authoritarianism, which we saw in the triumph of Donald Trump in the USA and numerous other populist or authoritarian leaders in many places around the globe. There are some pressing tasks for sociology that can be, in brief, reduced to three.

First, fostering democracy and the democratization process requires disentangling the constitutive values that compose the liberal political project (personal liberty, equality, moral autonomy and multiculturalism) to address the question of social justice and to accommodate the surge in people’s religiosity in many parts in the globe.

Second, the struggle for the environment is inseparable from our choice of political economy, and from the nature of our desired economic system — and these connections between human beings and nature have never been as intimate as they are now. Past decades saw rapid growth that was based on assumptions of the long-term stability of the fixed costs of raw materials and energy. But this is no longer the case. More recently, financial speculation intensified and profits shrunk, generating distributional conflicts between workers, management, owners and tax authorities. The nature of our economic system is now in acute crisis.

The answer lies in a consciously slow-growing new economy that incorporates the biophysical foundations of economics into its functioning mechanisms. Society and nature cannot continue to be perceived each as differentiated into separate compartments. The spheres of nature, culture, politics, social, economy and religion are indeed traversed by common logics that allow a given society to be encompassed in its totality, exactly as Marcel Mauss 35 did. The logic of power and interests embodied in ‘ Homo economicus ’ prevents us from being able to see the potentiality of human beings to cultivate gift-giving practices as an anthropological foundation innate within social relationships.

Third, there are serious social effects of digitalized forms of labour and the trend of replacing labour with an automaton. Even if digital labour partially reduces the unemployment rate, the lack of social protection for digital labourers would have tremendous effects on future generations.

In brief, it is time to connect sociology to moral and political philosophy to address fundamentally post-COVID-19 challenges.

Sari Hanafi is Professor of Sociology at the American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; and President of the International Sociological Association .

Environmental studies (climate change)

Yasuko Kameyama

Climate change has been discussed for more than 40 years as a multilateral issue that poses a great threat to humankind and ecosystems. Unfortunately, we are still talking about the same issue today. Why can’t we solve this problem, even though scientists pointed out its importance and urgency so many years ago?

These past years have been spent trying to prove the causal relationship between an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, global temperature rise and various extreme weather events, as well as developing and disseminating technologies needed to reduce emissions. All of these tasks have been handled by experts in the field. At the same time, the general public invested little time in this movement, probably expecting that the problem would be solved by experts and policy-makers. But that has not been the case. No matter how much scientists have emphasized the crisis of climate change or how many clean energy technologies engineers have developed, society has resisted making the necessary changes. Now, the chances of keeping the temperature rise within 1.5 °C of pre-industrial levels — the goal necessary to minimize the effects of climate change — are diminishing.

We seem to finally be realizing the importance of social scientific knowledge. People need to take scientific information seriously for clean technology to be quickly diffused. Companies are more interested in investing in newer technology and product development when they know that their products will sell. Because environmental problems are caused by human activity, research on human behaviour is indispensable in solving these problems.

Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have not devoted many pages to the areas of human awareness and behaviour ( https://www.ipcc.ch/ ). The IPCC’s Third Working Group, which deals with mitigation measures, has partially spotlighted research on institutions, as well as on concepts such as fairness. People’s perception of climate change and the relationship between perception and behavioural change differ depending on the country, societal structure and culture. Additional studies in these areas are required and, for that purpose, more studies from regions such as Asia, Africa and South America, which are underrepresented in terms of the number of academic publications, are particularly needed.

Yasuko Kameyama is Director, Social Systems Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan .

Sustainability (food systems)

Mario Herrero

The food system is in dire straits. Food demand is unprecedented, while malnutrition in all its forms (obesity, undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies) is rampant. Environmental degradation is pervasive and increasing, and if it continues, the comfort zone for humanity and ecosystems to thrive will be seriously compromised. From bruises and shapes to sell-by dates, we tend to find many reasons to exclude perfectly edible food from our plates, whereas in other cases not enough food reaches hungry mouths owing to farming methods, pests and lack of adequate storage. These types of inequalities are common and — together with inherent perverse incentives that maintain the status quo of how we produce, consume and waste increasingly cheap and processed food — they are launching us towards a disaster.

We are banking on a substantial transformation of the food system to solve this conundrum. Modifying food consumption and waste patterns are central to the plan for achieving healthier diets, while increasing the sustainability of our food system. This is also an attractive policy proposition, as it could lead to gains in several sectors. Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease could decline, while reducing the effects of climate change, deforestation, excessive water withdrawals and biodiversity loss, and their enormous associated — and largely unaccounted — costs.

Modifying our food consumption and waste patterns is very hard, and unfortunately we know very little about how to change them at scale. Yes, many pilots and small examples exist on pricing, procurement, food environments and others, but the evidence is scarce, and the magnitude of the change required demands an unprecedented transdisciplinary research agenda. The problem is at the centre of human agency and behaviour, embodying culture, habits, values, social status, economics and all aspects of agri-food systems. Certainly, one of the big research areas for the next decade if we are to reach the Sustainable Development Goals leaving no one behind.

Mario Herrero is Professor, Cornell Atkinson scholar and Nancy and Peter Meinig Family Investigator in the Life Sciences at the Department of Global Development, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA .

Cultural evolution

Laurel Fogarty

Humans are the ultimate ‘cultural animals’. We are innovative, pass our cultures to one another across generations and build vast self-constructed environments that reflect our cultural biases. We achieve things using our cultural capacities that are unimaginable for any other species on earth. And yet we have only begun to understand the dynamics of cultural change, the drivers of cultural complexity or the ways that we adapt culturally to changing environments. Scholars — anthropologists, archaeologists and sociologists — have long studied culture, aiming to describe and understand its staggering diversity. The relatively new field of cultural evolution has different aims, one of the most important of which is to understand the mechanics in the background — what general principles, if any, govern human cultural change?

Although the analogy of culture as an evolutionary process has been made since at least the time of Darwin 36 , 37 , cultural evolution as a robust field of study is much younger. From its beginnings with the pioneering work of Cavalli-Sforza & Feldman 38 , 39 , 40 and Boyd & Richerson 41 , 42 , the field of cultural evolution has been heavily theoretical. It has drawn on models from genetic evolution 40 , 43 , 44 , 45 , ecology 46 , 47 and epidemiology 40 , 48 , extending and adapting them to account for unique and important aspects of cultural transmission. Indeed, in its short life, the field of cultural evolution has largely been dominated by a growing body of theory that ensured that the fledgling field started out on solid foundations. Because it underpins and makes possible novel applications of cultural evolutionary ideas, theoretical cultural evolution’s continued development is not only crucial to the field’s growth but also represents some of its most exciting future work.

One of the most urgent tasks for cultural evolution researchers in the next five years is to develop, alongside its theoretical foundations, robust principles of application 49 , 50 , 51 . In other words, it is vital to develop our understanding of what we can — and, crucially, cannot — infer from different types of cultural data. Where do we draw those boundaries and how can we apply cultural evolutionary theory to cultural datasets in a principled way? The tandem development of robust theory and principled application has the potential to strengthen cultural evolution as a robust, useful and ground-breaking inferential science of human behaviour.

Laurel Fogarty is Senior Scientist at the Department of Human Behaviour, Ecology, and Culture, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany .

Over the past decade, research using molecular genetic data has confirmed one of the main conclusions of twin studies: all human behaviour is partly heritable 52 , 53 . Attempts at examining the link between genetics and behaviour have been met with concerns that the findings can be abused to justify discrimination — and there are good historical grounds for these concerns. However, these findings also show that ignoring the contribution of genes to variation in human behaviour could be detrimental to a complete understanding of social phenomena, given the complex ways that genes and environment interact.

Uncovering these complex pathways has become feasible only recently thanks to rapid technological progress reducing the costs of genotyping. Sample sizes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have risen from tens of thousands to millions in the past decade, reporting thousands of genetic variants associated with different behaviours 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 . New ways to use GWAS results have emerged, the most important one arguably being a method to aggregate the additive effects of many genetic variants into a ‘polygenic index’ (PGI) (also known as a ‘polygenic score’) that summarizes an individual’s genetic propensity towards a trait or behaviour 58 , 59 . Being aggregate measures, PGIs capture a much larger share of the variance in the trait of interest compared to individual genetic variants 60 . Thus, they have paved the way for follow-up studies with smaller sample sizes but deeper phenotyping compared to the original GWAS, allowing researchers to, for example, analyse the channels through which genes operate 61 , 62 , how they interact with the environment 63 , 64 , and account for confounding bias and boost statistical power by controlling for genetic effects 65 , 66 .

Useful as they are, PGIs and the GWAS that they are based on can suffer from confounding due to environmental factors that correlate with genotypes, such as population stratification, indirect effect from relatives or assortative mating 67 . Now that the availability of genetic data enables large-scale within-family GWAS, the next big thing in behaviour genetic research will be disentangling these sources 68 . While carrying the progress further, it is important that the field prioritizes moving away from its currently predominant Eurocentric bias by extending data collection and analyses to individuals of non-European ancestries, as the exclusion of non-European ancestries from genetic research has the potential to exacerbate health disparities 69 . Researchers should also be careful to communicate their findings clearly and responsibly to the public and guard against their misappropriation by attempts to fuel discriminatory action and discourse 70 .

Aysu Okbay is Assistant Professor at the Department of Economics, School of Business and Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .

Cognitive neuroscience

Anna C. Nobre

Since the ‘decade of the brain’ in the 1990s, ingenuity in cognitive neuroscience has focused on measuring and analysing brain signals. Adapting tools from statistics, engineering, computer science, physics and other disciplines, we studied activity, states, connectivity, interactions, time courses and dynamics in brain regions and networks. Unexpected findings about the brain yielded important insights about the mind.

Now is a propitious time to upgrade the brain–mind duumvirate to a brain–mind–behaviour triumvirate. Brain and mind are embodied, and their workings are expressed through various effectors. Yet, experimental tasks typically use simple responses to capture complex psychological functions. Often, a button press — with its limited dimensions of latency and accuracy — measures anticipating, focusing, evaluating, choosing, reflecting or remembering. Researchers venturing beyond such simple responses are uncovering how the contents of mind can be studied using various continuous measures, such as pupil diameter, gaze shifts and movement trajectories.

Most tasks also restrict participants’ movements to ensure experimental control. However, we are learning that principles of cognition derived in artificial laboratory contexts can fail to generalize to natural behaviour. Virtual reality should prove a powerful methodology. Participants can behave naturally, and experimenters can control stimulation and obtain quality measures of gaze, hand and body movements. Noninvasive neurophysiology methods are becoming increasingly portable. Exciting immersive brain–mind–behaviour studies are just ahead.

The next necessary step is out of the academic bubble. Today the richest data on human behaviour belong to the information and technology industries. In our routines, we contribute data streams through telephones, keyboards, watches, vehicles and countless smart devices in the internet of things. These expose properties such as processing speed, fluency, attention, dexterity, navigation and social context. We supplement these by broadcasting feelings, attitudes and opinions through social media and other forums. The richness and scale of the resulting big data offer unprecedented opportunities for deriving predictive patterns that are relevant to understanding human cognition (and its disorders). The outcomes can then guide further hypothesis-driven experimentation. Cognitive neuroscience is intrinsically collaborative, combining a broad spectrum of disciplines to study the mind. Its challenge now is to move from a multidisciplinary to a multi-enterprise science.

Anna C. Nobre is Chair in Translational Cognitive Neuroscience at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK; and Director of Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK .

Social and affective neuroscience

Tatia M. C. Lee

Social and affective neuroscience is a relatively new, but rapidly developing, field of neuroscience. Social and affective neuroscience research takes a multilevel approach to make sense of socioaffective processes, focusing on macro- (for example, social environments and structures), meso- (for example, social interactions) and micro (for example, socio-affective neural processes and perceptions)-level interactions. Because the products of these interactions are person-specific, the conventional application of group-averaged mechanisms to understand the brain in a socioemotional context has been reconsidered. Researchers turn to ecologically valid stimuli (for example, dynamic and virtual reality instead of static stimuli) and experimental settings (for example, real-time social interaction) 71 to address interindividual differences in social and affective responses. At the neural level, there has been a shift of research focus from local neural activations to large-scale synchronized interactions across neural networks. Network science contributes to the understanding of dynamic changes of neural processes that reflect the interactions and interconnection of neural structures that underpin social and affective processes.

We are living in an ever-changing socioaffective world, full of unexpected challenges. The ageing population and an increasing prevalence of depression are social phenomena on a global scale. Social isolation and loneliness caused by measures to tackle the current pandemic affect physical and psychological well-being of people from all walks of life. These global issues require timely research efforts to generate potential solutions. In this regard, social and affective neuroscience research using computational modelling, longitudinal research designs and multimodal data integration will create knowledge about the basis of adaptive and maladaptive social and affective neurobehavioural processes and responses 72 , 73 , 74 . Such knowledge offers important insights into the precise delineation of brain–symptom relationships, and hence the development of prediction models of cognitive and socioaffective functioning (for example, refs. 75 , 76 ). Therefore, screening tools for identifying potential vulnerabilities can be developed, and timely and precise interventions can be tailored to meet individual situations and needs. The translational application of social and affective neuroscience research to precision medicine (and policy) is experiencing unprecedented demand, and such demand is met with unprecedented clinical and research capabilities.

Tatia M. C. Lee is Chair Professor of Psychology at the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Laboratory of Neuropsychology and Human Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China .

Maurizio Corbetta

Focal brain disorders, including stroke, trauma and epilepsy, are the main causes of disability and loss of productivity in the world, and carry a cumulative cost in Europe of about € 500 billion per year 77 . The disease process affects a specific circuit in the brain by turning it off (as in stroke) or pathologically turning it on (as in epilepsy). The cause of the disabling symptoms is typically local circuit damage. However, there is now overwhelming evidence that symptoms reflect not only local pathology but also widespread (network) functional abnormalities. For instance, in stroke, an average lesion — the size of a golf ball — typically alters the activity of on average 25% of all brain connections. Furthermore, normalization of these abnormalities correlates with optimal recovery of function 78 , 79 .

One exciting treatment opportunity is ‘circuit-based’ stimulation: an ensemble of methods (optogenetic, photoacoustic, electrochemical, magnetic and electrical) that have the potential to normalize activity. Presently, this type of therapy is limited by numerous factors, including a lack of knowledge about the circuits, the difficulty of mapping these circuits in single patients and, most importantly, a principled understanding of where and how to stimulate to produce functional recovery.

A possible solution lies in a strategy (developed with G. Deco, M. Massimini and M. Sanchez-Vivez) that starts with an in-depth assessment of behaviour and physiological studies of brain activity to characterize the affected circuits and associated patterns of functional abnormalities. Such a multi-dimensional physiological map of a lesioned brain can be then fed to biologically realistic in silico models 80 . A model of a lesioned brain affords the opportunity to explore, in an exhaustive way, different kinds of stimulation to normalize faulty activity. Once a suitable protocol is found it can be exported first to animal models, and then to humans. Stimulation alone will not be enough. Pairing with behavioural training (rehabilitation) will stabilize learning and normalize connections.

The ability to interface therapy (stimulation, rehabilitation and drugs) with brain signals or other kinds of behavioural sensor offers another exciting opportunity, to open the ‘brain’s black box’. Most current treatments in neuroscience are given with no regard to their effect on the underlying brain signals or behaviour. Giving patients conscious access to their own brain signals may substantially enhance recovery, as the brain is now in the position to use its own powerful connections and learning mechanisms to cure itself.

Maurizio Corbetta is Professor and Chair of Neurology at the Department of Neuroscience and Director of the Padova Neuroscience Center (PNC), University of Padova, Italy; and Principal Investigator at the Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine (VIMM), Padova, Italy .

Merete Nordentoft

Schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders are among the costliest and most debilitating disorders in terms of personal sufferings for those affected, for relatives and for society 81 . These disorders often require long-term treatment and, for a substantial proportion of the patients, the outcomes are poor. This has motivated efforts to prevent long-lasting illness by early intervention. The time around the onset of psychotic disorders is associated with an increased risk of suicide, of loss of affiliation with the labour market, and social isolation and exclusion. Therefore, prevention and treatment of first-episode psychosis will be a key challenge for the future.

There is now solid evidence proving that early intervention services can improve clinical outcomes 82 . This was first demonstrated in the large Danish OPUS trial, in which OPUS treatment — consisting of assertive outreach, case management and family involvement, provided by multidisciplinary teams over a two-year period — was shown to improve clinical outcomes 83 . Moreover, it was also cost-effective 84 . Although the positive effects on clinical outcomes were not sustainable after five and ten years, there was a long-lasting effect on use of supported housing facilities (indicating improved ability to live independently) 85 . Later trials proved that it is possible to maintain the positive clinical outcomes by extending the services to five years or by offering a stepped care model with continued intensive care for the patients who are most impaired 86 . However, even though both clinical and functional outcomes (such as labour market affiliation) can be improved by evidence-based treatments 82 , a large group of patients with first-episode psychosis still have psychotic symptoms after ten years. Thus, there is still an urgent need for identification of new and better options for treatment.

Most probably, some of the disease processes start long before first onset of a psychotic disorder. Thus, identifying disease mechanisms and possibilities for intervention before onset of psychosis will be extremely valuable. Evidence for effective preventive interventions is very limited, and the most burning question — of how to prevent psychosis — is still open.

The early intervention approach is also promising also for other disorders, including bipolar affective disorder, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, personality disorders, autism and attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder.

Merete Nordentoft is Clinical Professor at the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; and Principal Investigator, CORE - Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .

Epidemiology

Gabriel M. Leung

In a widely anthologized article from the business field of marketing, Levitt 87 pointed out that often industries failed to grow because they suffered from a limited market view. For example, Kodak went bust because it narrowly defined itself as a film camera company for still photography rather than one that should have been about imaging writ large. If it had had that strategic insight, it would have exploited and invested in digital technologies aggressively and perhaps gone down the rather more successful path of Fujifilm — or even developed into territory now cornered by Netflix.

The raison d’être of epidemiology has been to provide a set of robust scientific methods that underpin public health practice. In turn, the field of public health has expanded to fulfil the much-wider and more-intensive demands of protecting, maintaining and promoting the health of local and global populations, intergenerationally. At its broadest, the mission of public health should be to advance social justice towards a complete state of health.

Therefore, epidemiologists should continue to recruit and embrace relevant methodology sets that could answer public health questions, better and more efficiently. For instance, Davey Smith and Ebrahim 88 described how epidemiology adapted instrumental variable analysis that had been widely deployed in econometrics to fundamentally improve causal inference in observational epidemiology. Conversely, economists have not been shy in adopting the randomized controlled trial design to answer questions of development, and have recognized it with a Nobel prize 89 . COVID-19 has brought mathematical epidemiology or modelling to the fore. The foundations of the field borrowed heavily from population dynamics and ecological theory.

In future, classical epidemiology, which has mostly focused on studying how the exposome associates with the phenome, needs to take into simultaneous account the other layers of the multiomics universe — from the genome to the metabolome to the microbiome 90 . Another area requiring innovative thinking concerns how to harness big data to better understand human behaviour 91 . Finally, we must consider key questions that are amenable to epidemiologic investigation arising from the major global health challenges: climate change, harmful addictions and mental wellness. What new methodological tools do we need to answer these questions?

Epidemiologists must keep trying on new lenses that correct our own siloed myopia.

Gabriel M. Leung is Helen and Francis Zimmern Professor in Population Health at WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong; Chief Scientific Officer at Laboratory of Data Discovery for Health, Hong Kong Science and Technology Park; and Dean of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China .

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Correspondence to Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier , Jean Burgess , Maurizio Corbetta , Kate Crawford , Esther Duflo , Laurel Fogarty , Alison Gopnik , Sari Hanafi , Mario Herrero , Ying-yi Hong , Yasuko Kameyama , Tatia M. C. Lee , Gabriel M. Leung , Daniel S. Nagin , Anna C. Nobre , Merete Nordentoft , Aysu Okbay , Andrew Perfors , Laura M. Rival , Cassidy R. Sugimoto , Bertil Tungodden or Claudia Wagner .

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Box-Steffensmeier, J.M., Burgess, J., Corbetta, M. et al. The future of human behaviour research. Nat Hum Behav 6 , 15–24 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01275-6

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Home » Research Paper Title – Writing Guide and Example

Research Paper Title – Writing Guide and Example

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Research Paper Title

Research Paper Title

Research Paper Title is the name or heading that summarizes the main theme or topic of a research paper . It serves as the first point of contact between the reader and the paper, providing an initial impression of the content, purpose, and scope of the research . A well-crafted research paper title should be concise, informative, and engaging, accurately reflecting the key elements of the study while also capturing the reader’s attention and interest. The title should be clear and easy to understand, and it should accurately convey the main focus and scope of the research paper.

Examples of Research Paper Title

Here are some Good Examples of Research Paper Title:

  • “Investigating the Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among College Students”
  • “The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Employment: A Systematic Review”
  • “The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis”
  • “Exploring the Effects of Social Support on Mental Health in Patients with Chronic Illness”
  • “Assessing the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial”
  • “The Impact of Social Media Influencers on Consumer Behavior: A Systematic Review”
  • “Investigating the Link Between Personality Traits and Leadership Effectiveness”
  • “The Effect of Parental Incarceration on Child Development: A Longitudinal Study”
  • “Exploring the Relationship Between Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Meta-Analysis”
  • “Assessing the Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Chronic Pain Management”.
  • “The Effects of Social Media on Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis”
  • “The Impact of Climate Change on Global Crop Yields: A Longitudinal Study”
  • “Exploring the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement in Elementary School Students”
  • “The Ethics of Genetic Editing: A Review of Current Research and Implications for Society”
  • “Understanding the Role of Gender in Leadership: A Comparative Study of Male and Female CEOs”
  • “The Effect of Exercise on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial”
  • “The Impacts of COVID-19 on Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison”
  • “Assessing the Effectiveness of Online Learning Platforms: A Case Study of Coursera”
  • “Exploring the Link between Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance”
  • “The Effects of Income Inequality on Social Mobility: A Comparative Analysis of OECD Countries”
  • “Exploring the Relationship Between Social Media Use and Mental Health in Adolescents”
  • “The Impact of Climate Change on Crop Yield: A Case Study of Maize Production in Sub-Saharan Africa”
  • “Examining the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analysis”
  • “An Analysis of the Relationship Between Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment”
  • “Assessing the Impacts of Wilderness Areas on Local Economies: A Case Study of Yellowstone National Park”
  • “The Role of Parental Involvement in Early Childhood Education: A Review of the Literature”
  • “Investigating the Effects of Technology on Learning in Higher Education”
  • “The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare: Opportunities and Challenges”
  • “A Study of the Relationship Between Personality Traits and Leadership Styles in Business Organizations”.

How to choose Research Paper Title

Choosing a research paper title is an important step in the research process. A good title can attract readers and convey the essence of your research in a concise and clear manner. Here are some tips on how to choose a research paper title:

  • Be clear and concise: A good title should convey the main idea of your research in a clear and concise manner. Avoid using jargon or technical language that may be confusing to readers.
  • Use keywords: Including keywords in your title can help readers find your paper when searching for related topics. Use specific, descriptive terms that accurately describe your research.
  • Be descriptive: A descriptive title can help readers understand what your research is about. Use adjectives and adverbs to convey the main ideas of your research.
  • Consider the audience : Think about the audience for your paper and choose a title that will appeal to them. If your paper is aimed at a specialized audience, you may want to use technical terms or jargon in your title.
  • Avoid being too general or too specific : A title that is too general may not convey the specific focus of your research, while a title that is too specific may not be of interest to a broader audience. Strive for a title that accurately reflects the focus of your research without being too narrow or too broad.
  • Make it interesting : A title that is interesting or provocative can capture the attention of readers and draw them into your research. Use humor, wordplay, or other creative techniques to make your title stand out.
  • Seek feedback: Ask colleagues or advisors for feedback on your title. They may be able to offer suggestions or identify potential problems that you hadn’t considered.

Purpose of Research Paper Title

The research paper title serves several important purposes, including:

  • Identifying the subject matter : The title of a research paper should clearly and accurately identify the topic or subject matter that the paper addresses. This helps readers quickly understand what the paper is about.
  • Catching the reader’s attention : A well-crafted title can grab the reader’s attention and make them interested in reading the paper. This is particularly important in academic settings where there may be many papers on the same topic.
  • Providing context: The title can provide important context for the research paper by indicating the specific area of study, the research methods used, or the key findings.
  • Communicating the scope of the paper: A good title can give readers an idea of the scope and depth of the research paper. This can help them decide if the paper is relevant to their interests or research.
  • Indicating the research question or hypothesis : The title can often indicate the research question or hypothesis that the paper addresses, which can help readers understand the focus of the research and the main argument or conclusion of the paper.

