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How To Write A Lab Report | Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

Published on May 20, 2021 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on July 23, 2023.

A lab report conveys the aim, methods, results, and conclusions of a scientific experiment. The main purpose of a lab report is to demonstrate your understanding of the scientific method by performing and evaluating a hands-on lab experiment. This type of assignment is usually shorter than a research paper .

Lab reports are commonly used in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This article focuses on how to structure and write a lab report.

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Table of contents

Structuring a lab report, introduction, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about lab reports.

The sections of a lab report can vary between scientific fields and course requirements, but they usually contain the purpose, methods, and findings of a lab experiment .

Each section of a lab report has its own purpose.

  • Title: expresses the topic of your study
  • Abstract : summarizes your research aims, methods, results, and conclusions
  • Introduction: establishes the context needed to understand the topic
  • Method: describes the materials and procedures used in the experiment
  • Results: reports all descriptive and inferential statistical analyses
  • Discussion: interprets and evaluates results and identifies limitations
  • Conclusion: sums up the main findings of your experiment
  • References: list of all sources cited using a specific style (e.g. APA )
  • Appendices : contains lengthy materials, procedures, tables or figures

Although most lab reports contain these sections, some sections can be omitted or combined with others. For example, some lab reports contain a brief section on research aims instead of an introduction, and a separate conclusion is not always required.

If you’re not sure, it’s best to check your lab report requirements with your instructor.

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Your title provides the first impression of your lab report – effective titles communicate the topic and/or the findings of your study in specific terms.

Create a title that directly conveys the main focus or purpose of your study. It doesn’t need to be creative or thought-provoking, but it should be informative.

  • The effects of varying nitrogen levels on tomato plant height.
  • Testing the universality of the McGurk effect.
  • Comparing the viscosity of common liquids found in kitchens.

An abstract condenses a lab report into a brief overview of about 150–300 words. It should provide readers with a compact version of the research aims, the methods and materials used, the main results, and the final conclusion.

Think of it as a way of giving readers a preview of your full lab report. Write the abstract last, in the past tense, after you’ve drafted all the other sections of your report, so you’ll be able to succinctly summarize each section.

To write a lab report abstract, use these guiding questions:

  • What is the wider context of your study?
  • What research question were you trying to answer?
  • How did you perform the experiment?
  • What did your results show?
  • How did you interpret your results?
  • What is the importance of your findings?

Nitrogen is a necessary nutrient for high quality plants. Tomatoes, one of the most consumed fruits worldwide, rely on nitrogen for healthy leaves and stems to grow fruit. This experiment tested whether nitrogen levels affected tomato plant height in a controlled setting. It was expected that higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer would yield taller tomato plants.

Levels of nitrogen fertilizer were varied between three groups of tomato plants. The control group did not receive any nitrogen fertilizer, while one experimental group received low levels of nitrogen fertilizer, and a second experimental group received high levels of nitrogen fertilizer. All plants were grown from seeds, and heights were measured 50 days into the experiment.

The effects of nitrogen levels on plant height were tested between groups using an ANOVA. The plants with the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer were the tallest, while the plants with low levels of nitrogen exceeded the control group plants in height. In line with expectations and previous findings, the effects of nitrogen levels on plant height were statistically significant. This study strengthens the importance of nitrogen for tomato plants.

Your lab report introduction should set the scene for your experiment. One way to write your introduction is with a funnel (an inverted triangle) structure:

  • Start with the broad, general research topic
  • Narrow your topic down your specific study focus
  • End with a clear research question

Begin by providing background information on your research topic and explaining why it’s important in a broad real-world or theoretical context. Describe relevant previous research on your topic and note how your study may confirm it or expand it, or fill a gap in the research field.

This lab experiment builds on previous research from Haque, Paul, and Sarker (2011), who demonstrated that tomato plant yield increased at higher levels of nitrogen. However, the present research focuses on plant height as a growth indicator and uses a lab-controlled setting instead.

Next, go into detail on the theoretical basis for your study and describe any directly relevant laws or equations that you’ll be using. State your main research aims and expectations by outlining your hypotheses .