Advantages of Research Paper Title

The title of a research paper is an important component that can have several advantages, including:

  • Capturing the reader’s attention : A well-crafted research paper title can grab the reader’s attention and encourage them to read further. A captivating title can also increase the visibility of the paper and attract more readers.
  • Providing a clear indication of the paper’s focus: A well-written research paper title should clearly convey the main focus and purpose of the study. This helps potential readers quickly determine whether the paper is relevant to their interests.
  • Improving discoverability: A descriptive title that includes relevant keywords can improve the discoverability of the research paper in search engines and academic databases, making it easier for other researchers to find and cite.
  • Enhancing credibility : A clear and concise title can enhance the credibility of the research and the author. A title that accurately reflects the content of the paper can increase the confidence readers have in the research findings.
  • Facilitating communication: A well-written research paper title can facilitate communication among researchers, enabling them to quickly and easily identify relevant studies and engage in discussions related to the topic.
  • Making the paper easier to remember : An engaging and memorable research paper title can help readers remember the paper and its findings. This can be especially important in fields where researchers are constantly inundated with new information and need to quickly recall important studies.
  • Setting expectations: A good research paper title can set expectations for the reader and help them understand what the paper will cover. This can be especially important for readers who are unfamiliar with the topic or the research area.
  • Guiding research: A well-crafted research paper title can also guide future research by highlighting gaps in the current literature or suggesting new areas for investigation.
  • Demonstrating creativity: A creative research paper title can demonstrate the author’s creativity and originality, which can be appealing to readers and other researchers.

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Muhammad Hassan

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National Academies Press: OpenBook

Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences (2011)

Chapter: 4 behavioral and social sciences research, 4 behavioral and social sciences research, introduction.

Basic behavioral and social sciences research is indispensible to the mission of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Not only do psycho-social-biological factors directly affect disease outcomes per se, but also behavioral and social processes are linked to molecular, genetic, and neural processes affecting health and disease. Basic behavioral and social sciences research promotes health by predicting, preventing, and controlling illness, and by minimizing the impact of disease. A range of empirical investigations convincingly show that social and behavioral factors interact robustly with essentially every aspect of health and illness, spanning the entire disease process from vulnerability to diagnosis, treatment, course, prognosis, interface with health care systems, rehabilitation, and quality of life. The economic costs and human burdens of physical and mental disease result disproportionately from interrupting normal behavioral and social functioning.

Basic behavioral and social sciences research aims to measure, understand, and control processes that may later be applied to health and illness. As with all basic science, the direct link between fundamental research and health outcomes results from incremental discoveries that accumulate as an investment over time. There exist many examples of how basic behavioral and social sciences research has already increased knowledge about health and illness, including: (a) animal learning research has contributed to empirically validated behavioral treatments of various mental disorders, from phobias to addictions; (b) basic research on emotion explains disruptions by physical and mental illness, pointing to new treatments; (c) basic perception research informs diagnosis and treatment of neural disorders; (d) reliable results show how social networks shape all kinds of health behavior and psychobiological outcomes, from prevention to treatment to survival; (e) fundamental research on intergroup relations reveals underlying patterns and unconscious causes of health disparities for ethnic minorities, older adults, and sexual minorities; and (f) persuasion research reveals automatic processes that influence interactions with health care providers and determine both prevention and treatment outcomes.

Impressive gains in the science of brain, mind, and behavior provide new insights into health and illness, as well as new measurement methods, such as neuro-imaging and epigenetic indicators. At a much more macro level, environmental contexts and psychological, social, and cultural processes facilitate or constrain vulnerability to disease, risk behaviors, health promotion, proper health care, and re-entry into the community.

The behavioral and social sciences are as complex and variable as the natural sciences; not only do many factors affect individual and social behavior, but also these factors combine and interact in complicated ways. Partly because of the overall complexity of these sciences and partly for historical and cultural reasons, research support and research training in the behavioral and social sciences has lagged well behind those in other sciences. However, as noted, behavioral and social sciences contribute substantially to health research, primarily in psychosocial vulnerability, prevention behavior, treatment maintenance, and psychobiological response to treatment. Moreover, recent years have seen a tremendous leap in the sophistication of methods and tools in these sciences, leading to significant contributions regarding health behavior and contexts, as well as a realistic expectation that even more useful and effective answers to fundamental health questions will result from an investment of research training in these areas.

At the same time that these sciences have been maturing, our society has come to realize the absolute necessity of the research findings they produce for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of its health problems. As a result, scientists in these areas have been called on for advice to an ever-increasing degree by government agencies. Just one example is provided by the number and range of government-commissioned committees, panels, and reports assigned to

the Division of Behavioral, Social, and Economic Sciences (DBASSE) at the National Research Council. In the past 10 years there have been more than 300 publications (books) in response to DBASSE assignments, covering a wide range of areas that are directly or indirectly related to health concerns, including: children and families; education, employment, and training; environment; health and behavior; human performance; international studies; law and justice; national statistics; and population and urban studies. Their level of focus ranges from the individual level to the societal level, and they cover the entire range of social and behavioral sciences and extend even to such related fields (such as ecology and criminology). A few examples of reports directly relevant to health concerns include: Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility ; Educating Children with Autism ; Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us ; Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children ; Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States ; Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Review of the Evidence ; Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society ; Understanding Violence Against Women ; Preventing HIV Transmission: The Role of Sterile Needles and Bleach.

As described in the 2005 NRSA report:

The social and behavioral sciences deal with the most complex and the least predictable phenomena that affect the nation’s health. One tends to think of mental health in this context, and indeed mental health is an important concern at NIH (in NIMH in particular) and in the government and private sector generally. Yet mental health is only one part of a much larger picture, because many of the most important health problems we face are determined and strongly affected by behavioral, social, and economic factors. Consider just a few examples: At the level of behavior of the individual, the behavioral and social sciences produce knowledge about health issues, such as drug and alcohol abuse, obesity, violent behavior, smoking, maintenance of drug treatment regimens, stress management, ability to cope with illness, and health decision-making. There are many critical health issues that emerge at a larger scale. The economics of health care and delivery critically determine what diseases and problems are attacked, what research is carried out, and which populations are given treatment. The government has recognized these factors with multi-million-dollar investments in surveys such as the Health and Retirement Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey, and the National Survey of Families and Households. The social sciences provide critical insights and knowledge concerning our ability and willingness to deal with disability, choices that promote well being, the use of and willingness to expend income and assets for health purposes, distribution of health care (geographically, sociologically, and economically), use and misuse of nursing homes, health provider behavior, psychological and social effects on morbidity and mortality, social and psychological effects on treatment and recovery, transfer of assets and beliefs across generations, social support mechanisms, economics of alternative health-care systems, care-taking approaches, bereavement and its effects, and health decision making. Societal, behavioral, and economic factors all work together to produce such problems as drug abuse, smoking, alcohol abuse, anorexia/bulimia, and obesity. Treatable diseases are making a comeback in more virulent form because reliable methods cannot be found to insure that drugs are taken over their entire recommended time period. Social and sexual diseases, such as AIDS/HIV, are a large and increasing problem. Even crime and violence are in good part a health problem that requires behavioral and social science research. It is now accepted that many diseases that have historically been considered mainly a matter for biomedical research, diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, drug addiction, tuberculosis, and malaria, cannot be treated and understood without understanding provided by behavioral and social research. When these far reaching health implications of behavioral, social, and economic factors are added to the more direct implications of research for mental illnesses such as depression, schizophrenia, and various neurological illnesses, it is no surprise that the research demand in the behavioral and social sciences has grown rapidly in recent years.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) traditionally provided primary support for research in the behavioral and social sciences, and with secondary support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). Other institutes provide support to a lesser degree, and recently there has been increasing support from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). It should be noted that the primary mission of NIMH is research into prevention and treatment of mental disorders, and of NIA and NICHD is research into the health problems of young and aging populations; thus none directly supports research into key factors underlying such societal health problems. It is not the task of this committee to make recommendations concerning the allocation of research support in various institutes of NIH. It is the committee’s task, however, to make recommendations concerning research training and its funding, and the implications of social and behavioral research for such a wide array of health problems demand that research in most NIH institutes be informed by scientists knowledgeable in the basic techniques and methods of, and the findings of, the behavioral and social sciences. This particularly includes empirical design and quantitative and statistical methodology that has been so effectively refined in the social and behavioral sciences. Thus in institutes that do not presently have a direct focus on research in the behavioral and social sciences, at least some training needs be directed toward researchers with this focus.

CHARACTERISTICS AND DATA

Behavioral and social sciences research workforce.

The behavioral and social sciences workforce is difficult to identify, since data sources do not distinguish between

Ph.D.s in the behavioral and social sciences or between scientists who are conducting basic or applied health-related research (or other research) and those who are involved in clinical practice. In studying the research training needs in the behavioral sciences, the workforce is defined as Ph.D.s trained in anthropology, sociology, the speech and hearing sciences, and psychology, with the exception of clinical, family, and school psychology. However, the committee believed that most non-research-oriented doctorates are now receiving Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degrees, and so it decided to include clinical psychology in its assessment, although not the other practice-oriented fields. See Appendix C for a list of fields in the behavioral and social sciences. This decision was also supported by a small experiment in which NIH was asked to identify whether the research topic for the theses of a sample of the Ph.D. population in the above listed fields, including clinical psychology, would be considered for NIH funding. This analysis showed that about 90 percent of the research topics could be funded, and this led to the conclusion that a large portion of the clinical psychology Ph.D.s could pursue research careers. This may be an over estimate of the workforce, but it might provide a more accurate assessment.

Even in the treatment of what are to be considered biological diseases, behavior is a factor in getting patients to take their medicine or participate in physical activities that would help their condition. However, research in these areas is not isolated to the behavioral and social sciences but has an interdisciplinary component that can include fields in the life sciences, other social sciences, and even the physical sciences. This factor complicates the analysis, because people trained outside the social and behavioral science may be conducting research in this area. There is also a convergence of research areas across broad fields, such as the convergence between the psychology and neuroscience. This factor may lead to an undercount of doctorates in the behavioral sciences. For this study the behavioral and social sciences workforce is defined as graduates from universities in the United States with Ph.D.s in the fields listed in Appendix C , and those in or seeking careers in science and engineering fields.

Educational Trends

The pool of college graduates in the behavioral and social sciences from which graduate programs draw has increased from about 71,000 in 1986 to a little more than 160,000 in 2008 in the fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology. In 1986, 11.4 percent, or 8,152, of these graduates matriculated to graduate programs in doctoral-granting institutions; by 2008 that fraction had dropped to about 7.3 percent or 11,700 students (see Figure 4-1 ).

This first-year enrollment has resulted in a total full-time graduate enrollment of about 40,847 in 1986, and it grew to about 69,300 in 2008. A portrait of the gender makeup of the full-time graduate students ( Figure 4-2 ) shows a significant change over the past 30 years, from approximate gender parity

FIGURE 4-1 Percentage of college graduates that enroll as first-year graduate students by field in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-1 Percentage of college graduates that enroll as first-year graduate students by field in the behavioral and social sciences.

SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering . Washington, DC: NSF.

FIGURE 4-2 Gender of full-time graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, 1979-2008.

FIGURE 4-2 Gender of full-time graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, 1979-2008.

SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering . Washington, DC: NSF. in 1979, to a student population in 2008 where females out

numbered males by almost 3 to 1. Although there have been variations from year to year, the total number of male graduate students in this area hardly changed from 1992 to 2008.

These NSF data include all students in behavioral and social sciences programs at doctoral-granting institutions and therefore include students who do not complete a degree or receive a master’s degree and who do not pursue a doctorate. Clearly then these data must overestimate the pool of students who go on to earn a Ph.D. The National Research Council’s study of research-doctorate programs collected data on the number of students working toward a doctorate. These data cover only one year, 2006, but they are likely the best source that we have for information about students involved in research activities (see Table 4-1 ). They indicate that a little less than half, or 24,841 of the 52,000 graduate students in 2006, were in doctoral programs. They also show that the ratio of female to male doctoral students was 2 to 1, and in particular, was not as reported above.

The picture of financial support for graduate education at doctoral-granting institutions in the behavioral and social sciences is very different from that in the biomedical sciences ( Figure 4-3 ). Traditionally about half of the graduate students are supported by their own funds or other sources that they have identified themselves, and teaching assistant-ships support as many students as fellowships, traineeships, and research grants. The proportion of support from these different mechanisms has changed little except for some recent growth in the students who are self-supported. This has implications both for post-graduation debt and for incentives to enroll in a postdoctoral program.

These data, like the data on enrollment, are useful in showing trends over time, but they include master’s degree students who may not receive financial support for their studies. Data from the Research-Doctorate Study for 2006 show a different pattern of financial support from the above. Of those programs reporting data, 78 percent said they fully support their doctoral students, and only 15 percent of such students are unfunded (see Table 4-2 ).

Doctoral Degrees Awarded

After steadily increasing through much of the 1970s, the number of doctoral degrees awarded in the behavioral sciences remained remarkably steady over much of the next 30 years ( Figure 4-4 ), although there may have been a small decline in the past decade. The gender distribution in the number of doctoral degrees awarded since 1970 reflects the gender makeup of the graduate population in general as reflected in the number of doctoral degrees ( Figure 4-4 ). From just a few hundred in 1970 the number of doctoral degrees to women grew to almost 3,000 by 2008, and at the same time degrees to men dropped from a high of about 2,700 in the mid-1970s to a low of about 1,400 in 2008.

TABLE 4-1 Number of Doctoral Students by Gender as Reported in 2006 for the Research-Doctorate Study

FIGURE 4-3 Financial support of full-time graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, 1979-2008.

FIGURE 4-3 Financial support of full-time graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, 1979-2008.

SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: NSF.

TABLE 4-2 Financial Support of Students in the Behavioral and Social Sciences in 2006 as Reported in the Research-Doctorate Study

The time to degree for the doctorates in the behavioral and social sciences has been relatively constant during the past few years at about 9 years in psychology and 10 years in sociology, but these numbers are about 2.5 years higher than they were in the mid-1990s. These increases were greater than the corresponding increases in the biomedical sciences by about one-half a year. It is possible that these data on the time to degree also reflect time when a student is not actively working on the degree, and data from the Research-Doctorate Study show a time that is shorter by several years (see Table 4-3 ).

The median age at time of degree increased to almost 33 by the late 1990s and remained at that level up to at least 2008. These figures include such workers as clinical-practice

FIGURE 4-4 Doctorates in the behavioral sciences.

FIGURE 4-4 Doctorates in the behavioral sciences.

SOURCE: NSF, 2008. Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2008 . Washington, DC: NSF.

TABLE 4-3 Average Median Time to Degree for the Doctorates 2004 to 2006 in the Behavioral and Social Sciences as Reported for the Research-Doctorate Study

Programs . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. trainees in psychology and industry-employed trainees in the various behavioral and social sciences, which may have biased the data on the time to degree.

POSTDOCTORAL TRAINING

Between 1970 and 2008, the fraction of Ph.D.s in the behavioral and social sciences who were planning on a postdoctoral position increased from 223, or 11 percent of all Ph.D.s in the field, to 1,108, or 46 percent. Not surprisingly, females now make up about three-quarters of all Ph.D.s planning such additional training. In an earlier section, we offered a number of reasons for including clinical psychology in the behavioral and social sciences taxonomy. Another reason is the increased participation in postdoctoral training by individuals with degrees in clinical psychology ( Figure 4-5 ). The fact that the proportion of Ph.D.s in the behavioral and social sciences who plan postdoctoral training increased from 20 percent in 1990 to nearly 50 percent in 2008 points to its importance in their career plans.

The large and increasing number of female Ph.D.s and females seeking postdoctoral training, as well as the increase in dual-career couples, suggests that the behavioral and social sciences may be a leading indicator of the need for employers to accommodate the work-life realities of the current generation of both women and men. Otherwise, training will be adversely affected by withdrawals of significant numbers of well-trained researchers—both male and female—for such purposes as child rearing. Afterwards, the rapid advances of science may make it difficult for such trained researchers to return to the workforce.

One positive trend is the increase in minorities with Ph.D.s. In the 1970s only 1 or 2 percent of the doctorates went to minorities, but that has changed, and in 2007 almost 15 percent of the doctorates were awarded to minorities (see Figure 4-6 ). Although this percentage is slightly higher than in the biomedical sciences, it needs to be higher still if the percentage of minority researchers is to more closely reflect the percentages of minorities in both the serving and served populations. Increasing the percentage of minority researchers will, of course, require an increased fraction of minorities in the B.S. degree pool.

FIGURE 4-5 Postdoctoral plans for clinical psychology and all behavioral and social science doctorates.

FIGURE 4-5 Postdoctoral plans for clinical psychology and all behavioral and social science doctorates.

SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2008 . Washington, DC: NSF.

FIGURE 4-6 Percentage of the behavioral and social sciences doctorates by citizenship and race/ethnicity.

FIGURE 4-6 Percentage of the behavioral and social sciences doctorates by citizenship and race/ethnicity.

SOURCE: NSF. 2008 . Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2008 . Washington, DC: NSF. The pattern of increasing numbers of Ph.D.s in the

biomedical sciences going to researchers with temporary resident status is not apparent in the behavioral and social sciences. There was an increase in temporary resident Ph.D.s in these fields in the 1980s, but the proportion has remained about the same—8 to 10 percent—since that time.

Postdoctoral Appointments

Figure 4-7 shows the number of postdoctoral appointments by employment sector in the period 1973-2008; all sectors show a pattern of increases since 1991. The number of appointments has varied somewhat in recent years in the aca-

FIGURE 4-7 Postdoctoral appointments in the behavioral sciences.

FIGURE 4-7 Postdoctoral appointments in the behavioral sciences.

SOURCE: NSF. Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1973-2006. Washington, DC: NSF. demic and industrial sectors. The academic sector accounts for

three-quarters of the appointments, but there is growing participation in the industrial sector. A notable difference between the biomedical and the behavioral and social sciences fields is the ratio of citizens and permanent resident postdoctorates to temporary resident postdoctorates in academic institutions. Because the fraction of temporary resident Ph.D.s in the behavioral and social sciences is generally less than the fraction in the biomedical sciences, there are proportionally more citizens and permanent residents in postdoctoral positions in the behavioral and social sciences. The ratio in the biomedical sciences is 1.6 to 1, with more temporary residents, while in the behavioral and social sciences the ratio is 3.3 to 1, with more citizens and permanent residents. Looking at the overall behavioral and social sciences workforce, which approaches 90,000 individuals it is clear that the postdoctoral component is quite small, so clearly most did not seek additional postdoctoral training, although the number of postdoctorates is slowly increasing.

Table 4-4 shows the composition of postdoctoral positions in research doctorate programs in 2006. The total number is about half the number for all academic positions. Although females receive twice as many doctorates in the behavioral and social sciences as males, the number of males and females in postdoctoral positions are approximately the same.

EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

The behavioral and social sciences workforce has grown steadily from 27,356 in 1973 to a peak of 108,339 in 2006. Female Ph.D.s made up an increasingly large fraction of the total during these years ( Figure 4-8 ). In 2006, they became the majority in the workforce.

The workplace distribution of the overall workforce is very different in the behavioral and social sciences than in the biomedical sciences ( Figure 4-9 ). While academic employment is still the largest sector, industrial employment has grown at a rapid rate, and the non-profit or other sector

TABLE 4-4 Postdoctoral Appointments in Research Departments in the Behavioral and Social Sciences in 2006 as Reported for the Research-Doctorate Study

FIGURE 4-8 Distribution of behavioral and social scientists in the workforce by gender.

FIGURE 4-8 Distribution of behavioral and social scientists in the workforce by gender.

SOURCE: NSF. Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1973-2006. Washington, DC: NSF.

FIGURE 4-9 Employment sectors in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-9 Employment sectors in the behavioral and social sciences.

is comparatively larger than in the biomedical sciences. The overall workforce in the behavioral and social sciences is almost as large as in the biomedical sciences.

In 1985, the age distribution for the workforce, excluding postdoctoral appointees, was similar for the behavioral and the biomedical sciences, but by 2006, the median age in the behavioral and social science workforce was 2.5 years greater than in biomedical sciences ( Table 4-5 ). Another way to look at the aging of the behavioral workforce is to compare the age distribution over time. There may be significant retirement in the next 10 years from the 51 to 76 age group, although, as noted previously, the concern for retirement portfolios and the improving health of older faculty may affect such a projection. ( Figure 4-10 ; also see projections in Appendix D and E ).

DETAILS OF ACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT

Academic employment in the behavioral and social sciences increased by more than 50 percent from 1973 to 2001, after which there has been a slow decline. However, much of the growth has been in non-tenure positions and in “other” academic categories, and by 1999 these categories represented about a third of the academic staff. These contingent faculty (adjunct, lecturer, and part-time staff) are disproportionately female, often involved exclusively in teaching, under-paid, without benefits, contract-vulnerable, and not necessarily involved in research. Data from the Research-Doctorate Study also show that females are underrepresented on the faculty of research departments (see Figure 4-11 ). While females were in faculty positions at a rate consistent with the proportion of Ph.D.s in the 1970s and early 1980s,

TABLE 4-5 Median Age Cohort for the Biomedical Sciences and the Behavioral and Social Sciences

FIGURE 4-10 Age distribution of tenured behavioral and social sciences faculty.

FIGURE 4-10 Age distribution of tenured behavioral and social sciences faculty.

FIGURE 4-11 Percentage of female faculty in 2006 in the behavioral and social sciences by year of Ph.D. compared with the number of Ph.D.s in the same year.

FIGURE 4-11 Percentage of female faculty in 2006 in the behavioral and social sciences by year of Ph.D. compared with the number of Ph.D.s in the same year.

SOURCE: NRC. 2010. A Data-Based Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

females in recent years are not in faculty positions in proportion to the number of Ph.D.s.

In contrast, the size of the tenured and tenure-track staff has been almost constant since the early 1990s ( Figure 4-12 ). Over the past 10 years, as mentioned above, two-thirds of doctorates have been awarded to women, and this is reflected in academic appointments with about 60 percent of the combined tenure-track, non-tenured and other academic positions being held by women ( Figure 4-13 ). However, women are over-represented in the combined “non-tenured and other” tracks. Those in tenured positions now make up 40 percent of the academic workforce, which is below their 53 percent representation in the academic workforce. Over time, however, this should change as more women in tenure-track positions receive tenure.

The number of underrepresented minorities in the behavioral and social sciences workforce has increased dramatically in the past several decades, from 520 in 1975 to 8,960 in 2006. For a number of years the number of minorities in the workforce has grown at a substantially greater rate than the total workforce.

RESEARCH TRAINING AND THE NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARD PROGRAM

In general, the National Research Service Award (NRSA) program plays a smaller role in research training in the behavioral and social sciences than in the basic biomedical fields. The number of awards in the behavioral and social sciences as displayed in Table 4-6 are about one-tenth of those in the biomedical sciences. About 1 percent of the 26,600 graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences in 2008 had an individual NRSA, as compared with 9.3 percent in the biomedical sciences. It has been argued that much of the research in the behavioral and social sciences is not health related, but an analysis done during the 2005 NRSA study showed that 90 percent of the reviewed dissertation abstracts of behavioral and social sciences Ph.D.s were considered fundable by NIH personnel.

Since NIH has historically tended to focus on research that relates to the physical structure of the body and hence to fields in the biomedical and clinical sciences, the behavioral and social sciences have received less research and training support. This may also be seen in the fact that the NIH does not have an institute or center with the mission devoted to the support of basic and applied research in the behavioral and social sciences. Research training exists in institutes with other missions, such as NIMH, NIA, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and the National Cancer Institute, but it has decreased in recent years, as can be seen in Table 4-6 . Even within the institutes that support training in the behavioral and social sciences, such training is directed at particular

FIGURE 4-12 Academic employment in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-12 Academic employment in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-13 Female faculty positions in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-13 Female faculty positions in the behavioral and social sciences.

TABLE 4-6 NRSA Trainees and Fellows, by Broad Field (Behavioral and Social Sciences), 1975-2008, Fiscal Year (Percentages are based on total NRSA funding at the NIH by mechanism)

subfields and often does not require the interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary character of the training grants in the biomedical or clinical sciences.

Efforts are being made by the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research (OBSSR) to foster interdisciplinarity by bringing together the biomedical, behavioral, and social sciences communities to work collaboratively to solve complex pressing health challenges. OBSSR is leading efforts in: biopsychosocial interactions, community-based participation research, systems science, genes, behavior and environment, social and cultural factors in health, health and behavior, and translational research. However, the office does not have the resources to support training in these areas and must depend on other institutes. In recent years NIGMS has increased its funding in the behavioral and social sciences but it does not have the resources to carry out the mission outlined by OBSSR.

As was shown earlier in Figure 4-2 , less than a quarter of the graduate student population in the behavioral and social sciences in doctoral-granting institutions who have some type of support are supported on fellowships, traineeships, and research grants. Of this support it is generally thought that the National Science Foundation (NSF) provides a large portion of this support, but in reality, the support from NSF is only about a tenth of the total federal support and a third of the support provided by NIH ( Figure 4-14 ). These data also show a decline in support by NIH and NSF in 2008.

It should also be noted that total graduate support declined in the 1980s, and the increase back to the earlier level is due mainly to NIH and other federal agency support. Much of the early decline was caused by reductions in the non-NIH part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). By 2006, NIH research grants formed more than two-thirds of the support ( Figure 4-15 ), which was a major shift from the early 1980s when the major source of support came from traineeships.

As is the case at the predoctoral level, NRSA support of postdoctoral training in the behavioral and social sciences is a fraction (between 10 and 15 percent) of that in the biomedical sciences (see Table 4-2 ). There are no data on the general postdoctoral support from NIH, but the picture for postdoctoral training support from all federal sources shows a growth in research grant support and a decline in trainee and fellowship support until 1990, with essentially constant support thereafter. The NIH’s efforts in the late 1970s and 1980s to shift research training in the behavioral and social sciences from the predoctoral to the postdoctoral level can be seen by comparing the level of predoctoral support in Figure 4-15 .

RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendation 4–1: Training programs in basic behav ioral and social sciences that cut across disease and age categories should be housed at NIGMS consistent with the NIGMS congressional mandate. Given its disciplin ary expertise, OBSSR should cooperate in this effort. NIGMS needs funds and appropriate staff dedicated to this new effort.

Recommendation 4–2: Training programs in basic behavioral and social sciences that bear specifically on particular diseases and age cohorts should be housed in all the relevant institutes and centers. Both basic and translational research training can be specific to insti tutes and centers. Given both its disciplinary expertise and its role in connecting institutes and centers, OBSSR should cooperate in this effort.

Recommendation 4–3: The target numbers to be trained in OBBSR should increase back to the 2004 baseline. In the case that an infusion of funds results from current

FIGURE 4-14 Federal sources of support in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-14 Federal sources of support in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-15 Types of support from the NIH in the behavioral and social sciences.

FIGURE 4-15 Types of support from the NIH in the behavioral and social sciences.

federal health initiatives, the targets should increase to reflect the new positions that will open as a result. Future adjustments should be closely linked to the total extra mural research funding in the biomedical, clinical, and behavioral sciences.

Bringing the level of support in the behavioral and social sciences in 2008 up to the level in 2004 will require the addition of about 370 training slots at a cost of about $15 million. Also, in recommending linking the number of NRSA positions to extramural research funding, the committee realizes that a decline in extramural research would also call for a decline in training.

Recommendation 4–4: All institutes are encouraged to make F30 fellowships accessible to qualified M.D./Ph.D. students. The F30 program should also be extended to clinical behavioral scientists in M.D./Ph.D. programs.

The F30 awards have proven to be a good way for students in M.D./Ph.D. programs to gain NIH support for their activities. They also provides a means of support for students at institutions that do not have an MSTP. Unfortunately this fellowship is not awarded by all NIH institutes, which restricts its overall value.

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Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various diseases and new insights that have led to more effective and targeted therapies. In spite of this program, the difficulty obtaining jobs after the postdoc period has discouraged many domestic students from pursuing graduate postdoc training. In the United States, more than 50 percent of the postdoc workforce is made up of individuals who obtained their Ph.D.s from other countries. Indeed, one can make a strong argument that the influx of highly trained and creative foreigners has contributed greatly to U.S. science over the past 70 years.

Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences discusses a number of important issues, including: the job prospects for postdocs completing their training; questions about the continued supply of international postdocs in an increasingly competitive world; the need for equal, excellent training for all graduate students who receive NIH funding; and the need to increase the diversity of trainees. The book recommends improvements in minority recruiting, more rigorous and extensive training in the responsible conduct of research and ethics, increased emphasis on career development, more attention to outcomes, and the requirement for incorporating more quantitative thinking in the biomedical curriculum.

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research title example about behavior

  • 26 Mar 2024
  • Research & Ideas

How Humans Outshine AI in Adapting to Change

Could artificial intelligence systems eventually perform surgeries or fly planes? First, AI will have to learn to navigate shifting conditions as well as people do. Julian De Freitas and colleagues pit humans against machines in a video game to study AI's current limits and mine insights for the real world.

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  • 21 Nov 2023

Employee Negativity Is Like Wildfire. Manage It Before It Spreads.

One overwhelmed person's gripes can quickly escalate into collective distress. Research by Amit Goldenberg gives managers reasons to pay close attention to teams' emotions. He offers advice to help groups reframe negative experiences.

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  • 06 Nov 2023

Did You Hear What I Said? How to Listen Better

People who seem like they're paying attention often aren't—even when they're smiling and nodding toward the speaker. Research by Alison Wood Brooks, Hanne Collins, and colleagues reveals just how prone the mind is to wandering, and sheds light on ways to stay tuned in to the conversation.

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  • 10 Oct 2023

In Empowering Black Voters, Did a Landmark Law Stir White Angst?

The Voting Rights Act dramatically increased Black participation in US elections—until worried white Americans mobilized in response. Research by Marco Tabellini illustrates the power of a political backlash.

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  • 03 Oct 2023
  • What Do You Think?

Do Leaders Learn More From Success or Failure?

There's so much to learn from failure, potentially more than success, argues Amy Edmondson in a new book. James Heskett asks whether the study of leadership should involve more emphasis on learning from failure? Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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  • 05 Jul 2023

What Kind of Leader Are You? How Three Action Orientations Can Help You Meet the Moment

Executives who confront new challenges with old formulas often fail. The best leaders tailor their approach, recalibrating their "action orientation" to address the problem at hand, says Ryan Raffaelli. He details three action orientations and how leaders can harness them.

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  • 03 Mar 2023

When Showing Know-How Backfires for Women Managers

Women managers might think they need to roll up their sleeves and work alongside their teams to show their mettle. But research by Alexandra Feldberg shows how this strategy can work against them. How can employers provide more support?

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  • 19 Dec 2022

What Motivates People to Give Generously—and Why We Sometimes Don't

Some people donate to get that warm-and-fuzzy feeling. Others do it to avoid being asked again. Christine Exley and Julian Zlatev delve into the psychology and economics of charity to explain why people give.

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  • 10 Nov 2022

Too Nice to Lead? Unpacking the Gender Stereotype That Holds Women Back

People mistakenly assume that women managers are more generous and fair when it comes to giving money, says research by Christine Exley. Could that misperception prevent companies from shrinking the gender pay gap?

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  • 04 Oct 2022

Have Managers Underestimated the Need for Face-to-Face Contact?

COVID-19 made remote work and instant delivery mainstays of life for many people, but will the need for community erode these concepts after the pandemic ends? asks James Heskett. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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  • 14 Jul 2022

When the Rubber Meets the Road, Most Commuters Text and Email While Driving

Laws and grim warnings have done little to deter distracted driving. Commuters routinely use their time behind the wheel to catch up on emails, says research by Raffaella Sadun, Thomaz Teodorovicz, and colleagues. What will it take to make roads safer?

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  • 15 Sep 2021

Don't Bring Me Down: Probing Why People Tune Out Bad News

People often go out of their way to avoid unpleasant information, but not always for the reasons you might expect. Research by Christine Exley and colleagues. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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  • 13 Jul 2021

Outrage Spreads Faster on Twitter: Evidence from 44 News Outlets

When it comes to social sharing, doom-and-gloom tweets beat sunshine and rainbows, says research by Amit Goldenberg. Is it time to send in the positivity police? Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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  • 09 Jun 2021

How Tennis, Golf, and White Anxiety Block Racial Integration

White people often take steps to avoid interacting with people of other races, whether it's at home, work, or even on a golf course, says research by Jon Jachimowicz. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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  • 08 Jun 2021

Tell Me What to Do: When Bad News Is a Big Relief

Why would anyone hope for the worst? Research by Serena Hagerty and colleague sheds light on just how far people will go to dodge a tough decision. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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  • 16 Feb 2021
  • Working Paper Summaries

Information Avoidance and Image Concerns

People avoid information that might compel them to behave more generously. While many people avoid information due to concerns about their self-image, there is a substantial role for other reasons, such as inattention and confusion.

research title example about behavior

  • 06 Jan 2021

Unexpected Exercise Advice for the Super Busy: Ditch the Rigid Routine

Itching to get off the COVID couch? New research by John Beshears bucks conventional wisdom about what it takes to make exercise a habit. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

  • 01 Jul 2020

Scaling Up Behavioral Science Interventions in Online Education

Online courses can lack support structures that are often bundled with traditional higher education. Short pre-course interventions can have short-term benefits, but more innovation throughout the course is needed to have sustained impact on student success.

  • 19 May 2020

Global Behaviors and Perceptions at the Onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic

An online survey of more than 110,000 people in 175 countries conducted at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic found that most respondents believe that their governments and fellow citizens are not doing enough, which heightens their worries and depression levels. Decisive actions and strong leadership from policymakers change how people perceive their governments and other citizens, and in turn improve their mental health.

research title example about behavior

  • 14 May 2019

Ethics Bots and Other Ways to Move Your Code of Business Conduct Beyond Puffery

Digital technologies such as artificial intelligence and robotics allow companies to create more effective codes of business conduct, says Eugene Soltes. But technology isn't the only solution. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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50+ Research Topics for Psychology Papers

How to Find Psychology Research Topics for Your Student Paper

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

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  • Specific Branches of Psychology
  • Topics Involving a Disorder or Type of Therapy
  • Human Cognition
  • Human Development
  • Critique of Publications
  • Famous Experiments
  • Historical Figures
  • Specific Careers
  • Case Studies
  • Literature Reviews
  • Your Own Study/Experiment

Are you searching for a great topic for your psychology paper ? Sometimes it seems like coming up with topics of psychology research is more challenging than the actual research and writing. Fortunately, there are plenty of great places to find inspiration and the following list contains just a few ideas to help get you started.

Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay. Psychology is such a broad topic, so you want to find a topic that allows you to adequately cover the subject without becoming overwhelmed with information.

I can always tell when a student really cares about the topic they chose; it comes through in the writing. My advice is to choose a topic that genuinely interests you, so you’ll be more motivated to do thorough research.

In some cases, such as in a general psychology class, you might have the option to select any topic from within psychology's broad reach. Other instances, such as in an  abnormal psychology  course, might require you to write your paper on a specific subject such as a psychological disorder.

As you begin your search for a topic for your psychology paper, it is first important to consider the guidelines established by your instructor.

Research Topics Within Specific Branches of Psychology

The key to selecting a good topic for your psychology paper is to select something that is narrow enough to allow you to really focus on the subject, but not so narrow that it is difficult to find sources or information to write about.

One approach is to narrow your focus down to a subject within a specific branch of psychology. For example, you might start by deciding that you want to write a paper on some sort of social psychology topic. Next, you might narrow your focus down to how persuasion can be used to influence behavior .

Other social psychology topics you might consider include:

  • Prejudice and discrimination (i.e., homophobia, sexism, racism)
  • Social cognition
  • Person perception
  • Social control and cults
  • Persuasion, propaganda, and marketing
  • Attraction, romance, and love
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Prosocial behavior

Psychology Research Topics Involving a Disorder or Type of Therapy

Exploring a psychological disorder or a specific treatment modality can also be a good topic for a psychology paper. Some potential abnormal psychology topics include specific psychological disorders or particular treatment modalities, including:

  • Eating disorders
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Antisocial personality disorder
  • Profile a  type of therapy  (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy, group therapy, psychoanalytic therapy)

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Human Cognition

Some of the possible topics you might explore in this area include thinking, language, intelligence, and decision-making. Other ideas might include:

  • False memories
  • Speech disorders
  • Problem-solving

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Human Development

In this area, you might opt to focus on issues pertinent to  early childhood  such as language development, social learning, or childhood attachment or you might instead opt to concentrate on issues that affect older adults such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

Some other topics you might consider include:

  • Language acquisition
  • Media violence and children
  • Learning disabilities
  • Gender roles
  • Child abuse
  • Prenatal development
  • Parenting styles
  • Aspects of the aging process

Do a Critique of Publications Involving Psychology Research Topics

One option is to consider writing a critique paper of a published psychology book or academic journal article. For example, you might write a critical analysis of Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams or you might evaluate a more recent book such as Philip Zimbardo's  The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil .

Professional and academic journals are also great places to find materials for a critique paper. Browse through the collection at your university library to find titles devoted to the subject that you are most interested in, then look through recent articles until you find one that grabs your attention.

Topics of Psychology Research Related to Famous Experiments

There have been many fascinating and groundbreaking experiments throughout the history of psychology, providing ample material for students looking for an interesting term paper topic. In your paper, you might choose to summarize the experiment, analyze the ethics of the research, or evaluate the implications of the study. Possible experiments that you might consider include:

  • The Milgram Obedience Experiment
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment
  • The Little Albert Experiment
  • Pavlov's Conditioning Experiments
  • The Asch Conformity Experiment
  • Harlow's Rhesus Monkey Experiments

Topics of Psychology Research About Historical Figures

One of the simplest ways to find a great topic is to choose an interesting person in the  history of psychology  and write a paper about them. Your paper might focus on many different elements of the individual's life, such as their biography, professional history, theories, or influence on psychology.

While this type of paper may be historical in nature, there is no need for this assignment to be dry or boring. Psychology is full of fascinating figures rife with intriguing stories and anecdotes. Consider such famous individuals as Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner, Harry Harlow, or one of the many other  eminent psychologists .

Psychology Research Topics About a Specific Career

​Another possible topic, depending on the course in which you are enrolled, is to write about specific career paths within the  field of psychology . This type of paper is especially appropriate if you are exploring different subtopics or considering which area interests you the most.

In your paper, you might opt to explore the typical duties of a psychologist, how much people working in these fields typically earn, and the different employment options that are available.

Topics of Psychology Research Involving Case Studies

One potentially interesting idea is to write a  psychology case study  of a particular individual or group of people. In this type of paper, you will provide an in-depth analysis of your subject, including a thorough biography.

Generally, you will also assess the person, often using a major psychological theory such as  Piaget's stages of cognitive development  or  Erikson's eight-stage theory of human development . It is also important to note that your paper doesn't necessarily have to be about someone you know personally.

In fact, many professors encourage students to write case studies on historical figures or fictional characters from books, television programs, or films.

Psychology Research Topics Involving Literature Reviews

Another possibility that would work well for a number of psychology courses is to do a literature review of a specific topic within psychology. A literature review involves finding a variety of sources on a particular subject, then summarizing and reporting on what these sources have to say about the topic.

Literature reviews are generally found in the  introduction  of journal articles and other  psychology papers , but this type of analysis also works well for a full-scale psychology term paper.

Topics of Psychology Research Based on Your Own Study or Experiment

Many psychology courses require students to design an actual psychological study or perform some type of experiment. In some cases, students simply devise the study and then imagine the possible results that might occur. In other situations, you may actually have the opportunity to collect data, analyze your findings, and write up your results.

Finding a topic for your study can be difficult, but there are plenty of great ways to come up with intriguing ideas. Start by considering your own interests as well as subjects you have studied in the past.

Online sources, newspaper articles, books , journal articles, and even your own class textbook are all great places to start searching for topics for your experiments and psychology term papers. Before you begin, learn more about  how to conduct a psychology experiment .

What This Means For You

After looking at this brief list of possible topics for psychology papers, it is easy to see that psychology is a very broad and diverse subject. While this variety makes it possible to find a topic that really catches your interest, it can sometimes make it very difficult for some students to select a good topic.

If you are still stumped by your assignment, ask your instructor for suggestions and consider a few from this list for inspiration.

  • Hockenbury, SE & Nolan, SA. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers; 2014.
  • Santrock, JW. A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

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This page provides a comprehensive list of 100 organizational behavior research paper topics that are divided into 10 categories, each containing 10 topics. These categories include communication and teamwork, organizational culture and climate, employee motivation and engagement, organizational leadership, diversity and inclusion, organizational communication, employee well-being and work-life balance, organizational change, human resource management, and organizational ethics and corporate social responsibility. In addition to the list of topics, the page also provides expert advice on how to choose a research topic and how to write an organizational behavior research paper. Finally, students can take advantage of iResearchNet’s writing services to order a custom organizational behavior research paper on any topic. With this page, students will be able to explore the wide range of topics in organizational behavior and excel in their academic pursuits.

Organizational Behavior Topics Guide

Organizational behavior is an important field of study that focuses on how individuals and groups behave in organizations. It is a multidisciplinary field that draws on insights from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and management. Understanding organizational behavior is crucial for individuals who are interested in careers in management, human resources, or organizational development. Research papers are an important aspect of studying organizational behavior, as they allow students to explore various aspects of this field in-depth.

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The purpose of this page is to provide students with a comprehensive list of organizational behavior research paper topics that will help them choose a topic for their research paper. The page is divided into 10 categories, each containing 10 topics. The categories include communication and teamwork, organizational culture and climate, employee motivation and engagement, organizational leadership, diversity and inclusion, organizational communication, employee well-being and work-life balance, organizational change, human resource management, and organizational ethics and corporate social responsibility. By providing a wide range of topics, students can find one that aligns with their interests and career goals.

Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

100 Organizational Behavior Research Paper Topics

Communication and Teamwork

1. Communication barriers in the workplace 2. Interpersonal communication and conflict resolution 3. The effects of technology on communication and teamwork 4. Cultural diversity and communication in global organizations 5. Communication strategies for effective leadership 6. Group dynamics and team performance 7. Decision-making processes in teams 8. Motivation and satisfaction in team-based work environments 9. Leadership styles and their impact on team effectiveness 10. Team training and development programs

Organizational Culture and Climate

1. The impact of organizational culture on employee behavior 2. The role of leadership in shaping organizational culture 3. Organizational change and resistance to change 4. Organizational culture and innovation 5. Ethical climates in organizations 6. Managing cultural diversity in organizations 7. The impact of organizational culture on employee well-being 8. Measuring and assessing organizational culture 9. The relationship between organizational culture and performance 10. The impact of organizational climate on employee motivation and job satisfaction

Employee Motivation and Engagement

1. Theories of employee motivation and their application in the workplace 2. The role of incentives and rewards in employee motivation 3. The impact of job design on employee motivation and engagement 4. The relationship between job satisfaction and employee motivation 5. Employee engagement and its impact on organizational performance 6. Employee empowerment and motivation 7. The role of leadership in employee motivation and engagement 8. The impact of organizational culture on employee motivation 9. Employee motivation and retention strategies 10. Employee motivation and its impact on organizational change

Organizational Leadership

1. Theories of leadership and their application in the workplace 2. Transformational leadership and its impact on organizational performance 3. Authentic leadership and its impact on organizational culture 4. Situational leadership and its effectiveness in different contexts 5. Servant leadership and its impact on employee well-being 6. The relationship between leadership and employee motivation 7. The impact of gender and cultural diversity on leadership 8. The role of emotional intelligence in leadership 9. The impact of leadership on organizational change 10. Developing effective leadership skills

Diversity and Inclusion

1. Defining diversity and inclusion in the workplace 2. The business case for diversity and inclusion 3. The relationship between diversity and innovation 4. Overcoming diversity challenges in global organizations 5. Managing diversity and inclusion through leadership 6. The impact of cultural diversity on team performance 7. Addressing diversity and inclusion in performance evaluations 8. The role of diversity and inclusion in employee retention 9. The impact of diversity and inclusion on organizational culture 10. Strategies for developing and implementing effective diversity and inclusion initiatives

Organizational Communication

1. The impact of communication on organizational effectiveness 2. Organizational communication strategies 3. Internal communication and its impact on employee engagement 4. The role of communication in change management 5. The impact of technology on organizational communication 6. The relationship between communication and organizational culture 7. The impact of communication on employee motivation and satisfaction 8. The role of nonverbal communication in organizational behavior 9. The impact of communication on organizational reputation 10. The role of feedback in organizational communication

Employee Well-being and Work-Life Balance

1. The impact of work-life balance on employee well-being 2. The relationship between stress and employee performance 3. Mental health in the workplace 4. Workplace wellness programs 5. The role of leadership in promoting employee well-being 6. The impact of job demands and resources on employee well-being 7. The impact of work schedule flexibility on employee well-being 8. The impact of job security on employee well-being 9. Burnout and its impact on employee well-being 10. Developing effective work-life balance policies

  Organizational Change

1. Theories of organizational change 2. Managing resistance to change 3. The role of leadership in organizational change 4. The impact of organizational culture on change management 5. The role of communication in change management 6. The impact of technology on organizational change 7. The impact of organizational change on employee motivation and satisfaction 8. The role of employee involvement in change management 9. Change management strategies for global organizations 10. The impact of organizational change on organizational performance

Human Resource Management

1. Recruitment and selection strategies 2. Performance management and appraisal 3. Training and development programs 4. The impact of compensation and benefits on employee motivation 5. The role of HR in promoting diversity and inclusion 6. The impact of technology on HRM 7. The impact of employee turnover on organizational performance 8. Employee retention strategies 9. HR metrics and analytics 10. HR strategy and its impact on organizational performance

Organizational Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

1. The importance of ethical behavior in organizations 2. Ethical decision-making processes in organizations 3. The impact of corporate social responsibility on organizational performance 4. The relationship between ethics and organizational culture 5. Ethical leadership and its impact on employee behavior 6. The role of codes of ethics in organizations 7. The impact of social media on organizational ethics 8. The impact of globalization on organizational ethics 9. The role of stakeholders in promoting ethical behavior 10. Developing ethical organizational policies

Choosing an Organizational Behavior Topic

Choosing a research topic can be a daunting task, especially when there are so many organizational behavior research paper topics to choose from. The key to choosing a successful topic is to select one that is relevant, interesting, and manageable. In this section, we provide expert advice on how to choose an organizational behavior research paper topic that will help students succeed in their academic pursuits.

The importance of choosing a relevant and interesting topic

The first step in choosing an organizational behavior research paper topic is to select a relevant and interesting topic. A relevant topic is one that aligns with the course curriculum and the student’s area of interest. An interesting topic is one that is engaging and will hold the student’s attention throughout the research and writing process. Choosing a relevant and interesting topic is important because it will make the research and writing process more enjoyable and fulfilling.

Tips for choosing a topic that aligns with the student’s interests and career goals

To choose a topic that aligns with the student’s interests and career goals, it is important to consider what topics are relevant to the student’s area of study and future career aspirations. Students should consider their personal interests, as well as the interests of potential employers. They should also consider the latest trends and developments in the field of organizational behavior, and choose a topic that is timely and relevant.

How to narrow down a broad topic into a manageable research question

Once a broad topic has been selected, it is important to narrow it down into a manageable research question. This can be done by breaking the topic down into smaller, more manageable sub-topics. Students should consider the scope of the topic and the available resources, and choose a research question that is focused and manageable.

Examples of how to brainstorm ideas for research topics

Brainstorming is an effective way to generate ideas for research topics. Students can start by listing the topics that interest them and then narrowing down the list to the most relevant and interesting topics. They can also read academic journals and textbooks to identify current trends and issues in organizational behavior. Finally, they can talk to their instructors or peers to get ideas and feedback.

How to conduct preliminary research

Before choosing a research topic, it is important to conduct preliminary research to ensure that the topic is feasible and has enough available resources. Students can start by conducting a literature review to identify the latest research on the topic. They can also use online databases and search engines to find relevant articles and publications. Finally, they can consult with their instructors or academic advisors to get advice on the available resources and potential research topics.

Choosing the right organizational behavior research paper topic is essential for success in academic pursuits. By following these expert tips and advice, students can choose a relevant and interesting topic, narrow it down into a manageable research question, and conduct preliminary research to ensure the topic is feasible and has enough available resources.

How to Write an Organizational Behavior Research Paper

Once a research topic has been chosen, the next step is to write the research paper. Writing an organizational behavior research paper can be a challenging task, but with the right guidance and strategies, it can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. In this section, we provide expert advice on how to write an organizational behavior research paper.

The structure and format of a research paper

The structure and format of an organizational behavior research paper should follow the standard guidelines for academic research papers. It should include an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and discussion sections. The introduction should provide an overview of the research topic and the purpose of the study. The literature review should summarize the relevant research on the topic. The methodology section should describe the research design, sample, and data collection methods. The results section should present the findings of the study, and the discussion section should interpret the results and provide conclusions and recommendations.

How to conduct research and gather sources

To conduct research and gather sources for an organizational behavior research paper, students should start by conducting a literature review. This involves searching for relevant articles and publications on the research topic. Students can use online databases, search engines, and academic journals to find relevant sources. They should also consider the credibility and relevance of the sources they choose, and use a variety of sources to support their arguments.

How to organize and outline the paper

Organizing and outlining an organizational behavior research paper is an important step in the writing process. Students should start by creating an outline that includes the major sections of the paper and the key points they want to make in each section. They should then organize their sources and research findings according to the outline. This will help them write a clear and coherent paper.

How to write an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and discussion sections

Each section of an organizational behavior research paper has a specific purpose and format. The introduction should provide an overview of the research topic and the purpose of the study. The literature review should summarize the relevant research on the topic. The methodology section should describe the research design, sample, and data collection methods. The results section should present the findings of the study, and the discussion section should interpret the results and provide conclusions and recommendations. Students should use clear and concise language and support their arguments with relevant sources and research findings.