Based on the importance of nitrogen for tomato plants, the primary hypothesis was that the plants with the high levels of nitrogen would grow the tallest. The secondary hypothesis was that plants with low levels of nitrogen would grow taller than plants with no nitrogen.

Your introduction doesn’t need to be long, but you may need to organize it into a few paragraphs or with subheadings such as “Research Context” or “Research Aims.”

A lab report Method section details the steps you took to gather and analyze data. Give enough detail so that others can follow or evaluate your procedures. Write this section in the past tense. If you need to include any long lists of procedural steps or materials, place them in the Appendices section but refer to them in the text here.

You should describe your experimental design, your subjects, materials, and specific procedures used for data collection and analysis.

Experimental design

Briefly note whether your experiment is a within-subjects  or between-subjects design, and describe how your sample units were assigned to conditions if relevant.

A between-subjects design with three groups of tomato plants was used. The control group did not receive any nitrogen fertilizer. The first experimental group received a low level of nitrogen fertilizer, while the second experimental group received a high level of nitrogen fertilizer.

Describe human subjects in terms of demographic characteristics, and animal or plant subjects in terms of genetic background. Note the total number of subjects as well as the number of subjects per condition or per group. You should also state how you recruited subjects for your study.

List the equipment or materials you used to gather data and state the model names for any specialized equipment.

List of materials

35 Tomato seeds

15 plant pots (15 cm tall)

Light lamps (50,000 lux)

Nitrogen fertilizer

Measuring tape

Describe your experimental settings and conditions in detail. You can provide labelled diagrams or images of the exact set-up necessary for experimental equipment. State how extraneous variables were controlled through restriction or by fixing them at a certain level (e.g., keeping the lab at room temperature).

Light levels were fixed throughout the experiment, and the plants were exposed to 12 hours of light a day. Temperature was restricted to between 23 and 25℃. The pH and carbon levels of the soil were also held constant throughout the experiment as these variables could influence plant height. The plants were grown in rooms free of insects or other pests, and they were spaced out adequately.

Your experimental procedure should describe the exact steps you took to gather data in chronological order. You’ll need to provide enough information so that someone else can replicate your procedure, but you should also be concise. Place detailed information in the appendices where appropriate.

In a lab experiment, you’ll often closely follow a lab manual to gather data. Some instructors will allow you to simply reference the manual and state whether you changed any steps based on practical considerations. Other instructors may want you to rewrite the lab manual procedures as complete sentences in coherent paragraphs, while noting any changes to the steps that you applied in practice.

If you’re performing extensive data analysis, be sure to state your planned analysis methods as well. This includes the types of tests you’ll perform and any programs or software you’ll use for calculations (if relevant).

First, tomato seeds were sown in wooden flats containing soil about 2 cm below the surface. Each seed was kept 3-5 cm apart. The flats were covered to keep the soil moist until germination. The seedlings were removed and transplanted to pots 8 days later, with a maximum of 2 plants to a pot. Each pot was watered once a day to keep the soil moist.

The nitrogen fertilizer treatment was applied to the plant pots 12 days after transplantation. The control group received no treatment, while the first experimental group received a low concentration, and the second experimental group received a high concentration. There were 5 pots in each group, and each plant pot was labelled to indicate the group the plants belonged to.

50 days after the start of the experiment, plant height was measured for all plants. A measuring tape was used to record the length of the plant from ground level to the top of the tallest leaf.

In your results section, you should report the results of any statistical analysis procedures that you undertook. You should clearly state how the results of statistical tests support or refute your initial hypotheses.

The main results to report include:

  • any descriptive statistics
  • statistical test results
  • the significance of the test results
  • estimates of standard error or confidence intervals

The mean heights of the plants in the control group, low nitrogen group, and high nitrogen groups were 20.3, 25.1, and 29.6 cm respectively. A one-way ANOVA was applied to calculate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer level on plant height. The results demonstrated statistically significant ( p = .03) height differences between groups.