How to properly cite sources and format the paper

Properly citing sources and formatting the paper is essential for academic integrity and professionalism. Students should follow the guidelines for the appropriate citation style, such as APA or MLA. They should also ensure that the paper is formatted according to the guidelines provided by their instructor or academic institution. This includes proper margins, headings, and references.

How to revise and edit the paper for clarity and coherence

Revising and editing the organizational behavior research paper is an important step in the writing process. Students should read the paper carefully and revise it for clarity, coherence, and organization. They should also check for spelling and grammar errors and ensure that the paper meets the requirements and guidelines provided by their instructor or academic institution.

Writing an organizational behavior research paper can be a challenging task, but with the right guidance and strategies, it can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. By following these expert tips and advice, students can write a high-quality research paper that meets the academic standards and expectations.

Order Custom Organizational Behavior Research Papers from iResearchNet

Organizational behavior research is a dynamic and challenging field, and writing a research paper on the topic can be daunting. However, with the right guidance, strategies, and support, students can succeed in their academic pursuits and contribute to the ongoing discourse in the field.

We have provided a comprehensive list of organizational behavior research paper topics and expert advice on how to choose a topic, conduct research, and write a high-quality research paper. Additionally, iResearchNet offers writing services that provide customized solutions to students who need expert help with their organizational behavior research papers.

If you’re struggling to choose a topic, conduct research, or write your organizational behavior research paper, iResearchNet’s writing services can help. Our team of experienced writers can provide personalized assistance on any topic, ensuring that your paper meets the highest standards of quality. We offer flexible pricing, timely delivery, and a money-back guarantee, so you can trust us to provide the support you need to succeed.

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Top 10 Research Title Examples for Students 2024

Top 10 Research Title Examples for Students 2024

1. Research Title Example: The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health among College Students

1  research title example  the impact of social media on mental health among college students

Social media has become an integral part of our daily lives, especially for college students. This research aims to explore the relationship between social media usage and mental health among college students in 2024. By examining the potential negative effects of excessive social media use, such as anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem, this study will provide valuable insights into the impact of social media on the mental well-being of college students.

1.1 The Role of Social Media in College Students' Lives

College students are among the most active users of social media platforms . They use social media for various purposes, including staying connected with friends and family, sharing experiences, and seeking information. However, the excessive use of social media has been linked to negative mental health outcomes, such as increased feelings of loneliness and decreased self-esteem.

1.2 The Prevalence of Mental Health Issues among College Students

Mental health issues, such as anxiety and depression, are prevalent among college students. The transition to college life, academic pressures, and social challenges can contribute to the development or exacerbation of mental health problems. Understanding the impact of social media on mental health is crucial for developing effective interventions and support systems for college students.

1.3 Research Objectives

The main objectives of this research are:

  • To examine the relationship between social media usage and mental health among college students
  • To identify the potential negative effects of excessive social media use on mental well-being
  • To explore the underlying mechanisms through which social media impacts mental health
  • To provide recommendations for promoting positive mental health among college students in the digital age

2. Research Title Example: The Effects of Online Learning on Academic Performance in High School Students

2  research title example  the effects of online learning on academic performance in high school students

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of online learning in high schools. This research aims to investigate the effects of online learning on the academic performance of high school students in 2024. By comparing the academic outcomes of students who have experienced online learning with those who have followed traditional classroom-based instruction, this study will provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of online education

2.1 The Rise of Online Learning in High Schools

Online learning has gained popularity in high schools due to its flexibility, accessibility, and potential for personalized instruction. However, concerns have been raised about the impact of online learning on students' academic performance and engagement. This research seeks to address these concerns and shed light on the effectiveness of online education in high school settings.

2.2 Academic Performance in High School Students

Academic performance is a crucial indicator of students' learning outcomes and future success. It encompasses various aspects, including grades, test scores, and overall achievement. Understanding the effects of online learning on academic performance will help educators and policymakers make informed decisions regarding the implementation of online education in high schools.

2.3 Research Objectives

  • To compare the academic performance of high school students in online learning environments and traditional classroom-based instruction
  • To identify the factors that influence academic performance in online learning settings
  • To explore the potential benefits and challenges of online learning in high schools
  • To provide recommendations for optimizing online education to enhance students' academic performance

3. Research Title Example: The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Job Market Trends in 2024

3  research title example  the impact of artificial intelligence on job market trends in 2024

Artificial intelligence (AI) has revolutionized various industries and is expected to have a significant impact on the job market in 2024. This research aims to analyze the effects of AI on job market trends , including job creation, job displacement, and the skills required for future employment. By understanding the implications of AI on the job market, this study will provide valuable insights for individuals, organizations, and policymakers.

3.1 The Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as speech recognition, decision-making, and problem-solving. AI technologies, such as machine learning and natural language processing , have advanced rapidly in recent years, leading to increased automation and the potential transformation of various industries.

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3.2 Job Market Trends in the Age of AI

The integration of AI technologies into the workforce has both positive and negative implications for the job market. While AI has the potential to create new job opportunities and enhance productivity, it also poses challenges, such as job displacement and the need for upskilling or reskilling. Understanding the impact of AI on job market trends is crucial for individuals seeking employment and organizations planning for the future.

3.3 Research Objectives

  • To analyze the impact of AI on job creation and job displacement in different industries
  • To identify the skills and competencies that will be in demand in the AI-driven job market
  • To explore the potential ethical and social implications of AI in the workforce
  • To provide recommendations for individuals and organizations to navigate the changing job market in the age of AI

4. Research Title Example: The Role of Natural Language Processing in Improving Customer Service in the Retail Industry

4  research title example  the role of natural language processing in improving customer service in the retail industry

Natural language processing (NLP) has emerged as a powerful technology for understanding and generating human language. This research aims to investigate the role of NLP in improving customer service in the retail industry in 2024. By exploring the applications of NLP, such as chatbots and sentiment analysis, this study will provide insights into how NLP can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.

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4.1 The Importance of Customer Service in the Retail Industry

Customer service plays a crucial role in the success of retail businesses. Providing excellent customer service can lead to increased customer satisfaction, repeat purchases, and positive word-of-mouth. However, delivering personalized and efficient customer service can be challenging, especially in large-scale retail operations. NLP offers promising solutions to improve customer service in the retail industry.

4.2 Natural Language Processing in Customer Service

Natural language processing involves the interaction between computers and human language. It enables machines to understand, interpret, and generate human language, allowing for more effective communication between customers and businesses. NLP applications, such as chatbots and sentiment analysis, can automate customer interactions, provide personalized recommendations, and analyze customer feedback.

4.3 Research Objectives

  • To explore the applications of NLP in improving customer service in the retail industry
  • To assess the impact of NLP-powered chatbots on customer satisfaction and loyalty
  • To analyze the effectiveness of sentiment analysis in understanding customer feedback and preferences
  • To provide recommendations for retailers on implementing NLP technologies to enhance customer service

5. Research Title Example: The Influence of Virtual Reality on Consumer Behavior in the Tourism Industry

5  research title example  the influence of virtual reality on consumer behavior in the tourism industry

Virtual reality (VR) has gained popularity in the tourism industry as a tool for providing immersive and interactive experiences. This research aims to investigate the influence of VR on consumer behavior in the tourism industry in 2024. By examining the effects of VR on travel decision-making, destination choice, and tourist satisfaction, this study will provide valuable insights for tourism businesses and marketers.

5.1 The Role of Virtual Reality in Tourism

Virtual reality allows users to experience virtual environments that simulate real-world settings. In the tourism industry, VR can transport potential travelers to destinations, showcase accommodations and attractions, and provide interactive experiences. VR has the potential to influence consumer behavior by enhancing engagement, reducing uncertainty, and increasing perceived value.

5.2 Consumer Behavior in the Tourism Industry

Consumer behavior refers to the process through which individuals make decisions and engage in activities related to the acquisition, consumption, and disposal of products or services. Understanding consumer behavior is crucial for tourism businesses and marketers to develop effective strategies for attracting and satisfying tourists. The integration of VR into the tourism experience can significantly impact consumer behavior.

5.3 Research Objectives

  • To examine the influence of VR on travel decision-making and destination choice
  • To assess the impact of VR on tourist satisfaction and post-travel behavior
  • To explore the potential challenges and opportunities of implementing VR in the tourism industry
  • To provide recommendations for tourism businesses and marketers on leveraging VR to enhance consumer behavior

6. Research Title Example: The Role of Gamification in Enhancing Employee Engagement and Performance

6  research title example  the role of gamification in enhancing employee engagement and performance

Gamification, the application of game elements and mechanics in non-game contexts, has gained attention as a strategy for enhancing employee engagement and performance. This research aims to investigate the role of gamification in improving employee outcomes in 2024. By examining the effects of gamification on motivation, productivity, and job satisfaction, this study will provide insights for organizations seeking to optimize employee performance.

6.1 The Importance of Employee Engagement and Performance

Employee engagement and performance are critical factors for organizational success. Engaged employees are more likely to be motivated, productive, and committed to their work. However, maintaining high levels of employee engagement and performance can be challenging for organizations. Gamification offers a unique approach to enhance these outcomes by leveraging the inherent motivational aspects of games.

6.2 Gamification in the Workplace

Gamification involves the integration of game elements, such as points, badges, and leaderboards, into non-game contexts, such as the workplace. By incorporating game-like features, organizations can create a more engaging and motivating work environment. Gamification can be applied to various aspects of the employee experience, including training, performance management, and collaboration.

6.3 Research Objectives

  • To explore the effects of gamification on employee motivation and engagement
  • To assess the impact of gamification on employee productivity and performance
  • To analyze the factors that influence the effectiveness of gamification in the workplace
  • To provide recommendations for organizations on implementing gamification strategies to enhance employee outcomes

7. Research Title Example: The Impact of Blockchain Technology on Supply Chain Management in the Manufacturing Industry

7  research title example  the impact of blockchain technology on supply chain management in the manufacturing industry

Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize supply chain management by enhancing transparency, traceability, and efficiency. This research aims to investigate the impact of blockchain technology on supply chain management in the manufacturing industry in 2024. By examining the benefits and challenges of blockchain adoption, this study will provide insights for manufacturers seeking to optimize their supply chain operations.

7.1 The Importance of Supply Chain Management in Manufacturing

Supply chain management plays a crucial role in the manufacturing industry by ensuring the smooth flow of materials, information, and products from suppliers to customers. Effective supply chain management can lead to cost savings, improved customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage . However, traditional supply chain systems often face challenges, such as lack of transparency and trust.

7.2 Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management

Blockchain technology enables the secure and transparent recording of transactions in a decentralized and immutable ledger. In the context of supply chain management, blockchain can provide real-time visibility, enhance traceability, and enable secure and efficient transactions. By leveraging blockchain, manufacturers can optimize their supply chain operations and build trust with stakeholders.

7.3 Research Objectives

  • To analyze the impact of blockchain technology on supply chain transparency and traceability
  • To assess the benefits and challenges of blockchain adoption in the manufacturing industry
  • To explore the potential applications of blockchain in supply chain management, such as smart contracts and supply chain finance
  • To provide recommendations for manufacturers on implementing blockchain solutions to enhance supply chain management

8. Research Title Example: The Role of Big Data Analytics in Personalized Healthcare

8  research title example  the role of big data analytics in personalized healthcare

Big data analytics has the potential to transform healthcare by enabling personalized and evidence-based decision-making. This research aims to investigate the role of big data analytics in personalized healthcare in 2024. By examining the applications of big data analytics in disease diagnosis, treatment selection, and patient monitoring, this study will provide insights for healthcare providers and policymakers.

8.1 The Need for Personalized Healthcare

Personalized healthcare aims to tailor medical interventions to individual patients based on their unique characteristics, such as genetic makeup, lifestyle, and medical history. By moving away from a one-size-fits-all approach, personalized healthcare can improve treatment outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction. Big data analytics plays a crucial role in enabling personalized healthcare.

8.2 Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

Big data analytics involves the collection, processing, and analysis of large and complex datasets to extract meaningful insights. In healthcare, big data analytics can leverage electronic health records, genomic data, wearable devices, and other sources to generate personalized recommendations, predict disease outcomes, and identify patterns and trends. Big data analytics has the potential to revolutionize healthcare delivery and improve patient outcomes.

8.3 Research Objectives

  • To explore the applications of big data analytics in personalized disease diagnosis and treatment selection
  • To assess the impact of big data analytics on patient monitoring and healthcare outcomes
  • To analyze the challenges and ethical considerations associated with the use of big data analytics in healthcare
  • To provide recommendations for healthcare providers and policymakers on leveraging big data analytics for personalized healthcare

9. Research Title Example: The Impact of Augmented Reality on Learning Outcomes in STEM Education

9  research title example  the impact of augmented reality on learning outcomes in stem education

Augmented reality (AR) has emerged as a promising technology for enhancing learning experiences, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This research aims to investigate the impact of augmented reality on learning outcomes in STEM education in 2024. By examining the effects of AR on student engagement, knowledge retention, and problem-solving skills, this study will provide insights for educators and curriculum developers.

9.1 The Importance of STEM Education

STEM education plays a crucial role in preparing students for the challenges of the modern world and fostering innovation and critical thinking skills. However, traditional teaching methods in STEM subjects often fail to engage students and make abstract concepts tangible. Augmented reality offers a unique approach to enhance learning experiences and improve learning outcomes in STEM education.

9.2 Augmented Reality in STEM Education

Augmented reality involves overlaying digital content onto the real world, creating interactive and immersive experiences. In the context of STEM education, AR can provide visualizations, simulations, and interactive activities that make abstract concepts more tangible and engaging. By integrating AR into the classroom, educators can enhance student understanding, motivation, and problem-solving skills.

9.3 Research Objectives

  • To examine the impact of augmented reality on student engagement and motivation in STEM education
  • To assess the effects of augmented reality on knowledge retention and understanding of STEM concepts
  • To explore the potential challenges and opportunities of implementing augmented reality in STEM classrooms
  • To provide recommendations for educators and curriculum developers on leveraging augmented reality to enhance learning outcomes in STEM education

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research title example about behavior

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What are some research title examples for students in 2023?

1. The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Education 2. The Role of Social Media in Shaping Political Discourse 3. Investigating the Effects of Climate Change on Biodiversity

How to choose a research title as a student in 2023?

1. Identify your research interests 2. Conduct a literature review 3. Consult with your advisor or mentor

What are the criteria for a good research title for students in 2023?

1. Clear and concise 2. Relevant to the field of study 3. Reflective of the research objectives

Asim Akhtar

Asim Akhtar

Asim is the CEO & founder of AtOnce. After 5 years of marketing & customer service experience, he's now using Artificial Intelligence to save people time.

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Behavioural and social science research opportunities

Maria a carrasco.

a United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Office of Population and Reproductive Health; 500 D Street SW, 05.4.1A, Washington, DC, United States of America (USA).

Alexandria K Mickler

b Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, USA.

Kaitlyn Atkins

Joseph g rosen, rafael obregon.

c United Nations Children’s Fund, Asuncion, Paraguay.

Incorporating behavioural insights into health policies, interventions and systems has helped reduce injury-related mortality, improve adherence to medications and reduce tobacco use. 1 Nevertheless, health practitioners and policy-makers sometimes overlook behaviourally informed and focused approaches. For instance, early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention efforts in the United States of America relied on best-case modelling scenarios, which assumed widespread adoption of preventive behaviours like face-mask use. Despite compulsory face-mask mandates, behavioural adoption was slow; once vaccines were available, officials then focused on vaccine uptake. Adequate vaccine uptake, in turn, depends on incorporating behavioural insights to address vaccine hesitancy. Indeed, vaccine administration, and not vaccines alone, is needed to help curb the COVID-19 pandemic. Voluntary vaccine uptake requires creating an enabling environment based on trust, working with social influencers and respected opinion leaders to model vaccine uptake, and providing appropriate motivation such as vaccine passports that facilitate travel, among other actions. While incorporation of behavioural insights into health policies, interventions and systems is gaining momentum, challenges remain. Here we describe three challenges in behavioural and social science research that hamper the integration of behavioural insights and we highlight opportunities for addressing them.

Methodological challenges

Social and behavioural issues are complex and adaptive, and fully understanding their impact requires the use of similarly dynamic, multidimensional approaches. For example, random assignment is a unique challenge for social behaviour change trials, particularly for national media-based interventions where random assignment to intervention arms is infeasible. This difficulty leads researchers to turn to more complex study designs and statistical approaches to provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects. 2 However, such approaches are resource-intensive, and ensuring their appropriate interpretation down the research pipeline can be challenging.

Behavioural science researchers also face the challenge of measuring key psychosocial, contextual and structural factors that influence health. While progress has been made, existing measures of these factors require constant adaptation and refinement based on context. Furthermore, many health behaviour measures are self-reported and subject to social desirability and recall biases. List experimentation techniques and negatively framed questions in one recent population-based survey, for example, were shown to significantly reduce self-reported compliance with recommended public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. 3 Where possible, behavioural studies should integrate additional, more objective indicators (for example biomarkers, attendance records and health clinic registers) and apply techniques to minimize bias in self-reported data, such as self-interviewing and unmatched counting. Similarly, indicators used to assess social behaviour change programme coverage and impact, such as number of media communications received and condom use at last sex, are often unstable, that is, subject to change easily with small environmental adjustments or bias. Recognizing these indicators’ weaknesses can ensure appropriate interpretation of results and the potential development of more stable measures. Elicitation techniques like media recall items, where survey respondents are asked to finish a slogan from a mass media communication, are more nuanced measures for appraising social behaviour change communication intervention coverage. Assessing programme impact is further complicated by the scarcity of modelling studies linking social behaviour change interventions with impact measures such as number of deaths averted. Modelling can provide important information related to the population-level impact of behaviourally informed or focused investments to ensure equitable resource allocation and support advocacy efforts.

Despite these challenges, rigorous behavioural research and evaluations in non-controlled settings are ongoing. Ecological momentary assessments have shown promise for capturing psychosocial, behavioural and intervention outcomes using real-time data capture. 4 Natural experiments have provided causal evidence around the impact of mass media interventions on fertility. 5 Experimental research in mass media and communications has identified intervention effects by comparing outcomes among listener groups who received targeted social and behaviour mass media campaigns, compared to controls who received typical mass media messages. 6 , 7 Donors and peer-reviewed journals should support the use and development of these and other promising new methods for data analysis through funding and publication opportunities, even in cases of null findings.

Limited data availability and use

The integration of behavioural insights into interventions and health policies has been hampered by a lack of data availability and use. Many behavioural science studies are not designed nor used to their maximum potential. Full descriptions of interventions, curriculums or protocols are typically not readily available for replication, thereby reducing opportunities for standardization across programmes and contexts. Similarly, no systematic reporting of costing or cost–effectiveness data exists, preventing cost comparisons and complicating the ability to determine scale-up or replication costs. Limited availability and use of data are also a barrier to determining and analysing opportunities for improved impact in cases where an intervention did not achieve intended results.

While qualitative and quantitative data from behavioural science studies could be used to conduct secondary analyses, these analyses are rare because such data are not openly shared. Oftentimes, systems are not in place to share data with interested stakeholders and researchers in a way that protects the anonymity of research participants. However, making data available is critical for transparency and accountability. Furthermore, widely accessible data can enable local researchers to include indigenous perspectives in addressing local concerns and providing opportunities for knowledge sharing and strengthened data analysis skills, as well as enhancing the presentation and utilization of evidence. In this area, international donors can have an important impact by requiring researchers to make protocols, data collection instruments and de-identified data (that is, that cannot be traced to the study participant) publicly available in a timely manner. Donors can also invest in online data-sharing platforms that outlive project lifecycles. Additionally, international donors and multilateral organizations should encourage research collaboration with local researchers and fund local data analysis and capacity-strengthening activities.

Researchers, policy-makers and practitioners are often unable to cite evidence-based strategies promoting behaviour change and leading to improved health outcomes. Part of the challenge rests with researchers’ tendency to seek simple intervention main effects when the more informative analytical approach would be to identify factors in the pathway between behavioural approaches and health outcomes. In other words, evaluations tend to ask whether interventions achieve desired outcomes, without focusing on explaining why and how these interventions work or not. Additionally, interventions do not affect everyone uniformly; rather, some people are affected under some conditions but not others. Therefore, the contextual factors affecting the intervention’s impact must also be considered. Furthermore, researchers do not typically unpack the contribution of each behavioural strategy employed in multicomponent interventions to measured health outcomes. A recent analysis of behavioural interventions in family planning, for example, aggregated multicomponent interventions into a packages category and estimated their effects on modern contraceptive uptake, since the aggregated studies were not designed to provide individual component effects. 8 To build a strong evidence base and develop strategies for translating behavioural insights across contexts, studies guided by theories of change that examine psychosocial pathways and moderators are key to building the evidence base and strategies for translating behavioural insights across contexts. Funders should prioritize these types of studies.

While the number of high-quality evaluations testing behavioural pathways has grown in the last decade, their dissemination in practitioner and policy-maker circles remains limited. Delegates attending the first International Social and Behaviour Change Communication Summit in Addis Ababa (2016) reached similar conclusions. 9 Furthermore, a stakeholder analysis to inform this field for adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes highlights that practitioners experience challenges integrating science into practice and that general guidance, tools and strategy standardization are needed. 10 Thus, enhanced research utilization efforts are needed.

The High Impact Practices in Family Planning, an authoritative evidence synthesis, summarize some of the social and behaviour change literature in succinct briefs, using nontechnical language, for decision-makers and implementers. 11 However, the High-Impact Practices Technical Advisory Group has recognized that the current briefs, focused on channels of communication, are too broad to inform family planning investments. Thus, new high impact practices briefs are being developed with evidence syntheses on strategies for advancing intermediate outcomes, such as couples communication, social norms, beliefs and attitudes associated with various family planning outcomes (for example, achieving fertility intentions, full and informed method choice and modern contraceptive uptake). Another example focusing on analysing pathways to change is the work completed under the ACCELERATE project, which identified priority behaviours (or intermediate outcomes) in the pathway leading to ultimate desired health outcomes in maternal and child health. The ThinkBig website, initially developed by ACCELERATE, offers numerous resources for practitioners to integrate behavioural insights into public health programmes. 12 The High Impact Practices and ACCELERATE are examples of strategies to facilitate behavioural insights integration and knowledge utilization, by synthesizing evidence using accessible language that explains complex behavioural pathways. Practitioners and policy-makers should use these and similar tools to integrate behavioural and social science evidence into public health policies and programmes. Donors should prioritize investments to help translate behavioural and social science evidence into practice by integrating research utilization into programme and research design.

Acknowledgements

We thank Rajiv Rimal and Victor Orozco.

Competing interests:

None declared.

StatAnalytica

200+ Research Title Ideas To Explore In 2024

research title ideas

Choosing a compelling research title is a critical step in the research process, as it serves as the gateway to capturing the attention of readers and potential collaborators. A well-crafted research title not only encapsulates the essence of your study but also entices readers to delve deeper into your work. 

In this blog post, we will explore the significance of research title ideas, the characteristics of an effective title, strategies for generating compelling titles, examples of successful titles, common pitfalls to avoid, the importance of iterative refinement, and ethical considerations in title creation.

Characteristics of a Good Research Title

Table of Contents

Clarity and Precision

A good research title should communicate the core idea of your study clearly and precisely. Avoid vague or overly complex language that might confuse readers.

Relevance to the Research Topic

Ensure that your title accurately reflects the content and focus of your research. It should provide a clear indication of what readers can expect from your study.

Conciseness and Avoidance of Ambiguity

Keep your title concise and to the point. Avoid unnecessary words or phrases that may add ambiguity. Aim for clarity and directness to make your title more impactful.

Use of Keywords

Incorporating relevant keywords in your title can enhance its visibility and accessibility. Consider the terms that researchers in your field are likely to search for and integrate them into your title.

Reflecting the Research Methodology or Approach

If your research employs a specific methodology or approach, consider incorporating that information into your title. This helps set expectations for readers and indicates the uniqueness of your study.

What are the Strategies for Generating Research Title Ideas?

  • Brainstorming
  • Individual Brainstorming: Set aside time to generate title ideas on your own. Consider different angles, perspectives, and aspects of your research.
  • Group Brainstorming: Collaborate with peers or mentors to gather diverse perspectives and insights. Group brainstorming can lead to innovative and multidimensional title ideas.
  • Keyword Analysis
  • Identifying Key Terms and Concepts: Break down your research into key terms and concepts. These will form the foundation of your title.
  • Exploring Synonyms and Related Terms: Expand your search by exploring synonyms and related terms. This can help you discover alternative ways to express your research focus.
  • Literature Review
  • Examining Existing Titles in the Field: Review titles of relevant studies in your field to identify common patterns and effective strategies.
  • Analyzing Successful Titles for Inspiration: Analyze successful research titles to understand what makes them stand out. Look for elements that resonate with your own research.
  • Consultation with Peers and Mentors
  • Seek feedback from peers and mentors during the title creation process. External perspectives can offer valuable insights and help refine your ideas.
  • Use of Online Tools and Title Generators
  • Explore online tools and title generators designed to aid in the generation of creative and relevant research titles. While these tools can be helpful, exercise discretion and ensure the generated titles align with the essence of your research.

200+ Research Title Ideas: Category-Wise

Technology and computer science.

  • “Cybersecurity Measures in the Age of Quantum Computing”
  • “Machine Learning Applications for Predictive Maintenance”
  • “The Impact of Augmented Reality on Learning Outcomes”
  • “Blockchain Technology: Enhancing Supply Chain Transparency”
  • “Human-Computer Interaction in Virtual Reality Environments”

Environmental Science and Sustainability

  • “Evaluating the Efficacy of Green Infrastructure in Urban Areas”
  • “Climate Change Resilience Strategies for Coastal Communities”
  • “Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Rainforests”
  • “Renewable Energy Adoption in Developing Economies”
  • “Assessing the Environmental Impact of Plastic Alternatives”

Health and Medicine

  • “Precision Medicine Approaches in Cancer Treatment”
  • “Mental Health Interventions for Youth in Urban Settings”
  • “Telemedicine: Bridging Gaps in Rural Healthcare Access”
  • “The Role of Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Disorders”
  • “Ethical Considerations in Genetic Editing Technologies”

Social Sciences and Psychology

  • “Social Media Influence on Body Image Perception”
  • “Impact of Cultural Diversity on Team Performance”
  • “Psychological Resilience in the Face of Global Crises”
  • “Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement in Adolescents”
  • “Exploring the Dynamics of Online Communities and Identity”

Business and Economics

  • “Sustainable Business Practices and Consumer Behavior”
  • “The Role of Big Data in Financial Decision-Making”
  • “Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Markets”
  • “Corporate Social Responsibility and Brand Loyalty”
  • “Economic Implications of Remote Work Adoption”

Education and Pedagogy

  • “Inclusive Education Models for Diverse Learning Needs”
  • “Gamification in STEM Education: A Comparative Analysis”
  • “Online Learning Effectiveness in Higher Education”
  • “Teacher Training for Integrating Technology in Classrooms”
  • “Assessment Strategies for Measuring Critical Thinking Skills”

Psychology and Behavior

  • “The Influence of Social Media on Adolescent Well-being”
  • “Cognitive Biases in Decision-Making: A Cross-Cultural Study”
  • “The Role of Empathy in Conflict Resolution”
  • “Positive Psychology Interventions for Workplace Satisfaction”
  • “Exploring the Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Mental Health”

Biology and Genetics

  • “Genetic Markers for Predisposition to Neurodegenerative Diseases”
  • “CRISPR-Cas9 Technology: Ethical Implications and Future Prospects”
  • “Evolutionary Adaptations in Response to Environmental Changes”
  • “Understanding the Microbiome’s Impact on Immune System Function”
  • “Epigenetic Modifications and Their Role in Disease Development”

Urban Planning and Architecture

  • “Smart Cities: Balancing Technological Innovation and Privacy”
  • “Revitalizing Urban Spaces: Community Engagement in Design”
  • “Sustainable Architecture: Integrating Nature into Urban Designs”
  • “Transit-Oriented Development and Its Impact on City Dynamics”
  • “Assessing the Cultural Significance of Urban Landscapes”

Linguistics and Communication

  • “The Influence of Language on Cross-Cultural Communication”
  • “Language Development in Multilingual Environments”
  • “The Impact of Nonverbal Communication on Interpersonal Relationships”
  • “Digital Communication and the Evolution of Language”
  • “Language Processing in Bilingual Individuals: A Neuroscientific Approach”

Political Science and International Relations

  • “The Role of Social Media in Political Mobilization”
  • “Global Governance in the Era of Transnational Challenges”
  • “Human Rights and the Ethics of Intervention in International Affairs”
  • “Political Polarization: Causes and Consequences”
  • “Climate Change Diplomacy: Assessing International Agreements”

Physics and Astronomy

  • “Dark Matter: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe”
  • “Quantum Entanglement and Its Potential Applications”
  • “The Search for Exoplanets in Habitable Zones”
  • “Astrophysical Phenomena: Exploring Black Holes and Neutron Stars”
  • “Advancements in Quantum Computing Algorithms”

Education Technology (EdTech)

  • “Adaptive Learning Platforms: Personalizing Education for Every Student”
  •  “The Impact of Virtual Reality Simulations on STEM Education”
  • “E-Learning Accessibility for Students with Disabilities”
  • “Gamified Learning: Enhancing Student Engagement and Retention”
  • “Digital Literacy Education: Navigating the Information Age”

Sociology and Anthropology

  • “Cultural Shifts in Modern Society: An Anthropological Exploration”
  • “Social Movements in the Digital Age: Activism and Connectivity”
  • “Gender Roles and Equality: A Cross-Cultural Perspective”
  •  “Urbanization and Its Effects on Traditional Societal Structures”
  • “Cultural Appropriation: Understanding Boundaries and Respect”

Materials Science and Engineering

  • “Nanostructured Materials: Innovations in Manufacturing and Applications”
  •  “Biodegradable Polymers: Towards Sustainable Packaging Solutions”
  • “Materials for Energy Storage: Advancements and Challenges”
  • “Smart Materials in Healthcare: From Diagnosis to Treatment”
  • “Robust Coatings for Extreme Environments: Applications in Aerospace”

History and Archaeology

  • “Digital Reconstruction of Historical Sites: Preserving the Past”
  • “Trade Routes in Ancient Civilizations: A Comparative Study”
  • “Archaeogenetics: Unraveling Human Migrations Through DNA Analysis”
  • “Historical Linguistics: Tracing Language Evolution Over Millennia”
  • “The Archaeology of Conflict: Studying War through Artifacts”

Marketing and Consumer Behavior

  • “Influencer Marketing: Impact on Consumer Trust and Purchasing Decisions”
  • “The Role of Brand Storytelling in Consumer Engagement”
  • “E-commerce Personalization Strategies: Balancing Customization and Privacy”
  • “Cross-Cultural Marketing: Adapting Campaigns for Global Audiences”
  • “Consumer Perceptions of Sustainable Products: A Market Analysis”

Neuroscience and Cognitive Science

  • “Neuroplasticity and Cognitive Rehabilitation: Implications for Therapy”
  • “The Neuroscience of Decision-Making: Insights from Brain Imaging”
  • “Cognitive Aging: Understanding Memory Decline and Cognitive Resilience”
  • “The Role of Neurotransmitters in Emotional Regulation”
  • “Neuroethical Considerations in Brain-Computer Interface Technologies”

Public Health and Epidemiology

  • “Epidemiological Trends in Infectious Diseases: Lessons from Global Outbreaks”
  • “Public Health Interventions for Reducing Non-Communicable Diseases”
  • “Health Disparities Among Marginalized Communities: Addressing the Gaps”
  • “The Impact of Climate Change on Vector-Borne Diseases”
  • “Community-Based Approaches to Promoting Health Equity”

Robotics and Automation

  • “Human-Robot Collaboration in Manufacturing: Enhancing Productivity and Safety”
  • “Autonomous Vehicles: Navigating the Path to Mainstream Adoption”
  • “Soft Robotics: Engineering Flexibility for Real-World Applications”
  • “Ethical Considerations in the Development of AI-powered Robotics”
  • “Bio-Inspired Robotics: Learning from Nature to Enhance Machine Intelligence”

Literature and Literary Criticism

  • “Postcolonial Narratives: Deconstructing Power Structures in Literature”
  • “Digital Storytelling Platforms: Changing the Landscape of Narrative Arts”
  • “Literature and Cultural Identity: Exploring Representations in Global Contexts”
  • “Eco-Critical Perspectives in Contemporary Literature”
  • “Feminist Literary Criticism: Reinterpreting Classic Texts Through a New Lens”

Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

  • “Green Chemistry: Sustainable Approaches to Chemical Synthesis”
  • “Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery: Innovations in Biomedical Applications”
  • “Chemical Process Optimization: Towards Energy-Efficient Production”
  • “The Chemistry of Taste: Molecular Insights into Food Flavors”
  •  “Catalytic Converters: Advancements in Pollution Control Technologies”

Cultural Studies and Media

  • “Media Representations of Social Movements: Framing and Impact”
  • “Pop Culture and Identity: Exploring Trends in a Globalized World”
  • “The Influence of Social Media on Political Discourse”
  • “Reality Television and Perceptions of Reality: A Cultural Analysis”
  • “Media Literacy Education: Navigating the Digital Information Age”

Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • “Gravitational Waves: Probing the Cosmos for New Discoveries”
  • “The Life Cycle of Stars: From Birth to Supernova”
  •  “Astrobiology: Searching for Extraterrestrial Life in the Universe”
  • “Dark Energy and the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe”
  • “Cosmic Microwave Background: Insights into the Early Universe”

Social Work and Community Development

  • “Community-Based Mental Health Interventions: A Social Work Perspective”
  • “Youth Empowerment Programs: Fostering Resilience in Vulnerable Communities”
  • “Social Justice Advocacy in Contemporary Social Work Practice”
  • “Intersectionality in Social Work: Addressing the Complex Needs of Individuals”
  • “The Role of Technology in Enhancing Social Services Delivery”

Artificial Intelligence and Ethics

  • “Ethical Considerations in AI Decision-Making: Balancing Autonomy and Accountability”
  • “Bias and Fairness in Machine Learning Algorithms: A Critical Examination”
  •  “Explainable AI: Bridging the Gap Between Complexity and Transparency”
  • “The Social Implications of AI-Generated Content: Challenges and Opportunities”
  • “AI and Personal Privacy: Navigating the Ethical Dimensions of Data Usage”

Linguistics and Computational Linguistics

  • “Natural Language Processing: Advancements in Understanding Human Communication”
  • “Multilingualism in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities”
  •  “Cognitive Linguistics: Exploring the Relationship Between Language and Thought”
  • “Speech Recognition Technologies: Applications in Everyday Life”
  • “Syntax and Semantics: Unraveling the Structure of Language”

Geology and Earth Sciences

  • “Geological Hazards Assessment in Urban Planning: A Case Study”
  • “Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Past Climate Patterns for Future Predictions”
  • “Geomorphological Processes in Coastal Landscapes: Implications for Conservation”
  • “Volcanic Activity Monitoring: Early Warning Systems and Mitigation Strategies”
  • “The Impact of Human Activities on Soil Erosion: An Ecological Perspective”

Political Economy and Global Governance

  • “Global Trade Agreements: Assessing Economic Impacts and Equity”
  • “Political Economy of Energy Transition: Policies and Socioeconomic Effects”
  • “The Role of International Organizations in Global Governance”
  • “Financial Inclusion and Economic Development: A Comparative Analysis”
  •  “The Political Economy of Pandemics: Governance and Crisis Response”

Food Science and Nutrition

  • “Nutrigenomics: Personalized Nutrition for Optimal Health”
  • “Functional Foods: Exploring Health Benefits Beyond Basic Nutrition”
  • “Sustainable Food Production: Innovations in Agriculture and Aquaculture”
  •  “Dietary Patterns and Mental Health: A Comprehensive Review”
  • “Food Allergies and Sensitivities: Mechanisms and Management Strategies”

Sociology and Technology

  • “Digital Inequalities: Examining Access and Usage Patterns Across Demographics”
  • “The Impact of Social Media on Social Capital and Community Building”
  • “Technological Surveillance and Privacy Concerns: A Sociological Analysis”
  • “Virtual Communities: An Exploration of Identity Formation in Online Spaces”
  • “The Social Dynamics of Online Activism: Mobilization and Participation”

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

  • “Nanomaterials for Biomedical Imaging: Enhancing Diagnostic Precision”
  • “Self-Healing Materials: Advances in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure”
  • “Smart Textiles: Integrating Nanotechnology for Enhanced Functionality”
  • “Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery: Targeted Therapies and Beyond”
  • “Nanocomposites for Energy Storage: Engineering Efficient Capacitors”

Communication and Media Studies

  • “Media Convergence: The Evolution of Content Delivery in the Digital Age”
  • “The Impact of Social Media Influencers on Consumer Behavior”
  • “Crisis Communication in a Hyperconnected World: Lessons from Global Events”
  • “Media Framing of Environmental Issues: A Comparative Analysis”
  • “Digital Detox: Understanding Media Consumption Patterns and Well-being”

Developmental Psychology

  • “Early Childhood Attachment and Its Long-Term Impact on Adult Relationships”
  • “Cognitive Development in Adolescence: Challenges and Opportunities”
  • “Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement: A Cross-Cultural Perspective”
  • “Identity Formation in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Social Influences”
  • “Interventions for Promoting Resilience in At-Risk Youth Populations”

Aerospace Engineering

  • “Advancements in Aerodynamics: Redefining Flight Efficiency”
  • “Space Debris Management: Mitigating Risks in Earth’s Orbit”
  • “Aerodynamic Design Optimization for Supersonic Flight”
  • “Hypersonic Propulsion Technologies: Pushing the Boundaries of Speed”
  • “Materials for Space Exploration: Engineering Solutions for Harsh Environments”

Political Psychology

  • “Political Polarization and Public Opinion: Exploring Cognitive Biases”
  • “Leadership Styles and Public Perception: A Psychological Analysis”
  • “Nationalism and Identity: Psychological Factors Shaping Political Beliefs”
  • “The Influence of Emotional Appeals in Political Communication”
  • “Crisis Leadership: The Psychological Dynamics of Decision-Making in Times of Uncertainty”

Marine Biology and Conservation

  • “Coral Reef Restoration: Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation”
  • “Ocean Plastic Pollution: Assessing Impacts on Marine Ecosystems”
  • “Marine Mammal Communication: Insights from Bioacoustics”
  • “Sustainable Fisheries Management: Balancing Ecological and Economic Concerns”
  • “The Role of Mangrove Ecosystems in Coastal Resilience”

Artificial Intelligence and Creativity

  • “Generative AI in Creative Industries: Challenges and Innovations”
  • “AI-Enhanced Creativity Tools: Empowering Artists and Designers”
  • “Machine Learning for Music Composition: Bridging Art and Technology”
  • “Creative AI in Film and Entertainment: Transforming Storytelling”
  • “Ethical Considerations in AI-Generated Art and Content”

Cultural Anthropology

  • “Cultural Relativism in Anthropological Research: Opportunities and Challenges”
  • “Rituals and Symbolism: Unraveling Cultural Practices Across Societies”
  • “Migration and Cultural Identity: An Ethnographic Exploration”
  • “Material Culture Studies: Understanding Societies through Objects”
  • “Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Preserving and Promoting Cultural Heritage”

Quantum Computing and Information Science

  • “Quantum Information Processing: Algorithms and Applications”
  • “Quantum Cryptography: Securing Communication in the Quantum Era”
  •  “Quantum Machine Learning: Enhancing AI through Quantum Computing”
  • “Quantum Computing in Finance: Opportunities and Challenges”
  • “Quantum Internet: Building the Next Generation of Information Networks”

Public Policy and Urban Planning

  • “Smart Cities and Inclusive Urban Development: A Policy Perspective”
  • “Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure Development: Lessons Learned”
  • “The Impact of Transportation Policies on Urban Mobility Patterns”
  • “Housing Affordability: Policy Approaches to Addressing Urban Challenges”
  • “Data-Driven Decision-Making in Urban Governance: Opportunities and Risks”

Gerontology and Aging Studies

  • “Healthy Aging Interventions: Promoting Quality of Life in Older Adults”
  • “Social Isolation and Mental Health in Aging Populations: Interventions and Support”
  • “Technology Adoption Among Older Adults: Bridging the Digital Divide”
  • “End-of-Life Decision-Making: Ethical Considerations and Legal Frameworks”
  • “Cognitive Resilience in Aging: Strategies for Maintaining Mental Sharpness”

Examples of Effective Research Titles

Illustrative Examples from Various Disciplines

Here are examples of effective research titles from different disciplines:

  • “Unlocking the Mysteries of Neural Plasticity: A Multidisciplinary Approach”
  • “Sustainable Urban Development: Integrating Environmental and Social Perspectives”
  • “Quantum Computing: Navigating the Path to Practical Applications”

Analysis of What Makes Each Title Effective

  • Clear indication of the research focus.
  • Inclusion of key terms relevant to the field.
  • Incorporation of a multidisciplinary or integrated approach where applicable.

Common Pitfalls to Avoid in Research Title Creation

A. Vagueness and Ambiguity

Vague or ambiguous titles can deter readers from engaging with your research. Ensure your title is straightforward and leaves no room for misinterpretation.

B. Overuse of Jargon

While technical terms are essential, excessive jargon can alienate readers who may not be familiar with the specific terminology. Strike a balance between precision and accessibility.

C. Lack of Alignment with Research Objectives

Your title should align seamlessly with the objectives and findings of your research. Avoid creating titles that misrepresent the core contributions of your study.

D. Lengthy and Complicated Titles

Lengthy titles can be overwhelming and may not effectively convey the essence of your research. Aim for brevity while maintaining clarity and informativeness.

E. Lack of Creativity and Engagement

A bland title may not capture the interest of potential readers. Inject creativity where appropriate and strive to create a title that sparks curiosity.

Ethical Considerations in Research Title Creation

  • Avoiding Sensationalism and Misleading Titles

Ensure that your title accurately represents the content of your research. Avoid sensationalism or misleading language that may compromise the integrity of your work.

  • Ensuring Accuracy and Integrity in Representing Research Content

Your title should uphold the principles of accuracy and integrity. Any claims or implications in the title should be supported by the actual findings of your research.

Crafting a captivating research title is a nuanced process that requires careful consideration of various factors. From clarity and relevance to creativity and ethical considerations, each element plays a crucial role in the success of your title. 

By following the outlined strategies and avoiding common pitfalls for research title ideas, researchers can enhance the visibility and impact of their work, contributing to the broader scholarly conversation. Remember, your research title is the first impression readers have of your work, so make it count.

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  • Agricultural practices
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Articles in anthropology.

The Anthropological Index Online (AIO) is published by the Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI) in cooperation with Anthropology Library and Research Centre at the British Museum. It is an index to articles in journals taken by the Library, which incorporates the former RAI holdings, covering all branches and areas of anthropology. In addition, AIO includes journals and periodicals of anthropological interest that are not in the Library’s catalogues. Films held at the Royal Anthropological Institute are equally indexed as part of the bibliography. The Library holds some 4,000 periodical titles (1,500 current). Nearly 650 journals, published in more than 40 languages, are indexed on a continuing basis. Records cover 1957 to the present.

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  • Advocacy journalism
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  • Media ethics
  • Newspapers' declining revenues
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Comprehensive coverage of communication topics in Communication Abstracts and Communication & Mass Media Complete.

Covers major journals in communication, mass media, and other closely-related fields of study as far back as 1915. Includes indexing/abstracting for 600+ journals; full text of 500+ journals.

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  • Bail reform
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1968-present. Journals, books, and governmental & non-governmental reports.

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  • African American Vernacular English
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  • Indo-European language history
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Indexes literature in linguistics and related disciplines.

Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA) abstracts and indexes the international literature in linguistics and related disciplines in the language sciences. The database covers all aspects of the study of language including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Complete coverage is given to various fields of linguistics including descriptive, historical, comparative, theoretical and geographical linguistics. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,500 serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, and dissertations. 

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  • Ranked choice voting
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  • Bernie Sanders
  • Social democracy
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  • Donald Trump
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Includes full-text journals, reference books, monographs, and conference papers, including those of the International Political Science Association.

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  • Anger management
  • Animal assisted therapy
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  • Birth order
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Compulsion loop
  • Cross-dressing
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Family therapy
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  • Internet addiction
  • Kleptomania
  • Mass psychogenic illness
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  • Panic attacks
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  • Prescriptions for ADHD
  • Replication Crisis
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1887-present. Includes journals, books, book chapters, and dissertations in psychology.  Short video tutorials on using PsycINFO

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  • Ambient awareness
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Provides access to the international literature in sociology, social services, and related disciplines, 1952-present.

Includes the databases Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociology Database, which may each be searched separately. Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800 serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers. Many records from key journals in sociology, added to the database since 2002, also include the references cited in the bibliography of the source article. Each individual reference may also have links to an abstract and/or to other papers that cite that reference; these links increase the possibility of finding more potentially relevant articles. These references are linked both within Sociological Abstracts and across other social science databases available on ProQuest. Updated monthly, with approximately 30,000 records added per year. (Description from the publisher's website.)

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🏆 best behavior essay titles, ✍️ behavior essay topics for college, 📣 discussion questions about behaviorism, ❓ behavior research questions.