Next, post-hoc tests were performed to assess the primary and secondary hypotheses. In support of the primary hypothesis, the high nitrogen group plants were significantly taller than the low nitrogen group and the control group plants. Similarly, the results supported the secondary hypothesis: the low nitrogen plants were taller than the control group plants.

These results can be reported in the text or in tables and figures. Use text for highlighting a few key results, but present large sets of numbers in tables, or show relationships between variables with graphs.

You should also include sample calculations in the Results section for complex experiments. For each sample calculation, provide a brief description of what it does and use clear symbols. Present your raw data in the Appendices section and refer to it to highlight any outliers or trends.

The Discussion section will help demonstrate your understanding of the experimental process and your critical thinking skills.

In this section, you can:

  • Interpret your results
  • Compare your findings with your expectations
  • Identify any sources of experimental error
  • Explain any unexpected results
  • Suggest possible improvements for further studies

Interpreting your results involves clarifying how your results help you answer your main research question. Report whether your results support your hypotheses.

  • Did you measure what you sought out to measure?
  • Were your analysis procedures appropriate for this type of data?

Compare your findings with other research and explain any key differences in findings.

  • Are your results in line with those from previous studies or your classmates’ results? Why or why not?

An effective Discussion section will also highlight the strengths and limitations of a study.

  • Did you have high internal validity or reliability?
  • How did you establish these aspects of your study?

When describing limitations, use specific examples. For example, if random error contributed substantially to the measurements in your study, state the particular sources of error (e.g., imprecise apparatus) and explain ways to improve them.

The results support the hypothesis that nitrogen levels affect plant height, with increasing levels producing taller plants. These statistically significant results are taken together with previous research to support the importance of nitrogen as a nutrient for tomato plant growth.

However, unlike previous studies, this study focused on plant height as an indicator of plant growth in the present experiment. Importantly, plant height may not always reflect plant health or fruit yield, so measuring other indicators would have strengthened the study findings.

Another limitation of the study is the plant height measurement technique, as the measuring tape was not suitable for plants with extreme curvature. Future studies may focus on measuring plant height in different ways.

The main strengths of this study were the controls for extraneous variables, such as pH and carbon levels of the soil. All other factors that could affect plant height were tightly controlled to isolate the effects of nitrogen levels, resulting in high internal validity for this study.

Your conclusion should be the final section of your lab report. Here, you’ll summarize the findings of your experiment, with a brief overview of the strengths and limitations, and implications of your study for further research.

Some lab reports may omit a Conclusion section because it overlaps with the Discussion section, but you should check with your instructor before doing so.

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A lab report conveys the aim, methods, results, and conclusions of a scientific experiment . Lab reports are commonly assigned in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

The purpose of a lab report is to demonstrate your understanding of the scientific method with a hands-on lab experiment. Course instructors will often provide you with an experimental design and procedure. Your task is to write up how you actually performed the experiment and evaluate the outcome.

In contrast, a research paper requires you to independently develop an original argument. It involves more in-depth research and interpretation of sources and data.

A lab report is usually shorter than a research paper.

The sections of a lab report can vary between scientific fields and course requirements, but it usually contains the following:

  • Abstract: summarizes your research aims, methods, results, and conclusions
  • References: list of all sources cited using a specific style (e.g. APA)
  • Appendices: contains lengthy materials, procedures, tables or figures

The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.

In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.

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How to Write a Lab Report – with Example/Template

April 11, 2024

Perhaps you’re in the midst of your challenging AP chemistry class in high school, or perhaps college you’re enrolled in biology , chemistry , or physics at university. At some point, you will likely be asked to write a lab report. Sometimes, your teacher or professor will give you specific instructions for how to format and write your lab report, and if so, use that. In case you’re left to your own devices, here are some guidelines you might find useful. Continue reading for the main elements of a lab report, followed by a detailed description of the more writing-heavy parts (with a lab report example/lab report template). Lastly, we’ve included an outline that can help get you started.

What is a lab report?