  • Hormones and Behavior Interaction Psychology essay sample: This paper focuses on demonstrating how the interaction between hormones and behavior affect sexual differentiation and gender identity.
  • Children’s Behavioral and Family Problems Psychology essay sample: The family is the most important socialization institution in human society. This paper examines the family issues that contribute to the behavioral problems amongst children.
  • Functional Behavior Assessment and Intervention Plan Psychology essay sample: Behavior is a way of communication. This paper discusses the assessment of problem behavior and explains the intervention procedures.
  • Cognitive Dissonance Effects on Attitudes and Behavior Psychology essay sample: Since cognitive dissonance theory was proposed, psychologists have carried out number of studies to determine the relationship between human behavior and attitudes.
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Various Diseases Psychology essay sample: Cognitive behavioural therapy is aimed at helping patients manage their problems with the help of changing the way in which they behave and think.
  • Children Behavior Changes Psychology essay sample: This paper improves the understanding on family dynamics that help in understanding the model of transition and child adjustment.
  • Human Behavior: Evolutionary Psychological Approach Psychology essay sample: Evolution psychology has attempted to provide an important framework for explaining the origin and development of human behavior.
  • Cognitive Psychology Definition and Aspects Psychology essay sample: This paper will explore cognitive psychology, key milestones in its development and significance of behavioral observation.
  • Behaviour Modification in the Educational Setting Psychology essay sample: Positive reinforcement can be discussed as one of the dominant methods according to the behaviour modification approach.
  • Foundations of Psychology: Science of Mind and Behavior Psychology essay sample: The greatest minds of all times tried to understand human behavior. One of the main means of understanding this aspect is the consideration of the human behavior.
  • Child's Behavior and Developmental Stage Psychology essay sample: The behavior of children at any developmental stage is similar across cultures. The paper analyzes the behavior and the developmental stage of a 9-years child.
  • The Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy Concept Psychology essay sample: Cognitive behavioral family therapy (CBFT) is the most popular treatment modality among marriage and family therapists focusing on marital problems.
  • Behavior Influence on Attitudes in Social Psychology Psychology essay sample: This paper explains how behaviors may change attitudes, discussing the theory of cognitive dissonance and the theory of self-perception.
  • Psychology Theories and Their Influence on Future Psychology essay sample: This paper explores behavioral, cognitive, developmental, humanistic personality, and social psychology theories and establishes their influence on the future of psychology.
  • Cognitive Dissonance in Leadership Behavior Psychology essay sample: Since its introduction by Festinger, the concept of cognitive dissonance has received widespread recognition in multiple fields that involve human behavior patterns.
  • Behavior and Cultural, Genetic, Environmental Effects Psychology essay sample: Human beings exhibit different behaviors when exposed to culture. Apart from the environment, genetic endowment also influences the behavior of an individual.
  • Learning Process and Behavior Theories at the Workplace Psychology essay sample: The learning process affects the behavior of individuals. This paper discusses some of these influences and their outcome by considering some of the behavioral theories.
  • Behavior, Personality and Inventories Psychology essay sample: This paper defines the term "personality" and outlines the weaknesses and strengths of the approaches used to measure it.
  • Self-Esteem, Behaviors, and Life Satisfaction Psychology essay sample: Self-esteem and autonomy correlate with life satisfaction. These traits eventually improve it and eliminate negative behaviours, making a person significantly happier.
  • Psychology of Behavior: Motivation Theories Psychology essay sample: There are four early theories of motivation: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, McClelland’s Three Needs Theory, and McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y.
  • Personality, Behaviours and Performance at Work Psychology essay sample: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of emotional intelligence and personal qualities in determining individual behaviours and performance at work.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Children Psychology essay sample: Analysis of OCD in children: Its causes, psychodynamic and biological causes, early signs and symptoms, consequences of OCD, treatment, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy.
  • Organizational Behavior of Individuals Psychology essay sample: This paper tries to bring out the effect of personality traits, ethnicity, geographic differences, and age on individual behaviors.
  • Three Points of View on Behaviorism Psychology essay sample: Watson, Skinner, and Tolman are thought about as the originators of behaviorism as a psychology perspective. Their theories had a considerable impact on learning.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Counseling Psychology essay sample: The aim of cognitive-behavioral therapy is to teach and elucidate a client how to maintain a healthy lifestyle and how to think positively.
  • Consumer Behaviour: Models, Theories and Concepts Psychology essay sample: The analysis of the concept of consumer behavior shows that the decisions that the consumer make are shaped by a variety of elements.
  • Social Influence and Its Effects in People’s Beliefs and Behavior Psychology essay sample: The social influence for the group's behavior and beliefs still remain adamant as it significantly contributes either positively or negatively to the group members.
  • Motivation and Organizational Behavior Psychology essay sample: This essay aims to discuss motivation in the light of psychological contract, individuals’ roles, intrinsic motivation, theory X and Y, motivational drives, and locus of control.
  • Theories of Human Learning: Reinforcement and Behaviorism Psychology essay sample: There is one issue about reinforcement schedules - people get used to their rewards or punishments and do not pay much attention to them after a little while.
  • The Use of Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: Behavioral therapy is a type of treatment that focuses on an individual’s feelings and thought processes with the purpose of treating various psychological problems.
  • Psychology of Humanism and Behaviorism Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses the similarities and differences between the theories of the psychology of humanism and behaviorism.
  • Deviant Behavior Through the Social Norms' Concept Psychology essay sample: In the paper, deviant behavior is perceived as actions that do not comply with norms or standards officially or actually established in a particular society.
  • Deviant Behaviors and Its Types and Examples Psychology essay sample: Society will seek to either understand that behavior or avoid the behavior. It is important to note either way: a person will always get negative views from society.
  • Motivating for Appropriate Behavior Psychology essay sample: The theory of motivation is an important aspect in organizational behavior. It is an element that greatly affects the attitudes and levels of energy within a workforce in the workplace
  • Behavioral Modification: Change Bedroom Cleaning Habit Psychology essay sample: The use of the shaping technique is necessary since integrating a new character within me is not an instant activity.
  • The Essentials of Organizational Behavior Psychology essay sample: There are some shortcomings that I would correct if I were in the position of authority in the organization. Travelling is one of the most effective ways of motivation in any company.
  • Human Behavior: Behavioral Models Psychology essay sample: By using individual concepts as examples, behavioral peculiarities will be examined and analyzed in the context of their implications and in relation to personal experience.
  • The Brain and Human Behavior Psychology essay sample: Psychology studies the human mind and behavior; since the brain is people's main deciding organ, for both conscious and subconscious outcomes, it's essential for this field of science.
  • Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment Psychology essay sample: One of the most severe and challenging problems that require an appropriate solution is suicidal behavior among teenagers and young adults.
  • Human Behavior in Fires Psychology essay sample: Three research studies on human behavior in fires will be addressed with the purpose of comparing their methodologies and findings and making conclusions about their effectiveness.
  • Phobias and Addictions Theories Psychology essay sample: Phobias and addictions are two behavioral theories that can be used to describe the development of phobias and addiction in people.
  • On the Formation of Prosocial Behavior in Children Psychology essay sample: This article discusses the importance of the environment in shaping prosocial behavior and the impact of the environment on interactions between children.
  • Attitudes as a Set of Behaviors, Emotions, and Beliefs Psychology essay sample: Development of different perceptions are referred to as attitudes defined as a set of behaviors, emotions, and beliefs about a particular person, event, or item.
  • Getting Involved: Helping Behaviors vs. the Bystander Effect Psychology essay sample: The willingness to help depends on numerous factors, such as culture, group size, and personality traits, and manifests in situations people can easily encounter in real life.
  • Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Approaches to Forming Habits Psychology essay sample: Psychologists have been studying the mechanism of habits development for decades for was to find out the reason and the factors that affect this process.
  • Behavior Problems of Middle Childhood by Peterson Psychology essay sample: This document is intended to provide a critical review of a journal article, Behavior problems of middle childhood, authored by Donald Peterson of the University of Illinois.
  • Repetitive and Restrictive Behaviors Psychology essay sample: RRBs are atypical behaviors characterized by repetition or motor stereotypy. They are common in neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD and OCD.
  • Interpreting the Body Behavior of Two Men Psychology essay sample: Observation of two young men's body language has allowed the author to evaluate how versatile non-verbal communication can be in relation to human interaction in everyday life.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Overview Psychology essay sample: Cognitive-behavioral therapy maintains strong empirical and scientific evidence of efficacy for the treatment of addiction.
  • Nonverbal Behavior in Different Countries Psychology essay sample: The culture of each country develops according to its laws, and each state has its own characteristics of non-verbal communication.
  • Personality and Behavior: Theory of Emotion Psychology essay sample: The article is devoted to the main theories that try to explain the behavior of humans and animals by their emotional state.
  • Cultural Norms: Regulation of Human Behavior Psychology essay sample: Human behavior is regulated by cultural norms and stereotypes. The image of an ideal man is connected with such characteristics as power.
  • Biological Basis of Behavior - Neuron Psychology essay sample: A neuron refers to a specialized cell of the nervous system that transmits sensory information in form of chemical and electrical signals across the body.
  • Behaviorism: Origins, Theories, and Application Psychology essay sample: Behaviorism is often considered to be a revolutionary idea because it changed the course of the development of psychology as a discipline.
  • Accounting for Human Behavior in Psychology and Sociology Psychology essay sample: Study behavior, sociology looks beyond an individual or a small group through associations, to examine society while psychology delves into an individual’s or group’s mind.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral and Rational Emotional Behavior Theory: Comparison Psychology essay sample: The purpose of the paper is to compare and contrast CBT and rational emotive behavioral therapy and report how varieties between the two practices can impact psychiatric practice.
  • Integrated Behavioral Health Care Psychology essay sample: The integrated behavioral health services provide professional health care counselors with new opportunities and challenges in assuming their present roles and responsibilities.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: CBT stands out to be is a well-develop and proven therapy. The method is effective for the treatment of patients experiencing a combination of behavioral and cognitive issues.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Addiction Treatment Psychology essay sample: This paper presents an analysis of the available literature on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy for substance abusers.
  • Classical Music in Children’s Development and Behavior Psychology essay sample: Western classical music, often referred to as simply classical music, is often considered highly beneficial to children’s education and associated with a variety of advantages.
  • Cognitive Behavior and Depression in Adolescents Psychology essay sample: People of different ages are prone to various psychological and emotional issues, especially in the current world that is transforming at a high pace.
  • The Applied Behavioural Analysis for Children Psychology essay sample: The Applied Behaviour Analysis describes a project meant to provide an opportunity to sharpen skills of observation and management of children by devising an intervention plan.
  • Learning About Organizational Behavior as an Interior Consultant Psychology essay sample: The organizational environment represents a rather rigid structure where a specific hierarchy coexists with very rigid standards for employees’ behaviors and attitudes.
  • Extinction Procedure and Misbehavior Psychology essay sample: This essay will discuss the concept of extinction and provide real-world examples that can be addressed by applying the extinction method of misbehavior treatment in various cases.
  • Sally: A Fifteen-Year Old With Behavior Problems Psychology essay sample: In Sally’s case, the school contacted the parents before referring the matter to the Juvenile Office and provided a list of observed concerns regarding Sally’s behavior.
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Psychology essay sample: Rational emotive behavior therapy is a therapy approach that involves the identification and replacement of negative behaviors with positive ones.
  • Kinesics as the Study of Body Motion or Body Behavior Psychology essay sample: Gestures are an essential component of typical communication. Conveying just as much information as speech, they serve as complementary sources of crucial insights about people.
  • Gestalt Theory and Cognitive Behavioral Theory: Comparison Psychology essay sample: This paper aims to argue that based on the similarities and phenomenological attributes of Gestalt Theory and Cognitive Behavioral Theory.
  • A Tier 3 Intervention Behaviour Model: What Works Clearinghouse Psychology essay sample: A focus on the tier 3 intervention will highlight the significant aspects surrounding behavior as the chosen academic content area from What Works Clearinghouse.
  • How Joel Rifkin’s Behavior Can Be Explained Using Psychodynamic Theory Psychology essay sample: It's clear that Freud’s explanation of psychodynamic theory is relevant. By using the specifications in this theory, it is possible to explain a person’s future behavior.
  • Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Behavioral Approach in Counseling and Psychotherapy Psychology essay sample: Psychoanalysis and cognitive-behavioral therapy differ in methods and strategies; they may also differ slightly in purpose.
  • Planned Human Behavior Theory Psychology essay sample: Human behavior is based on many factors that affect people throughout life. Many patterns of behavior are learned, “planned,” and amenable to change.
  • Biological Basis of Behavior - Divisions of the Brain Psychology essay sample: The brain is the control point of the nervous system in all vertebrates and most invertebrate animals. Vertebrates have complex brains as compared to invertebrates.
  • The Student's Maladaptive Behavior Case Psychology essay sample: Jose Contreras is a third-grade student exhibiting traits of maladaptive behavior, thus disrupting the entire class. The main problem is a lack of respect for authority figures.
  • Deviant Behavior: Workplace Bullying Psychology essay sample: This paper aims to explore workplace bullying in terms of conflict and labeling theories to better understand its causes and nature.
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Behavioral Finance Psychology essay sample: The cognitive dissonance theory explains the phenomenon where a person experiences tension and anxiety when that person has two opposing thoughts in mind.
  • The Children Abuse and Social Behavior Psychology essay sample: This research paper will define child abuse, review the statistics and other data on the topic and discuss the impact of abuse on the social behavior of children.
  • Functionalism vs. Behavioral Theory: Mind/Body Problem Perception Psychology essay sample: The paper questions the mind/body problem and how does the nature of the mind relate to the brain and examines two critical theories of mind - behaviorism and functionalism.
  • Family Analysis and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: It is important to identify what counts as a norm in order to locate problematic aspects of some of the relationships within a family and between its members.
  • Myths of Sexual Assault as Effort to Excuse the Criminal’s Behavior Psychology essay sample: The general community's knowledge of sexual assault, stalking, and abuse should be promoted to reduce the effect of sexism and past social mindsets.
  • Childhood Trauma: Disorders and Risky Behavior Psychology essay sample: Young people with a history of childhood abuse have a higher likelihood of participating in HIV risk behaviors such as having sex with multiple partners and having unprotected sex.
  • The Theory of Behaviorism: Learning and Conditioning Psychology essay sample: The theory of behaviorism is based on the perception that all behaviors that an individual develops through life are acquired with the help of conditioning.
  • Adolescent Risk Behaviors. Child Development Influences Psychology essay sample: Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods in the life of every individual because they go though in an understanding of life, establishing a personality.
  • Discrimination and Prejudice Behavior towards the Minorities Psychology essay sample: It is essential to teach both children and adults on how to avoid discriminatory behavior in every sphere, making our society more accepting and amicable.
  • Behaviorism: Ideas and Sub-Theories Psychology essay sample: Behaviorism theory suggests the following: people learn because of stimuli (rewards or punishments) in their environments. That is the central thought of the theory.
  • Lower-Level Behavior of Employees Psychology essay sample: People who whine or demonstratively “tolerate” something are not good team players and consume energy from the team.
  • Methodological and Radical Behaviorism Differences Psychology essay sample: The article focuses on the differences between Watson's methodological behaviorism and Skinner's radical behaviorism.
  • "The Fuzzy Concept of Applied Behavior Analysis Research" Article by Critchfield & Reed Psychology essay sample: Critchfield & Reed’s “The Fuzzy Concept of Applied Behavior Analysis Research” studies the seven-dimension framework preventing socially important issues from receiving attention.
  • Organizational Behavior and Big Five Personality Traits Psychology essay sample: Big Five personality tests, like any other psychological work, are subjected to errors making them have their weaknesses.
  • "On the knife's edge" Term and the Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: "On the knife's edge" is a term used to describe how people make irreversible mistakes that are often regretted moments after they are made.
  • Behaviorism as Psychological Theory Psychology essay sample: Behaviorism is a psychological theory that explains the actions of living creatures. It is also a part of developmental psychology.
  • Environmental Effect on Antisocial Behavior Disorder Psychology essay sample: Antisocial Personality Disorder is one of the most troublesome character issues to treat, which transforms how the person thinks, processes, feels, and perceives events and words.
  • Influence of Eating Disordered Mothers on Their Daughters’ Eating Behavior Psychology essay sample: The study seeks to examine the effect of mothers’ weight perceptions and eating behaviors on their daughters’ weight and eating behaviors.
  • Industrial and Organizational Psychology Psychology essay sample: In an increasingly competitive world, many organizations are adopting methods aimed at maximizing all their available resources to effectively achieve their set goals.
  • The Cognitive Behavior Therapy Psychology essay sample: Cognitive behavior therapy puts more emphasis on transforming the way family members behave. The approach is also concerned with the family’s dysfunctional beliefs or attitudes.
  • The Behavior Therapy Approach Psychology essay sample: The main characteristics of behavior therapy mainly focus on observable behavior, current determinants of behavior, change promoting learning experiences, and rigorous assessment.
  • Skinner's Radical Behaviorism Theory Psychology essay sample: Skinner's radical behaviorism focuses on the links between environmental changes and a person's condition and can be valuable for diagnosing and treating different diseases.
  • Assessment and Management of Challenging Behaviors Psychology essay sample: People with challenging behaviors need utmost care and understanding. When these individuals are not well taken care of they end up being a nuisance to the community.
  • Is Herd Behavior Rational or Irrational? Psychology essay sample: The essay discusses the rationality or irrationality of the idea that people copy the actions of others in the field of finance, calling it herding.
  • Destructive Behaviour Prevention Psychology essay sample: This essay seeks to briefly describe how to avoid destructive behaviours that affect human health in the short term or long-term.
  • The Effects of Family Conflict Resolution on Children’s Classroom Behavior Psychology essay sample: The author pondered the possibility of family systems intervention minimizing the need for referral to tertiary-type special education programs in the community agency.
  • The Deviant Behavior of Freshmen in College Psychology essay sample: Deviant behavior among freshmen is a serious problem which has to be handled. This behavior often leads to disease, pregnancy and fights that results in expulsion.
  • Five Listening Behaviors Represented by the Acronym SOLER Psychology essay sample: SOLER is an acronym used to summarize a process of effective communication that impacts the way we deal and respond to clients.
  • Biopsychosocial Analysis: Behavior and Social Environment Psychology essay sample: The development of a child through various milestones is dependent on various biological, psychological, and social factors.
  • Behavioral. Style Perspective to Leadership Psychology essay sample: The behavioral perspective in the article is people-oriented. It focuses on the promotion of changes within the community that will eliminate the disparities and risk factors.
  • Anxiety Disorders: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: This research paper will focus on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a treatment modality for anxiety disorders.
  • Theories on Behaviour in Groups: Group Dynamics Psychology essay sample: The paper concerns formation of groups, group dynamics theories of Belbin, Tuckman, Woodcock, Gross, and McClelland.
  • Naturalistic Observation of Children's Behavior Psychology essay sample: To receive more evidences related to the behavior of children, it is important to observe the definite age groups in the situation and surroundings which are typical and familiar for them.
  • Behavioral Influences on Health Psychology essay sample: This paper explores a relationship that exists between behavioral, psychological, socio-cultural, and lifestyle factors to major causes of mortality.
  • Health Behavior Change Psychology essay sample: The purpose of this article is to consider the determinants of individual health behavior and the barriers to change.
  • Self-Help Group Simulations. Behaviour Change Psychology essay sample: Going through the experience is vital for mental health professionals to understand the complexities of issues of substance abuse and addiction that the clients are going through.
  • Behavioral Science and Psychology: Analysis and Comparison of Research Methods Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses that both sociological and anthropological research methods help obtain credible and objective data.
  • Managing Behaviour in Young Children Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses what tools and techniques are likely or unlikely to work in a particular case study. The strategy focuses on the family and interventions.
  • Supervisory Model: Cognitive Behavior Psychology essay sample: The cognitive behavior supervisory model allows working with patients on two distinct elements - their cognition and behavior.
  • Patient's Concentration: Applied Behavior Analysis Psychology essay sample: This paper explores how memories are created, stored, and recalled. The paper investigates how the perception of stress might have affected the patient’s ability to focus.
  • Cognitive Strategies of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Psychology essay sample: Automatic thoughts introduce the problems patients are not able to identify when they address to a therapist for help.
  • The Behavioral, Humanistic, and Cognitive Approaches to Anxiety Psychology essay sample: The behavioral approach is stuck in the idea that the neighboring situation affects the victim, which can aid in knowing their decision.
  • Child Care and Behavior Concerns Psychology essay sample: Early child care interaction is also associated with increased exposure to peers at a young age and potential effects on early peer qualifications.
  • Behavioral Changes Related to Mate Attraction Psychology essay sample: This essay discusses what changes occur in the way people search for their partner when they age by comparing profiles of two different age groups on the site LoveAwake.
  • Foster Care Effects on Early Adolescents' Behavior Psychology essay sample: Foster care places a child in an ideal environment similar to a family set up under the supervision of relatives, well-wishers, government institutions, and strangers.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Model Psychology essay sample: Modern psychology developed six patterns to differentiate and adequately treat abnormalities based on individuals’ physical and mental switches.
  • Theories and Models of Individual Health Behavior Psychology essay sample: This paper discusses theories and models of individual health behavior, namely the health belief model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and others.
  • The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: The key concepts of the cognitive-behavioral therapy revolve around emotions, thoughts, and behavior, which are disputations and collaborative empiricism.
  • John Watson and Child Behaviorism Psychology essay sample: To prove this point, Watson turned to studying the behavior of infants and came to the conclusion that children are capable of producing a small number of simple reactions.
  • The Inefficiency of Punishment for Shaping Child Behaviour Psychology essay sample: This paper states that using punishment is completely inefficient for changing the behavior of children, and it is illustrated by several psychological statements.
  • Organizational Behavior: Psychology Psychology essay sample: The article argues psychology focuses on the essence of the human mind and decision-making, without which there cannot be a plausible understanding of group-based dynamics.
  • Why Do People Behave the Way They Do? Psychology essay sample: There are many ways to determine why people think and act in a particular manner. This paper discusses the psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, and biological perspectives.
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Psychology essay sample: Rational emotive behavior therapy is a methodology that causes recognizing unreasonable convictions and negative idea designs that may prompt enthusiastic or social issues.
  • Behavior and Aspects of Human Personality: Analysis of Three Articles Psychology essay sample: The articles focus on cognitive dissonance and how it affects the decision-making process, the evaluation of antisocial tendencies, the traits connected to criminal personality.
  • Attribution Theory: Overview and Real-life Application Psychology essay sample: In terms of the present paper, an attempt will be made to dwell on the peculiarities of attribution theory and its real-life application examples.
  • Becker’s Labeling Theory: Advantages and Disadvantages Psychology essay sample: This paper will examine and criticize Becker's labeling ideas in detail to demonstrate their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: When Is It Useful? Psychology essay sample: The cognitive-behavioral therapy is a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of thinking in how we feel and behave.
  • Psychology of Personal Behavior Change Psychology essay sample: This paper aims to discuss how to improve well-being based on the behavior change approaches, replacing soda with water as an example
  • The Implicit Association Test: The Behavior of an Individual Psychology essay sample: The implicit Association Test is a test that aims to discover and measure the implicit bias of a person taking it. During the time taking the test, a person needs to react quickly.
  • Communicative Function of Behavior Psychology essay sample: Behavioral issues in children and adolescents preventing them from successful socialization frequently derive from their inability to communicate their current needs.
  • Television Programs and Children's Violent Behavior Psychology essay sample: This paper critically analyses various research that demonstrates the relationship between television programs and violent behavior in children.
  • Child Psychology: Children's Behavior and Communication Style Psychology essay sample: The methods allow for identifying a child's communication style. This helps in finding a specific approach for each kid and indicating their weak spots.
  • Fundamentals of Psychology: Changing Behavior Psychology essay sample: This behavior can be caused by fatigue, stress, and lack of sleep. Even though it is pretty standard, aggression still affects a person's daily life.
  • Nightmares Case Conceptualization Through a Framework of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Psychology essay sample: The given case conceptualization focuses on a patient, Ms. Cruz, who is suffering from recurring nightmares of hurting her four-month-old son.
  • Behavior Theory: Practice Model Overview Psychology essay sample: The model reflects how work surroundings affect change of behavior, ignoring the fact that the conduct of people is inherited from one group to another.
  • Practices That Support Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses the ways to provide education for children at risk of emotional and behavioral disorders without detracting from the education quality.
  • Observed Behaviors of 10-Year Old Children and Supporting Theories Psychology essay sample: This paper explains Erikson’s psychosocial, Freud’s psychosexual, Piaget’s cognitive developmental theories, Bandura’s social learning, Kohlberg’s moral development perspectives.
  • The Case Formulation Approach to Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Psychology essay sample: Persons also fails to provide templates that would assist clinicians unfamiliar with CBT assessment processes to develop a standard for working with patients in pretreatment.
  • How Emotions Motivate Human Behavior Psychology essay sample: Happiness is the greatest emotional motivator because it makes people behave in a particular manner they believe will result in happiness.
  • Bullying Behavior in Children Psychology essay sample: The paper states that contributing factors to bullying behavior are family violence and media content that encourages victimization.
  • Psychological and Behavioral Factors of Individual Terrorists Psychology essay sample: Individual terrorism is a combination of psychological and behavioral factors that lead to the gradual radicalization of a person.
  • Introduction to Learning and Behavior Psychology essay sample: Experiments on animals usually make students bored and uninterested in studying them. Aspects derived from these experiments can improve studying habits and romantic relationships.
  • Behavior Modification Strategies in Diverse Settings Psychology essay sample: There are multiple benefits to studying behavioral psychology at a professional level, including the opportunity to evaluate and even design behavior modification (BM) strategies.
  • Case Conceptualization Using Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Psychology essay sample: Rational emotive behavior therapy can be used for treating different patients with various psychological ailments. It includes three therapeutic techniques.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Cultural Factors Psychology essay sample: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can offer multiple benefits in the context of cultural issues. It can be easily adapted to be responsive to the client’s cultural identity and beliefs.
  • Motivation for Helping Behavior Psychology essay sample: While helping someone, it is easy to determine their own motives by realizing whether a person asks themselves additional questions regarding the affairs' purpose.
  • Learning Theories and Their Practical Application to Behavior Change Psychology essay sample: The paper aims to study different learning theories and their practical application to behavior change: Albert Bandura's theory, Clark Hull's theory, etc.
  • Factors That Affect Human Behavior Psychology essay sample: Human beings are inherently social beings, and they tend to interact with other people. Social connections and caring for others demonstrate the concept of relatedness.
  • Deviant Behavior Characteristics and Examples Psychology essay sample: Deviant behavior (a violation of social norms) has become widespread in recent years and has become the center of attention of sociologists, social psychologists, and doctors.
  • Positive Behavior Support Psychology essay sample: The paper states that deviant behavior is quite a big problem for teachers and students. This approach aims to develop a strategy for teachers.
  • Behavior Issues of People with Disabilities Psychology essay sample: Individuals with developmental impairments have cognitive deficits in the following areas: self-care, receptive and expressive communication, academic learning, etc.
  • Nature or Nurture: Which Impacts Human Behavior More? Psychology essay sample: Even though empirical data represent the dominance of nurture over nature in human behavior, it is vital to remember that human behavior and development are complex processes.
  • Childhood Maltreatment and Behavior Problems Psychology essay sample: The research centers on examining whether or not early childhood maltreatment (before the age of four) affected the long-term behavioral deviations.
  • Early-Life Stress and Behavioral Outcomes Psychology essay sample: The study aims to understand the mechanisms behind the long-lasting consequences of early-life stress exposure. It is accomplished by comparing the results of tests.
  • Deviant Behavior, Crimes, and Justice: Perceptions and Reflections Psychology essay sample: The paper describes deviance as any conduct, trait, or belief that breaches social norms in a particular society or group.

⭐ Simple & Easy Behavior Essay Titles

  • Importance of Stimulus Generalization
  • Biological Theories Relating to Human Behavior and Criminality
  • Behaviorism Learning Theory
  • Deviant Behavior Related to Stress and Strain
  • Advanced Preparation Standard 3: Behavioral Intervention Planning
  • Person-Centered and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Psychological Perspectives Explaining Behavior
  • MARS Individual Behavior Model
  • Unconditional and Conditional Stimuli in Human Behavior
  • Television Programs and Violent Behavior in Children
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Trauma
  • The Dilute Ego’s Impact on a Person’s Behavior
  • Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis and Prosocial Behaviour in Humans
  • Suicidal Behavior Management: Values and Beliefs
  • Behavior: Zimbardo and Moscovici Experiment
  • Sustainable and Non-Sustainable Consumer Behavior in Young Adults
  • Relationship of Proactive Personality, Financial Planning Behavior and Life Satisfaction
  • Behavioral Perspective Theory: History and Critique
  • Overcoming Stage Fright: Behavior Modification Techniques
  • Separation of Children and Related Behavioral Disorders
  • Temperament and Behavior in Young Children
  • Care Workers' Knowledge of Psychological Theories
  • How Psychological Principles Are Used in Everyday Life
  • Competitive Social Behavior in Psychology
  • Why Adolescents Engage in Risk-Taking Behaviors
  • Health Belief and Transtheoretical Models
  • Nature Versus Nurture: Impact on Human Behavior
  • Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
  • Theories of Change Within Human Behavior
  • ADHD, Behavioral Issues, and Mental Health
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Family Violence Cases
  • The Behavior Intervention Support Team's Goals
  • Attitude-Behavior Relationship in Travel Behavior Modeling
  • Weekly Routine and Stressors: Nutrition Education and Behavior
  • Key Principles that Govern Human and Animal Behavior
  • Speech on Self-Concept and Consumer Behavior
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Depression
  • The Collective Behavior Deviations
  • Karl Denke's Psychopathic Behaviors Journey
  • Americans’ Mental, Social and Behavioral Health
  • What If Video Games Influence Behavior?
  • Disruptive Behavior in Primary School
  • Motive as a Predictor of Behavior
  • Aspects of Personal Behavior Change
  • Deviant Behavior and the Commitment of Crime
  • Nature or Nurture: What Shapes the Human Behavior
  • Common Patterns of Social Behaviors
  • The Risk-Taking in Children: Reasons and Effects
  • Human Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture
  • Storybooks Promote Prosocial Behaviors in Children
  • Aspects of Learning and Memory
  • Milgram’s Study of Obedience
  • Normal vs. Pathological Aging Differences
  • Guiding Children’s Challenging Behaviors
  • Fear and Freedom in Human Behavior
  • Students’ Behaviors, Intellectual and Psychological Characteristics
  • Comparison of Developmental Stages
  • Interpersonal Conflict: Approaches to Understanding
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Fundamental Attribution Error in Psychology
  • Social Psychology: The Power of Nature or Nurture
  • Abnormal and Normal Psychological Thinking
  • The Pygmalion Effect as Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  • Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Children
  • Theory of Planned Behavior in Changing Behavior
  • Trait, Behavior, and Contingent Theories
  • Treating Acrophobia with Cognitive Behavior Therapy
  • Psychological Disorders: Definitions and Treatments
  • Skinner's Ideas of Culture Based on Human Behavior
  • Management of Family Communication Issues
  • Systemic Theory in Family Therapy
  • Foundational Psychological Processes
  • Team-Building Across Cultures: Literature Review
  • Aggression Intervention Training Plan
  • Aspects of Habit Hacking Mission
  • Educational Psychology: Change Students’ Behavior
  • Three Cognition and Behaviour Theories
  • Skinner and Chomsky on Nature vs. Nurture
  • Influences on an Individual’s Behavior, Feelings, or Thoughts
  • Three Major Features of Behaviorism
  • Analysis of Cognitive and Behavioural Changes of Teenagers
  • Stigmatization and Discrimination
  • The Single-Subject Design Helping Students with Social Challenges
  • Prosocial Behavior in Children
  • “Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard”: Main Theme and Key Ideas
  • Family Therapy on Children’s Behavior
  • The COVID-19 Pandemic and Social Well-Being
  • Observation of Prescriptive and Descriptive Gender Stereotypes
  • Attitudes and Emotions Through Body Language
  • Behavioral Therapy and Theories of Working Memory
  • Psychology in Human-Computer Interaction
  • Behavioral Challenges After Vehicle Accident
  • Levels of Psychological Analysis
  • The Token Economy Behavior Management Approach
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapy and Treatment Plan
  • Skinner's Verbal Behavior as an Operant Paradigm
  • Interpersonal Therapy, Its Types and Techniques
  • The Influence of Nurture on Human Behavior
  • Aspects of Comprehensive Child Report
  • Toddler Observation and Piaget's Theory Application
  • The Social Cognitive Approach: The Environment and Patterns of Thought
  • Food Behavior and the Myths Surrounding It: Eating Disorders
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Its Application
  • Specialization Plan on Veterans from Ethnic Minorities
  • Symptoms of Obsessive Love Disorder
  • Youth Substance Abuse Intervention and Planned Behavior
  • Psychology of Human Behavior in Literary Works
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder in College Students and Potential Treatment
  • Secondary Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children
  • Causes and Effects of Anxiety in Children
  • Observational Research: Perspectives in Psychology
  • Ethics in Psychology: Stanford Prison Experiment
  • Nature and Nurture in Determining Human Behavior
  • The Relation Between Psychology and Other Sciences
  • Anxiety and Depression During Childhood and Adolescence
  • Establishment of Psychology: The Role of Behaviorism
  • Social Skills: Social Behavior and Skills in Children
  • Active Listening Behavior Modification Project
  • Psychology: How Cognitive Science Differs from Behaviorism
  • "Abnormal Psychology and Life: A Dimensional Approach": Summary
  • Classical Conditioning: Behavior Management
  • Is Birth Order really Important in Peer Relationship?
  • Discussion: The Psychological Observation
  • Application of Personality Theories
  • Multiculturalism in Psychology
  • Aspects of Understanding Human Behavior
  • Behavior: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence Model
  • Behaviorist and Humanistic Perspectives
  • The Imperfection of the Zero Tolerance Policy
  • Human Development from Infancy to Death
  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in Counseling
  • Hate Crime in Relation to Social Psychology
  • Reality Therapy Applied to a Patient's Case Study
  • Behaviorism as a Psychological Approach
  • Learning in Animals and Humans
  • Counseling Native American Clients
  • The Structural Family Therapy
  • The Magic Circle as a Method for Comprehending the Play Experience
  • The Best Solution to Predict Depression Because of Bullying
  • Living Conditions and Behavioral & Mental Patterns
  • Maya Angelou's Personality Assessment
  • The Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
  • Geertz’s Thick Description and Culture: Behavioral Science
  • Human Behavior and Factors of Its Formation
  • The Problem of Deviant Behavior: Case Description and Diagnoses
  • Understanding Human Behavior and Its Motives
  • Motivation and Emotions: Influence on the Behavioral Patterns
  • The Theory of Planned Behavior
  • Prosocial Behavior and Hostilities Against Women
  • Teacher’s Observation of Children’s Behavior
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as a Remedy for Substance Abuse
  • How Task Froup Experiences Impact Behavior
  • Heroin Drug in Behavioural and Neural Studies
  • An Example of Classical Conditioning
  • Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapy Models
  • Organizational Behavior in Management Science
  • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
  • Media Violence: Does It Cause Violent Behavior? This study aims to address the issue of media violence and put forward three claims that prove it is harmful to the mental health of people, especially adolescents.
  • Hostile Behavior From Sociological Perspectives
  • Abnormal Behavior and Its Effect on Society
  • Human Behavior in the Environment In simple terms, environment means the surroundings. It comprises living and non-living things. Human beings and nature depend on each other for them to survive.
  • Abstinence and Human Sexual Behavior
  • Abusive Behavior, Consequences, and Responsibility
  • Gender Identity and Behavior: Nature and Nurture Psychologists examined the extent to which gender identities, behaviors (such as similar-sex friendships), and roles are influenced by nature and nurture.
  • Academic Achievements of Children With Behavioral Disorders
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Health Behavior Change
  • The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines The Belmont Report focuses on ethical guidelines and principles concerning protecting human research subjects.
  • Political Views and Bureaucratic Behavior
  • Behavior Problems in Preschool Children
  • Marketing and Consumer Behavior in Healthcare The general idea of marketing is no different in the healthcare industry since it entails the strategic implementation of outreach and communication strategies.
  • Issues in the Self-Regulation of Behavior
  • Determinants of Children’s Eating Behavior
  • Nurses’ Attitudes Toward Suicidal Behavior Nurses’ attitudes toward suicidal behavior are related to their personal qualities and experience. Negative attitudes are associated with insufficient experience.
  • Behavior: The Control of Perception
  • The Challenge of Increasing Proenvironment Behavior
  • International Conflicts and Human Behavior The conflict between the U.S and the Taliban has existed for a long due to terrorism and disagreement between Afghanistan and the United States.
  • Behavior as a Function of the Situation
  • Economic Concepts for the Analysis of Behavior
  • Job Satisfaction and Ethical Behavior in Prisons The prison system has been described in the past as being a place where employees have poor satisfaction. The criminal justice managers want to promote ethical behavior in prisons.
  • The Economics of University Behavior
  • Behavior in Public Places
  • Organizational Behavior in Criminal Justice: McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Behavioral management takes into account some aspects of McGregor’s theories X and Y. This paper examines theoretical frameworks in the context of criminal justice organizations.
  • Understanding Culture’s Influence on Behavior
  • Children’s Moral Motivation, Sympathy, and Prosocial Behavior
  • The Role of Behavior in Evolution
  • Social and Cognitive Correlates of Children’s Lying Behavior
  • Teaching and Behavioral Theories Educational philosophy has developed for centuries based on teaching and behavioral theories. Behaviorism theory is based on the principles of stimulus and response.
  • Strategies for Promoting Proenvironmental Behavior
  • Physiological and Functional Aspects of Stereotyped Behavior
  • Educational Psychology: Behaviorism Concerning educational psychology, the most helpful content is behaviorism. The perspective is fundamental in determining some of the significant shifts in behavior.
  • Behavior in the Complex Environment
  • Maternal Depression and Children’s Antisocial Behavior
  • School-Wide Positive Behavioral Support Aiming to convince the school principal of the importance of school-wide positive behavioral support, educating scholars in positive attitudes is important.
  • Science and Human Behavior
  • The Influence of Work on Behavior
  • Behavior and Humanism Learning Theories The following paper will present, analyze, compare, and contrast two educational theories, behaviorism and humanism.
  • Financial Behavior and Life Satisfaction of College Students
  • Adaptive Behavior and Economic Theory
  • The Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents and Their Risk-Taking Behavior To increase the emotional intelligence of adolescents and improve their risk-taking behavior and creativity, a teacher should explain to them how to understand their emotions.
  • The Right to Effective Behavioral Treatment
  • Psychology of Learning and Behavior
  • The Impact of Deviant Behavior by Police Officers The police deviance has significant impacts that affect the public such as victimization, and the police unit itself such as police integrity, trust, and respect from the public.
  • Values and Proenvironmental Behavior
  • The Relationship Context of Human Behavior and Development
  • Application of Ethical Business Behavior Ethical business behavior can be applied in different organizational disciplines depending on departmental needs.
  • The Role of Inheritance in Behavior
  • Designing and Understanding Adaptive Group Behavior
  • Leadership Theories and Behavior Evaluation This paper aims to review leadership models to explain how leaders exercise control in organizations and evaluate specific leaders’ behaviors.
  • Individual Behavior, Culture, and Social Change
  • Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers
  • Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Behavior In the contemporary business world, emotional intelligence (EI) may be frequently regarded as a highly essential ability along with professional knowledge and skills.
  • Psychological Analysis of Economic Behavior
  • Unethical Behavior in Organizations
  • What Is Behaviorism, and How Does It Define the Scope of Psychology?
  • How Does Culture Influence Human Behavior?
  • What Toxic Behavior Has Been Normalized by Society?
  • How Did Behaviorism Emerge as a School of Thought in Psychology?
  • What Subtle Behavior Makes a Person More Attractive?
  • How Does Behaviorism View the Role of Consciousness and Mental Processes in Understanding Behavior?
  • Is Human Behavior Genetic or Learned?
  • What Type of Motivation Is Created by Behaviorism?
  • How Does Behaviorism Influence Our Way of Thinking?
  • What Are Some Classic Experiments or Studies That Illustrate the Principles of Behaviorism?
  • How Does Behaviorism Approach the Study of Learning and Conditioning?
  • What Are the Criticisms and Limitations of Behaviorism as a Psychological Framework?
  • How Do Cultural Norms and Societal Expectations Influence Individual and Group Behaviors?
  • What Is the Role of Reinforcement and Punishment in Shaping and Modifying Behavior?
  • How Has Behaviorism Evolved Over Time, Including Developments Like Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?
  • How Does Behavior Serve as a Fundamental Aspect of Human and Animal Existence?
  • How Do Behaviors Vary Across Cultures and Societies, and What Factors Contribute to These Variations?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Behavior and Evolution, and How Does Behavior Aid in Survival and Reproduction?
  • How Do Naturalistic Observations and Laboratory Experiments Contribute to Our Understanding of Behavior?
  • How Do Individuals Learn and Acquire New Behaviors, and What Are the Mechanisms Involved?
  • What Role Does Behaviorism Play in Understanding the Development of Social Behaviors and Cultural Norms?
  • How Does Behavior Change Over the Lifespan, From Infancy to Old Age?
  • Is Social Media Influencing Human Behavior?
  • What Factors Influence Learning in Behaviorism?
  • How Does Behaviorism Address Issues of Free Will and Determinism in Human Behavior?
  • What Are the Benefits of Behaviorism in Education?
  • How Does Behaviorism View Emotions and Their Relationship to Behavior?
  • Who Is the Father of Behaviorism?
  • How Does Behavior Contribute to the Formation of Social Bonds and Relationships Among Individuals?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Memory and Behavior?
  • What Is Behavior Modification?
  • How Does the Environment of an Individual Affect His Behavior?
  • What Is the Impact of Addictions on a Person’s Health, Behavior and Family?
  • What Is the Effect of Administrative Leadership on Employee Behavior?
  • Can Cognitive Behavior Therapy Overcome Depression?
  • What Factors Influence the Behavior of a Teenager?
  • How Does Advertising Affect Consumer Behavior?
  • What Behavioral Changes Occur During a Pandemic?
  • How Does Aggressive Behavior on Television Affect Children?
  • Do Adverse Childhood Experiences Influence Behavior in Adulthood?
  • What Is the Connection Between Cultural Values and Human Behavior?
  • What Are the Motives of Altruistic Behavior?
  • How Does Alcohol Affect Human Behavior?
  • What Behavior Improves the Public Good?
  • How Does Divorce Affect Children’s Behavior and Emotions?
  • What Behavior in Ambiguous Situations Is Characteristic of Different Age Groups?
  • Do Antisocial Personality Disorders Always Lead to Criminal Behavior?
  • What Is Ethical Corporate Behavior?
  • What Factors Influence Individual Behavior at Work?
  • How Can Behavioral Disorders Affect a Person’s Life?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Productive and Counterproductive Behavior?
  • What Are the Problems of Adolescent Behavior That Parents Are Most Often Faced With?
  • What Factors Affect Financial Literacy and Investment Behavior?
  • Can Animals Exhibit Immoral Behavior?
  • How to Respond to Antisocial Behavior on the Internet?
  • Are There Really Autonomous “Unconscious” Goals That Drive Behavior?
  • Do Violent Video Games Cause Bad Behavior in Children?
  • How Does Constant Stress at Work Affect Employee Behavior?
  • What Is Assertive Behavior?
  • How Does Lack of Socialization Affect an Individual’s Behavior?

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  • How to Write a Great Title

Title

Maximize search-ability and engage your readers from the very beginning

Your title is the first thing anyone who reads your article is going to see, and for many it will be where they stop reading. Learn how to write a title that helps readers find your article, draws your audience in and sets the stage for your research!

How your title impacts the success of your article

Researchers are busy and there will always be more articles to read than time to read them.  Good titles help readers find your research, and decide whether to keep reading. Search engines use titles to retrieve relevant articles based on users’ keyword searches. Once readers find your article, they’ll use the title as the first filter to decide whether your research is what they’re looking for. A strong and specific title is the first step toward citations, inclusion in meta-analyses, and influencing your field. 

research title example about behavior

What to include in a title

Include the most important information that will signal to your target audience that they should keep reading.

Key information about the study design

Important keywords

What you discovered

Writing tips

Getting the title right can be more difficult than it seems, and researchers refine their writing skills throughout their career. Some journals even help editors to re-write their titles during the publication process! 

research title example about behavior

  • Keep it concise and informative What’s appropriate for titles varies greatly across disciplines. Take a look at some articles published in your field, and check the journal guidelines for character limits. Aim for fewer than 12 words, and check for journal specific word limits.
  • Write for your audience Consider who your primary audience is: are they specialists in your specific field, are they cross-disciplinary, are they non-specialists?
  • Entice the reader Find a way to pique your readers’ interest, give them enough information to keep them reading.
  • Incorporate important keywords Consider what about your article will be most interesting to your audience: Most readers come to an article from a search engine, so take some time and include the important ones in your title!
  • Write in sentence case In scientific writing, titles are given in sentence case. Capitalize only the first word of the text, proper nouns, and genus names. See our examples below.

research title example about behavior

Don’t

  • Write your title as a question In most cases, you shouldn’t need to frame your title as a question. You have the answers, you know what you found. Writing your title as a question might draw your readers in, but it’s more likely to put them off.
  • Sensationalize your research Be honest with yourself about what you truly discovered. A sensationalized or dramatic title might make a few extra people read a bit further into your article, but you don’t want them disappointed when they get to the results.

Examples…

Format: Prevalence of [disease] in [population] in [location]

Example: Prevalence of tuberculosis in homeless women in San Francisco

Format: Risk factors for [condition] among [population] in [location]

Example: Risk factors for preterm births among low-income women in Mexico City

Format (systematic review/meta-analysis): Effectiveness of [treatment] for [disease] in [population] for [outcome] : A systematic review and meta-analysis

Example: Effectiveness of Hepatitis B treatment in HIV-infected adolescents in the prevention of liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Format (clinical trial): [Intervention] improved [symptoms] of [disease] in [population] : A randomized controlled clinical trial

Example: Using a sleep app lessened insomnia in post-menopausal women in southwest United States: A randomized controlled clinical trial

Format  (general molecular studies): Characterization/identification/evaluation of [molecule name] in/from [organism/tissue] (b y [specific biological methods] ) 

Example: Identification of putative Type-I sex pheromone biosynthesis-related genes expressed in the female pheromone gland of Streltzoviella insularis

Format  (general molecular studies): [specific methods/analysis] of organism/tissue reveal insights into [function/role] of [molecule name] in [biological process]  

Example: Transcriptome landscape of Rafflesia cantleyi floral buds reveals insights into the roles of transcription factors and phytohormones in flower development

Format  (software/method papers): [tool/method/software] for [what purpose] in [what research area]

Example: CRISPR-based tools for targeted transcriptional and epigenetic regulation in plants

Tip: How to edit your work

Editing is challenging, especially if you are acting as both a writer and an editor. Read our guidelines for advice on how to refine your work, including useful tips for setting your intentions, re-review, and consultation with colleagues.

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The contents of the Peer Review Center are also available as a live, interactive training session, complete with slides, talking points, and activities. …

The contents of the Writing Center are also available as a live, interactive training session, complete with slides, talking points, and activities. …

There’s a lot to consider when deciding where to submit your work. Learn how to choose a journal that will help your study reach its audience, while reflecting your values as a researcher…

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80+ Great Research Titles Examples in Various Academic Fields

Research titles examples

Coming up with a research title for an academic paper is one of the most challenging parts of the writing process. Even though there is an unlimited quantity of research titles to write about, knowing which one is best for you can be hard. We have done the research for you and compiled eighty examples of research titles to write on. Additionally, we have divided the research titles examples into sections to make them easier to choose.

Research Study Examples of Current Events

Examples of research topics on ethics, title of research study examples on health, research paper title examples on social concerns, examples of research title on art and culture, example of research interest in religion, samples of research study topics on technology, research examples of environmental studies, good research title examples on history, specific topic examples regarding education, research title examples for students on family, food, and nutrition, research problems examples computer science, samples of research title about business marketing and communications, sample of research study topics in women’s studies, research problem example on politics, what are some examples of research paper topics on law, final words about research titles.

When it comes to choosing a good sample research title, research is one of the best tips you can get. By reading widely, including your school notes and scholarly articles, you will have a problem/line of interest examples in research. Then, you can derive any question from areas that appear to have a knowledge gap and proceed with researching the answer. As promised, below are eighty research title examples categorized into different areas, including social media research topics .

  • Discuss the peculiar policies of a named country – for example, discuss the impacts of the one-child policy of China.
  • Research on the influence of a named political leader, say a president, on the country they governed and other countries around. For instance, you can talk about how Trump’s presidency has changed international relations.
  • Conduct an analysis of a particular aspect of two named countries – for example, the history of the relationship between the U.S. and North Korea.
  • Compare the immigration laws in two or more named countries – for example, discuss how the immigration laws in the U.S. compares with other countries.
  • Discuss how the Black Lives Matter movement has affected the view and discussions about racism in the United States.
  • Enumerate the different ways the government of the United States can reduce deaths arising from the unregulated use of guns.
  • Analyze the place of ethics in medicine or of medical practitioners. For instance, you can discuss the prevalence of physician-assisted suicides in a named country. You may also talk about the ethicality of such a practice and whether it should be legal.
  • Explain how recent research breakthroughs have affected that particular field – for instance, how stem cell research has impacted the medical field.
  • Explain if and why people should be able to donate organs in exchange for money.
  • Discuss ethical behaviors in the workplace and (or) the educational sector. For example, talk about whether or not affirmative action is still important or necessary in education or the workplace.
  • Weigh the benefits and risks of vaccinating children and decide which one outweighs the other. Here, you might want to consider the different types of vaccinations and the nature and frequency of associated complications.
  • Investigate at least one of the health issues that currently pose a threat to humanity and which are under investigation. These issues can include Alzheimer’s, cancer, depression, autism, and HIV/AIDS. Research how these issues affect individuals and society and recommend solutions to alleviate cost and suffering.
  • Study some individuals suffering from and under treatment for depression. Then, investigate the common predictors of the disease and how this information can help prevent the issue.

Tip : To make this example of a research title more comprehensive, you can focus on a certain age range – say, teenagers.

  • Discuss whether or not free healthcare and medication should be available to people and the likely implications.
  • Identify and elucidate different methods or programs that have been most effective in preventing or reducing teen pregnancy.
  • Analyze different reasons and circumstances for genetic manipulation and the different perspectives of people on this matter. Then, discuss whether or not parents should be allowed to engineer designer babies.
  • Identify the types of immigration benefits, including financial, medical, and education, your country provides for refugees and immigrants. Then, discuss how these benefits have helped them in settling down and whether more or less should be provided.
  • Discuss the acceptance rate of the gay community in your country or a specific community. For example, consider whether or not gay marriage is permitted if they can adopt children, and if they are welcome in religious gatherings.
  • Explore and discuss if terrorism truly creates a fear culture that can become a society’s unintended terrorist.
  • Consider and discuss the different techniques one can use to identify pedophiles on social media.

Tip : Social issues research topics are interesting, but ensure you write formally and professionally.

  • Investigate the importance or lack of importance of art in primary or secondary education. You can also recommend whether or not it should be included in the curriculum and why.

Tip : You can write on this possible research title based on your experiences, whether positive or negative.

  • Discuss the role of illustration in children’s books and how it facilitates easy understanding in children. You may focus on one particular book or select a few examples and compare and contrast.
  • Should the use of art in books for adults be considered, and what are the likely benefits?
  • Compare and contrast the differences in art from two named cultural Renaissance – for instance, the Northern Renaissance and the Italian Renaissance.
  • Investigate how sexism is portrayed in different types of media, including video games, music, and film. You can also talk about whether or not the amount of sexism portrayed has reduced or increased over the years.
  • Explore different perspectives and views on dreams; are they meaningful or simply a game of the sleeping mind? You can also discuss the functions and causes of dreams, like sleeping with anxiety, eating before bed, and prophecies.
  • Investigate the main reasons why religious cults are powerful and appealing to the masses, referring to individual cases.
  • Investigate the impact of religion on the crime rate in a particular region.

Tip : Narrow down this research title by choosing to focus on a particular age group, say children or teenagers, or family. Alternatively, you can focus on a particular crime in the research to make the paper more extensive.

  • Explore reasons why Martin Luther decided to split with the Catholic church.
  • Discuss the circumstances in Siddhartha’s life that led to him becoming the Buddha.

Tip : It is important to remove sentiments from your research and base your points instead on clear evidence from a sound study. This ensures your title of research does not lead to unsubstantiated value judgments, which reduces the quality of the paper.

  • Discuss how the steel sword, gunpowder, biological warfare, longbow, or atomic bomb has changed the nature of warfare.

Tip : For this example of the research problem, choose only one of these technological developments or compare two or more to have a rich research paper.

  • Explore the changes computers, tablets, and smartphones have brought to human behaviors and culture, using published information and personal experience.

Tip : Approach each research study example in a research paper context or buy research paper online , giving a formal but objective view of the subject.

  • Are railroads and trains primary forces in the industrialization, exploitation, and settlement of your homeland or continent?
  • Discuss how the use of fossil fuels has changed or shaped the world.

Tip : Narrow down this title of the research study to focus on a local or particular area or one effect of fossil fuels, like oil spill pollution.

  • Discuss what progress countries have made with artificial intelligence. You can focus on one named country or compare the progress of one country with another.
  • Investigate the factual status of global warming – that is, is it a reality or a hoax? If it is a reality, explore the primary causes and how humanity can make a difference.
  • Conduct in-depth research on endangered wildlife species in your community and discuss why they have become endangered. You can also enumerate what steps the community can take to prevent these species from going extinct and increase their chances of survival.
  • Investigate the environmental soundness of the power sources in your country or community. Then, recommend alternative energy sources that might be best suited for the area and why.
  • Consider an area close to wildlife reserves and national parks, and see whether oil and mineral exploration has occurred there. Discuss whether this action should be allowed or not, with fact-backed reasons.
  • Investigate how the use and abolishment of DDT have affected the population of birds in your country.