A lab report is an overview of your experiment. Essentially, it explains what you did in the experiment and how it went. Most lab reports end up being 5-10 pages long (graphs or other images included), though the length depends on the experiment. Here are some brief explanations of the essential parts of a lab report:

Title : The title says, in the most straightforward way possible, what you did in the experiment. Often, the title looks something like, “Effects of ____ on _____.” Sometimes, a lab report also requires a title page, which includes your name (and the names of any lab partners), your instructor’s name, and the date of the experiment.

Abstract : This is a short description of key findings of the experiment so that a potential reader could get an idea of the experiment before even beginning.

Introduction : This is comprised of one or several paragraphs summarizing the purpose of the lab. The introduction usually includes the hypothesis, as well as some background information.

Lab Report Example (Continued)

Materials : Perhaps the simplest part of your lab report, this is where you list everything needed for the completion of your experiment.

Methods : This is where you describe your experimental procedure. The section provides necessary information for someone who would want to replicate your study. In paragraph form, write out your methods in chronological order, though avoid excessive detail.

Data : Here, you should document what happened in the experiment, step-by-step. This section often includes graphs and tables with data, as well as descriptions of patterns and trends. You do not need to interpret all of the data in this section, but you can describe trends or patterns, and state which findings are interesting and/or significant.

Discussion of results : This is the overview of your findings from the experiment, with an explanation of how they pertain to your hypothesis, as well as any anomalies or errors.

Conclusion : Your conclusion will sum up the results of your experiment, as well as their significance. Sometimes, conclusions also suggest future studies.

Sources : Often in APA style , you should list all texts that helped you with your experiment. Make sure to include course readings, outside sources, and other experiments that you may have used to design your own.

How to write the abstract

The abstract is the experiment stated “in a nutshell”: the procedure, results, and a few key words. The purpose of the academic abstract is to help a potential reader get an idea of the experiment so they can decide whether to read the full paper. So, make sure your abstract is as clear and direct as possible, and under 200 words (though word count varies).

When writing an abstract for a scientific lab report, we recommend covering the following points:

  • Background : Why was this experiment conducted?
  • Objectives : What problem is being addressed by this experiment?
  • Methods : How was the study designed and conducted?
  • Results : What results were found and what do they mean?
  • Conclusion : Were the results expected? Is this problem better understood now than before? If so, how?

How to write the introduction

The introduction is another summary, of sorts, so it could be easy to confuse the introduction with the abstract. While the abstract tends to be around 200 words summarizing the entire study, the introduction can be longer if necessary, covering background information on the study, what you aim to accomplish, and your hypothesis. Unlike the abstract (or the conclusion), the introduction does not need to state the results of the experiment.

Here is a possible order with which you can organize your lab report introduction:

  • Intro of the intro : Plainly state what your study is doing.
  • Background : Provide a brief overview of the topic being studied. This could include key terms and definitions. This should not be an extensive literature review, but rather, a window into the most relevant topics a reader would need to understand in order to understand your research.
  • Importance : Now, what are the gaps in existing research? Given the background you just provided, what questions do you still have that led you to conduct this experiment? Are you clarifying conflicting results? Are you undertaking a new area of research altogether?
  • Prediction: The plants placed by the window will grow faster than plants placed in the dark corner.
  • Hypothesis: Basil plants placed in direct sunlight for 2 hours per day grow at a higher rate than basil plants placed in direct sunlight for 30 minutes per day.
  • How you test your hypothesis : This is an opportunity to briefly state how you go about your experiment, but this is not the time to get into specific details about your methods (save this for your results section). Keep this part down to one sentence, and voila! You have your introduction.

How to write a discussion section

Here, we’re skipping ahead to the next writing-heavy section, which will directly follow the numeric data of your experiment. The discussion includes any calculations and interpretations based on this data. In other words, it says, “Now that we have the data, why should we care?”  This section asks, how does this data sit in relation to the hypothesis? Does it prove your hypothesis or disprove it? The discussion is also a good place to mention any mistakes that were made during the experiment, and ways you would improve the experiment if you were to repeat it. Like the other written sections, it should be as concise as possible.