Tip : Each example research title requires that you consult authoritative scientific reports to improve the quality of your paper. Furthermore, specificity and preciseness are required in each example of research title and problem, which only an authority source can provide.

  • Discuss the importance of a major historical event and why it was so important in the day. These events can include the assassination of John F. Kennedy or some revolutionary document like the Magna Carta.
  • Consider voyagers such as the Vikings, Chinese, as well as native populations and investigate whether Columbus discovered America first.
  • Choose a named historical group, family, or individual through their biographies, examining them for reader responses.
  • Research people of different cultural orientations and their responses to the acts of others who live around them.
  • Investigate natural disasters in a named country and how the government has responded to them. For example, explore how the response of the New Orleans government to natural disasters has changed since Hurricane Katrina.

Tip : Focus this research title sample on one particular country or natural disaster or compare the responses of two countries with each other.

  • Explore the educational policy, “no child left behind,” investigating its benefits and drawbacks.
  • Investigate the concept of plagiarism in the twenty-first century, its consequences, and its prevalence in modern universities. Take a step further to investigate how and why many students don’t understand the gravity of their errors.
  • Do in-depth research on bullying in schools, explaining the seriousness of the problem in your area in particular. Also, recommend actions schools, teachers, and parents can take to improve the situation if anything.
  • Explore the place of religion in public schools; if it has a place, explain why, and if it does not, explain why not.
  • Does a student’s financial background have any effect on his or her academic performance? In this sample research title, you can compare students from different financial backgrounds, from wealthy to average, and their scores on standardized tests.
  • Is spanking one’s child considered child abuse; if so, why? In this research problem example for students, consider whether or not parents should be able to spank their children.
  • Investigate the relationship between family health and nutrition, focusing on particular nutrition. This example of the title of the research study, for instance, can focus on the relationship between breastfeeding and baby health.
  • Elucidate on, if any, the benefits of having a home-cooked meal and sitting down as a family to eat together.
  • Explore the effect of fast-food restaurants on family health and nutrition, and whether or not they should be regulated.
  • Research local food producers and farms in your community, pinpointing how much of your diet is acquired from them.

Tip : These are great research titles from which you can coin research topics for STEM students .

  • Compare and contrast the two major operating systems: Mac and Windows, and discuss which one is better.

Tip : This title of the research study example can lead to strong uninformed opinions on the matter. However, it is important to investigate and discuss facts about the two operating systems, basing your conclusions on these.

  • Explain the effect of spell checkers, autocorrect functions, and grammar checkers on the writing skills of computer users. Have these tools improved users’ writing skills or weakened them?

Tip : For this example of title research, it is better to consider more than one of these tools to write a comprehensive paper.

  • Discuss the role(s) artificial intelligence is playing now or will likely play in the future as regards human evolution.
  • Identify and investigate the next groundbreaking development in computer science (like the metaverse), explaining why you believe it will be important.
  • Discuss a particular trendsetting technological tool, like blockchain technology, and how it has benefited different sectors.

Tip : For this research title example, you may want to focus on the effect of one tool on one particular sector. This way, you can investigate this example of research and thesis statement about social media more thoroughly and give as many details as possible.

  • Consider your personal experiences as well as close friends’ and families experiences. Then, determine how marketing has invaded your lives and whether these impersonal communications are more positive than negative or vice versa.
  • Investigate the regulations (or lack thereof) that apply to marketing items to children in your region. Do you think these regulations are unfounded, right, or inadequate?
  • Investigate the merits and demerits of outsourcing customer services; you can compare the views of businesses with those of their customers.
  • How has the communication we do through blog sites, messaging, social media, email, and other online platforms improved interpersonal communications if it has?
  • Can understanding culture change the way you do business? Discuss how.

Tip : Ensure you share your reasoning on this title of the research study example and provide evidence-backed information to support your points.

  • Learn everything you can about eating disorders like bulimia and anorexia, as well as their causes, and symptoms. Then, investigate and discuss the impact of its significance and recommend actions that might improve the situation.
  • Research a major development in women’s history, like the admission of women to higher institutions and the legalization of abortion. Discuss the short-term and (or) long-term implications of the named event or development.
  • Discuss gender inequality in the workplace – for instance, the fact that women tend to earn less than men for doing the same job. Provide specific real-life examples as you explain the reasons for this and recommend solutions to the problem.
  • How have beauty contests helped women: have they empowered them in society or objectified them?

Tip : You may shift the focus of this topic research example to female strippers or women who act in pornographic movies.

  • Investigate exceptional businesswomen in the 21st century; you can focus on one or compare two or more.

Tip : When writing on the title of a research example related to women, avoid using persuasion tactics; instead, be tactful and professional in presenting your points.

  • Discuss the unique nature and implications of Donald Trump’s presidency on the United States and the world.
  • Investigate the conditions and forces related to the advent and rise of Nazi Germany. Shift the focus of this title research example on major wars like WWI or the American Civil War.
  • Is the enormous amount of money spent during election campaigns a legitimate expense?
  • Investigate a named major political scandal that recently occurred in your region or country. Discuss how it started, how its news spread, and its impacts on individuals in that area.
  • Discuss the impacts British rule had on India.
  • Investigate the rate of incarceration in your region and compare it with that of other countries or other regions.
  • Is incarcerating criminals an effective solution in promoting the rehabilitation of criminals and controlling crime rates?
  • Consider various perspectives on the issue of gun control and coin several argumentative essay topics on the matter.
  • Why do drivers continue to text while driving despite legal implications and dire consequences?
  • Discuss the legality of people taking their own lives due to suffering from a debilitating terminal disease.

Each example of the research title provided in this article will make for a rich, information-dense research paper. However, you have a part to play in researching thoroughly on the example of the research study. To simplify the entire process for you, hiring our writing services is key as you wouldn’t have to worry about choosing topics. Our team of skilled writers knows the right subject that suits your research and how to readily get materials on them.

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Crafting a Winning Research Paper Title: A Complete Guide

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Ever find it hard to come up with a catchy title for your research paper? You're not alone! Many people struggle with creating titles that grab attention and show what their work is about.

It can be frustrating because your title is like a first impression. If it's not interesting, people might ignore your research. 

But no worries! 

In this blog, we'll give you practical tips and examples to make sure your research paper title stands out. 

Whether you're a beginner or an expert, we want to help you write research paper titles that would make others excited about your work!

So, let’s get started.

Arrow Down

  • 1. What is a Research Paper Title, and Why Does it Matter?
  • 2. How to Write a Good Research Paper Title in 5 Steps
  • 3. Step 2: Keep it Clear and Concise
  • 4. Research Paper Title Examples
  • 5. Tips for Writing an Effective Research Paper Title

What is a Research Paper Title, and Why Does it Matter?

A research paper title is like the name tag for your work. It tells people what your research paper is about. It's the first thing readers see, and it's important because it helps them decide if they want to read more.

Think of it like this: Have you ever picked up a book because the title sounded interesting? It's kind of the same idea. A good title grabs attention and makes people curious about what's inside.

In the world of research, a well-crafted title is crucial because it sets the stage for your whole paper. 

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Key Characteristics of a Good Research Paper Title

Here are some important factors that create an engaging and interesting research paper title:

  • Clarity and Precision: Clearly conveys the main idea.
  • Relevance to Content: Reflects core focus and findings.
  • Conciseness: Keeps title brief and to the point.
  • Keywords and Phrases: Includes important search keywords.
  • Captivating Language: Engages interest without sacrificing accuracy.
  • Reflects Paper's Tone: Matches the research paper's tone and style.

How to Write a Good Research Paper Title in 5 Steps

Writing an effective research paper title doesn't have to be difficult. Follow these five straightforward steps to craft a title that not only reflects your research but also captures the reader's interest.

Step 1: Understand Your Paper's Main Message

Think of your research as a big idea or a story. Imagine it as the most important thing you want to share with others. 

Ask yourself: What's the main thing or research problem I want people to know about my research? 

Once you're clear on this, you're ready to move on.

Step 2: Keep it Clear and Concise

When making your title, make it short and simple. Don't use too many words or make it confusing. 

The goal is to make it easy for people to understand what your paper is about right away. Think of it like telling a quick and clear story with your title!

Step 3: Be Specific, Not Too General

When writing your title, make sure it talks about your research and not just anything general. Don't use titles that could fit lots of different studies. 

Being specific helps people know exactly what your paper is going to tell them. It's like giving them a clear roadmap to your research!

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Step 4: Inject a Hint of Creativity or Intrigue

Make your title a little exciting! Use engaging words or ask a fun question to make people curious. Imagine your title as a little mystery that makes them want to learn more

Step 5: Check for Keywords and Relevance

Think about the words people might use when searching for research like yours. Use those words in your title to help people find your work. 

Including relevant keywords can improve the visibility of your paper in searches.

Adding a Research Paper Subtitle

A research paper subtitle is like an extra description that comes after the main title. It gives more details about what your research is about. 

Adding a subtitle is a choice, but it can be helpful. If your main title is short and you want to say more about your research, a subtitle is a good idea. 

It's like a bonus that provides extra information for readers. Consider using a subtitle when you want to give a bit more insight into your research topic.

Research Paper Title Examples

Check out the examples below and see how they perform in front of different factors:

Tips for Writing an Effective Research Paper Title

Follow these tips to make your research paper title engaging and attention-grabbing:

  • Add important words related to your research for better search results.
  • Make your title brief and clear to convey your research focus effectively.
  • Use words that grab attention and spark curiosity about your study.
  • Craft a title that anyone, whether an expert or newcomer, can understand.
  • Aim for a title that's not too general or too technical, striking the right balance.

In conclusion,

Writing a standout research paper title is a crucial step to ensure your work gets the attention it deserves. Following the simple tips shared in this guide can help you create a title that is clear, engaging, and perfectly aligned with your research focus. 

Remember, your title is the first thing readers see, so making it count is key!

However, if you need writing assistance, MyPerfectWords.com is here for you. Our skilled writers are not only ready to help with writing compelling titles but can also write custom research paper just for you.

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  • 10 Research Question Examples to Guide Your Research Project

10 Research Question Examples to Guide your Research Project

Published on October 30, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on October 19, 2023.

The research question is one of the most important parts of your research paper , thesis or dissertation . It’s important to spend some time assessing and refining your question before you get started.

The exact form of your question will depend on a few things, such as the length of your project, the type of research you’re conducting, the topic , and the research problem . However, all research questions should be focused, specific, and relevant to a timely social or scholarly issue.

Once you’ve read our guide on how to write a research question , you can use these examples to craft your own.

Note that the design of your research question can depend on what method you are pursuing. Here are a few options for qualitative, quantitative, and statistical research questions.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Methodology

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

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100 Qualitative Research Titles For High School Students

Are you brainstorming for excellent qualitative research titles for your high school curriculum? If yes, then this blog is for you! Academic life throws a lot of thesis and qualitative research papers and essays at you. Although thesis and essays may not be much of a hassle. However, when it comes to your research paper title, you must ensure that it is qualitative, and not quantitative. 

Qualitative research is primarily focused on obtaining data through case studies, artifacts, interviews, documentaries, and other first-hand observations. It focuses more on these natural settings rather than statistics and numbers. If you are finding it difficult to find a topic, then worry not because the high schooler has this blog post curated for you with 100 qualitative research titles that can help you get started!

Qualitative research prompts for high schoolers

Qualitative research papers are written by gathering and analyzing non-numerical data. Generally, teachers allot a list of topics that you can choose from. However, if you aren’t given the list, you need to search for a topic for yourself.

Qualitative research topics mostly deal with the happenings in society and nature. There are endless topics that you can choose from. We have curated a list of 100 qualitative research titles for you to choose from. Read on and pick the one that best aligns with your interests!

  • Why is there a pressing need for wildlife conservation?
  • Discuss the impacts of climate change on future generations. 
  • Discuss the impact of overpopulation on sustainable resources.
  • Discuss the factors considered while establishing the first 10 engineering universities in the world.
  • What is the contribution of AI to emotional intelligence? Explain. 
  • List out the effective methods to reduce the occurrences of fraud through cybercrimes.
  • With case studies, discuss some of the greatest movements in history leading to independence. 
  • Discuss real-life scenarios of gender-based discrimination. 
  • Discuss disparities in income and opportunities in developing nations. 
  • How to deal with those dealing with ADHD?
  • Describe how life was before the invention of the air conditioner. 
  • Explain the increasing applications of clinical psychology. 
  • What is psychology? Explain the career opportunities it brings forth for youngsters.
  • Covid lockdown: Is homeschooling the new way to school children?
  • What is the role of army dogs? How are they trained for the role?
  • What is feminism to you? Mention a feminist and his/her contributions to making the world a better place for women.  
  • What is true leadership quality according to you? Explain with a case study of a famous personality you admire for their leadership skills. 
  • Is wearing a mask effective in preventing covid-19? Explain the other practices that can help one prevent covid-19. 
  • Explain how teachers play an important role in helping students with disabilities improve their learning.
  • Is ‘E business’ taking over traditional methods of carrying out business?
  • What are the implications of allowing high schoolers to use smartphones in classes?
  • Does stress have an effect on human behavior?
  • Explain the link between poverty and education. 
  • With case studies, explain the political instability in developing nations.
  • Are ‘reality television shows’ scripted or do they showcase reality?
  • Online vs Offline teaching: which method is more effective and how?
  • Does there exist an underlying correlation between education and success? Explain with case studies.
  • Explain the social stigma associated with menstruation. 
  • Are OTT entertainment platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime beneficial in any other way?
  • Does being physically active help reverse type 2 diabetes?
  • Does pop culture influence today’s youth and their behavior?
  • ‘A friend in need is a friend in deed.’ Explain with case studies of famous personalities. 
  • Do books have greater importance in the lives of children from weaker economic backgrounds? Explain in detail.
  • Give an overview of the rise of spoken arts. 
  • Explain the problem of food insecurity in developing nations.
  • How related are Windows and Apple products?
  • Explore the methods used in schools to promote cultural diversity. 
  • Has social media replaced the physical social engagement of children in society?
  • Give an overview of allopathic medicine in treating mental disorders. 
  • Explain if and how willpower plays a role in overcoming difficulties in life. 
  • Are third-world countries seeing a decline in academic pursuit? Explain with real-life scenarios. 
  • Can animals predict earthquakes in advance? Explain which animals have this ability and how they do it. 
  • Discuss if the education system in America needs to improve. If yes, list out how this can be achieved.
  • Discuss democracy as a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.’
  • Discuss the increasing rate of attention deficit disorder among children.
  • Explain fun games that can help boost the morale of kids with dyslexia. 
  • Explain the causes of youth unemployment.
  • Explain some of the ways you think might help in making differently-abled students feel inclusive in the mainstream.
  • Explain in detail the challenges faced by students with special needs to feel included when it comes to accessibility to education.
  • Discuss the inefficiency of the healthcare system brought about by the covid-19 pandemic. 
  • Does living in hostels instill better life skills among students than those who are brought up at home? Explain in detail. 
  • What is Advanced Traffic Management? Explain the success cases of countries that have deployed it.  
  • Elaborate on the ethnic and socioeconomic reasons leading to poor school attendance in third-world nations.
  • Do preschoolers benefit from being read to by their parents? Discuss in detail.
  • What is the significance of oral learning in classrooms?
  • Does computer literacy promise a brighter future? Analyze. 
  • What people skills are enhanced in a high school classroom?
  • Discuss in detail the education system in place of a developing nation. Highlight the measures you think are impressive and those that you think need a change. 
  • Apart from the drawbacks of UV rays on the human body, explain how it has proven to be beneficial in treating diseases.  
  • Discuss why or why not wearing school uniforms can make students feel included in the school environment. 
  • What are the effective ways that have been proven to mitigate child labor in society? 
  • Explain the contributions of arts and literature to the evolving world. 
  • How do healthcare organizations cope with patients living with transmissive medical conditions?
  • Why do people with special abilities still face hardships when it comes to accessibility to healthcare and education?
  • What are the prevailing signs of depression in small children?
  • How to identify the occurrences and onset of autism in kids below three years of age?
  • Explain how SWOT and PESTLE analysis is important for a business.
  • Why is it necessary to include mental health education in the school curriculum?
  • What is adult learning and does it have any proven benefits?
  • What is the importance of having access to libraries in high school?
  • Discuss the need for including research writing in school curriculums. 
  • Explain some of the greatest non-violent movements of ancient history. 
  • Explain the reasons why some of the species of wildlife are critically endangered today. 
  • How is the growing emission of co2 bringing an unprecedented change in the environment?
  • What are the consequences of an increasing population in developing nations like India? Discuss in detail. 
  • Are remote tests as effective as in-class tests? 
  • Explain how sports play a vital role in schools. 
  • What do you understand about social activities in academic institutions? Explain how they pose as a necessity for students. 
  • Are there countries providing free healthcare? How are they faring in terms of their economy? Discuss in detail. 
  • State case studies of human lives lost due to racist laws present in society.
  • Discuss the effect of COVID-19 vaccines in curbing the novel coronavirus.
  • State what according to you is more effective: e-learning or classroom-based educational systems.
  • What changes were brought into the e-commerce industry by the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • Name a personality regarded as a youth icon. Explain his or her contributions in detail.
  • Discuss why more and more people are relying on freelancing as a prospective career. 
  • Does virtual learning imply lesser opportunities? What is your take?
  • Curbing obesity through exercise: Analyze.
  • Discuss the need and importance of health outreach programs.
  • Discuss in detail how the upcoming generation of youngsters can do its bit and contribute to afforestation.
  • Discuss the 2020 budget allocation of the United States. 
  • Discuss some of the historic ‘rags to riches’ stories.
  • What according to you is the role of nurses in the healthcare industry?
  • Will AI actually replace humans and eat up their jobs? Discuss your view and also explain the sector that will benefit the most from AI replacing humans. 
  • Is digital media taking over print media? Explain with case studies. 
  • Why is there an increasing number of senior citizens in the elderly homes? 
  • Are health insurances really beneficial? 
  • How important are soft skills? What role do they play in recruitment? 
  • Has the keto diet been effective in weight loss? Explain the merits and demerits. 
  • Is swimming a good physical activity to curb obesity? 
  • Is work from home as effective as work from office? Explain your take. 

Qualitative research titles for high school students

Tips to write excellent qualitative research papers

Now that you have scrolled through this section, we trust that you have picked up a topic for yourself from our list of 100 brilliant qualitative research titles for high school students. Deciding on a topic is the very first step. The next step is to figure out ways how you can ensure that your qualitative research paper can help you grab top scores. 

Once you have decided on the title, you are halfway there. However, deciding on a topic signals the next step, which is the process of writing your qualitative paper. This poses a real challenge! 

To help you with it, here are a few tips that will help you accumulate data irrespective of the topic you have chosen. Follow these four simple steps and you will be able to do justice to the topic you have chosen!

  • Create an outline based on the topic. Jot down the sub-topics you would like to include. 
  • Refer to as many sources as you can – documentaries, books, news articles, case studies, interviews, etc. Make a note of the facts and phrases you would like to include in your research paper. 
  • Write the body. Start adding qualitative data. 
  • Re-read and revise your paper. Make it comprehensible. Check for plagiarism, and proofread your research paper. Try your best and leave no scope for mistakes. 

Wrapping it up!

To wrap up, writing a qualitative research paper is almost the same as writing other research papers such as argumentative research papers , English research papers , Biology research papers , and more. Writing a paper on qualitative research titles promotes analytical and critical thinking skills among students. Moreover,  it also helps improve data interpretation and writing ability, which are essential for students going ahead.

research title example about behavior

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Kishan Bellur uses technology in his lab

The world is driven by liquid-vapor phase change

Uc engineering professor gets nsf career award to fund research on liquid films.

headshot of Lindsey Osterfeld

University of Cincinnati professor Kishan Bellur is captivated by evaporation — a phenomenon that is happening all the time, all around us, but few of us notice. Most liquid surfaces, for example, water in a test tube, are not flat. There is a slight curvature to it called the meniscus. As the liquid evaporates, it climbs up the side of the tube forming a very thin liquid film that is hard to see with the naked eye. Understanding the evaporation process and the behavior of these films are the focus of Bellur's latest research. 

Kishan Bellur. Photo/Corrie Mayer/CEAS Marketing

Bellur, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering, received the highly regarded National Science Foundation CAREER Award to fund his research on the behavior of thin evaporating liquid films for the next five years. 

Scientists are interested in studying these films because of their unique properties. Despite appearing to be stable, they actually dance around or oscillate, triggered by different factors, all of which result in a transfer of energy. This oscillation under the right conditions can move the meniscus, causing the liquid to shift up or down.

"The connection between the thin film and the rest of the meniscus is relatively unknown. That is the focus of the project," Bellur said. "We are running experiments and doing computer modeling to connect the currently unknown pieces of all length scales — from thin films to the bulk menisci." 

During his doctoral studies, Bellur became interested in thin films while studying storage and evaporation of liquid hydrogen (rocket fuel) at extremely low temperatures. He realized that as hydrogen evaporates inside spacecraft tanks, it wicks up the sides of the wall and forms a thin liquid film that can oscillate. By delving deeper into the properties of these films and the wicking behaviors, a realization dawned on him. 

"Digging deeper into why these films oscillate, it turns out the film stability is all about a mismatch between the evaporation and condensation process," Bellur said. 

Kishan Bellur became interested in thin films during his doctoral studies. Photo/Corrie Mayer/CEAS Marketing

Evaporation is a very energy intensive process. To evaporate something, heat is applied, however, the temperature remains constant. This is one of those unique processes where heat transport does not require a temperature change. Additionally, the thin film, where much of this evaporation takes place, covers an extremely small area, making it a very efficient heat transfer mechanism in terms of square footage. Bellur and his team at the UC Lab for Interfacial Dynamics  are studying how they can leverage these behaviors to develop better, more efficient heat transfer devices and make make advancements in space technology, hydrogen energy, and advanced manufacturing. 

Paired with the research Bellur and his team are conducting, this NSF award also focuses on education and outreach. When Bellur was walking around a local farmers market, a realization struck him: phase change and fluid dynamics are key ingredients in cooking. 

Scientific principles are all around the kitchen. For instance, the bubbling dynamics of boiling water to cook pasta, the heat transfer processes when baking a cake, the reaction of baking powder when added to a recipe; these are all examples of seemingly simple cooking tasks that are grounded in science. In short, the kitchen is a laboratory that is used by almost everyone. 

Graduate students in Kishan Bellur's lab participate in meaningful research under his guidance. Photo/Corrie Mayer/CEAS Marketing

Bellur and his engineering undergraduate students are partnering with the Hyde Park Farmers Market in Cincinnati to set up a booth with demonstrations to showcase the science happening in the kitchen with marketgoers. 

"I realized we could use the humble kitchen as an accessible personal laboratory to teach people about basic scientific principles," Bellur said. 

The goal of this outreach is to educate the public on scientific principles that are occurring in daily life and inspire them to think about science. 

In addition to the NSF CAREER project, Bellur is also involved with many facets of space research including that on the International Space Station. Currently through an NSF and Center for Advancement of Science in Space program, he is working on a unique sensor module to gather new data from a boiling and condensation experiment on the ISS. Bellur is also funded through the NASA Physical Sciences Informatics program wherein he and his team are extracting unique insights from data gathered in prior ISS experiments. 

Bellur advocates for undergraduate student research and fosters student development through various programs such as NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation . 

Featured image at top: Kishan Bellur received the prestigious National Science Foundation CAREER Award for his research on thin liquid films. Photo/Corrie Mayer/CEAS Marketing

  • Mechanical and Materials Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • College of Engineering and Applied Science

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University of Cincinnati professor Kishan Bellur is captivated by evaporation - a phenomena that is happening all the time, all around us, but few of us notice. Most liquid surfaces, for example, water in a test tube, are not flat. There is a slight curvature to it called the meniscus. As the liquid evaporates, it climbs up the side of the tube forming a very thin liquid film that is hard to see with the naked eye. Understanding the evaporation process and the behavior of these films are the focus of Bellur's latest research.

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    Qualitative research is primarily focused on obtaining data through case studies, artifacts, interviews, documentaries, and other first-hand observations. It focuses more on these natural settings rather than statistics and numbers. If you are finding it difficult to find a topic, then worry not because the high schooler has this blog post ...

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    University of Cincinnati professor Kishan Bellur is captivated by evaporation - a phenomena that is happening all the time, all around us, but few of us notice. Most liquid surfaces, for example, water in a test tube, are not flat. There is a slight curvature to it called the meniscus. As the liquid evaporates, it climbs up the side of the tube forming a very thin liquid film that is hard to ...