Here is a list of points to cover in your lab report discussion:

  • Weaker statement: These findings prove that basil plants grow more quickly in the sunlight.
  • Stronger statement: These findings support the hypothesis that basil plants placed in direct sunlight grow at a higher rate than basil plants given less direct sunlight.
  • Factors influencing results : This is also an opportunity to mention any anomalies, errors, or inconsistencies in your data. Perhaps when you tested the first round of basil plants, the days were sunnier than the others. Perhaps one of the basil pots broke mid-experiment so it needed to be replanted, which affected your results. If you were to repeat the study, how would you change it so that the results were more consistent?
  • Implications : How do your results contribute to existing research? Here, refer back to the gaps in research that you mentioned in your introduction. Do these results fill these gaps as you hoped?
  • Questions for future research : Based on this, how might your results contribute to future research? What are the next steps, or the next experiments on this topic? Make sure this does not become too broad—keep it to the scope of this project.

How to write a lab report conclusion

This is your opportunity to briefly remind the reader of your findings and finish strong. Your conclusion should be especially concise (avoid going into detail on findings or introducing new information).

Here are elements to include as you write your conclusion, in about 1-2 sentences each:

  • Restate your goals : What was the main question of your experiment? Refer back to your introduction—similar language is okay.
  • Restate your methods : In a sentence or so, how did you go about your experiment?
  • Key findings : Briefly summarize your main results, but avoid going into detail.
  • Limitations : What about your experiment was less-than-ideal, and how could you improve upon the experiment in future studies?
  • Significance and future research : Why is your research important? What are the logical next-steps for studying this topic?

Template for beginning your lab report

Here is a compiled outline from the bullet points in these sections above, with some examples based on the (overly-simplistic) basil growth experiment. Hopefully this will be useful as you begin your lab report.

1) Title (ex: Effects of Sunlight on Basil Plant Growth )

2) Abstract (approx. 200 words)

  • Background ( This experiment looks at… )
  • Objectives ( It aims to contribute to research on…)
  • Methods ( It does so through a process of…. )
  • Results (Findings supported the hypothesis that… )
  • Conclusion (These results contribute to a wider understanding about…)

3) Introduction (approx. 1-2 paragraphs)

  • Intro ( This experiment looks at… )
  • Background ( Past studies on basil plant growth and sunlight have found…)
  • Importance ( This experiment will contribute to these past studies by…)
  • Hypothesis ( Basil plants placed in direct sunlight for 2 hours per day grow at a higher rate than basil plants placed in direct sunlight for 30 minutes per day.)
  • How you will test your hypothesis ( This hypothesis will be tested by a process of…)

4) Materials (list form) (ex: pots, soil, seeds, tables/stands, water, light source )

5) Methods (approx. 1-2 paragraphs) (ex: 10 basil plants were measured throughout a span of…)

6) Data (brief description and figures) (ex: These charts demonstrate a pattern that the basil plants placed in direct sunlight…)

7) Discussion (approx. 2-3 paragraphs)

  • Support or reject hypothesis ( These findings support the hypothesis that basil plants placed in direct sunlight grow at a higher rate than basil plants given less direct sunlight.)
  • Factors that influenced your results ( Outside factors that could have altered the results include…)
  • Implications ( These results contribute to current research on basil plant growth and sunlight because…)
  • Questions for further research ( Next steps for this research could include…)
  • Restate your goals ( In summary, the goal of this experiment was to measure…)
  • Restate your methods ( This hypothesis was tested by…)
  • Key findings ( The findings supported the hypothesis because…)
  • Limitations ( Although, certain elements were overlooked, including…)
  • Significance and future research ( This experiment presents possibilities of future research contributions, such as…)
  • Sources (approx. 1 page, usually in APA style)

Final thoughts – Lab Report Example

Hopefully, these descriptions have helped as you write your next lab report. Remember that different instructors may have different preferences for structure and format, so make sure to double-check when you receive your assignment. All in all, make sure to keep your scientific lab report concise, focused, honest, and organized. Good luck!

For more reading on coursework success, check out the following articles:

  • How to Write the AP Lang Argument Essay (With Example)
  • How to Write the AP Lang Rhetorical Analysis Essay (With Example)
  • 49 Most Interesting Biology Research Topics
  • 50 Best Environmental Science Research Topics
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  • How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Research question Hypothesis Null hypothesis
What are the health benefits of eating an apple a day? Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will result in decreasing frequency of doctor’s visits. Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will have no effect on frequency of doctor’s visits.
Which airlines have the most delays? Low-cost airlines are more likely to have delays than premium airlines. Low-cost and premium airlines are equally likely to have delays.
Can flexible work arrangements improve job satisfaction? Employees who have flexible working hours will report greater job satisfaction than employees who work fixed hours. There is no relationship between working hour flexibility and job satisfaction.
How effective is secondary school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies? Teenagers who received sex education lessons throughout secondary school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy than teenagers who did not receive any sex education. Secondary school sex education has no effect on teen pregnancy rates.
What effect does daily use of social media have on the attention span of under-16s? There is a negative correlation between time spent on social media and attention span in under-16s. There is no relationship between social media use and attention span in under-16s.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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Lab Report Format: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

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On This Page:

In psychology, a lab report outlines a study’s objectives, methods, results, discussion, and conclusions, ensuring clarity and adherence to APA (or relevant) formatting guidelines.

A typical lab report would include the following sections: title, abstract, introduction, method, results, and discussion.

The title page, abstract, references, and appendices are started on separate pages (subsections from the main body of the report are not). Use double-line spacing of text, font size 12, and include page numbers.

The report should have a thread of arguments linking the prediction in the introduction to the content of the discussion.

This must indicate what the study is about. It must include the variables under investigation. It should not be written as a question.

Title pages should be formatted in APA style .

The abstract provides a concise and comprehensive summary of a research report. Your style should be brief but not use note form. Look at examples in journal articles . It should aim to explain very briefly (about 150 words) the following:

  • Start with a one/two sentence summary, providing the aim and rationale for the study.
  • Describe participants and setting: who, when, where, how many, and what groups?
  • Describe the method: what design, what experimental treatment, what questionnaires, surveys, or tests were used.
  • Describe the major findings, including a mention of the statistics used and the significance levels, or simply one sentence summing up the outcome.
  • The final sentence(s) outline the study’s “contribution to knowledge” within the literature. What does it all mean? Mention the implications of your findings if appropriate.

The abstract comes at the beginning of your report but is written at the end (as it summarises information from all the other sections of the report).


The purpose of the introduction is to explain where your hypothesis comes from (i.e., it should provide a rationale for your research study).

Ideally, the introduction should have a funnel structure: Start broad and then become more specific. The aims should not appear out of thin air; the preceding review of psychological literature should lead logically into the aims and hypotheses.

The funnel structure of the introducion to a lab report

  • Start with general theory, briefly introducing the topic. Define the important key terms.
  • Explain the theoretical framework.
  • Summarise and synthesize previous studies – What was the purpose? Who were the participants? What did they do? What did they find? What do these results mean? How do the results relate to the theoretical framework?
  • Rationale: How does the current study address a gap in the literature? Perhaps it overcomes a limitation of previous research.
  • Aims and hypothesis. Write a paragraph explaining what you plan to investigate and make a clear and concise prediction regarding the results you expect to find.

There should be a logical progression of ideas that aids the flow of the report. This means the studies outlined should lead logically to your aims and hypotheses.

Do be concise and selective, and avoid the temptation to include anything in case it is relevant (i.e., don’t write a shopping list of studies).



  • How many participants were recruited?
  • Say how you obtained your sample (e.g., opportunity sample).
  • Give relevant demographic details (e.g., gender, ethnicity, age range, mean age, and standard deviation).
  • State the experimental design .
  • What were the independent and dependent variables ? Make sure the independent variable is labeled and name the different conditions/levels.
  • For example, if gender is the independent variable label, then male and female are the levels/conditions/groups.
  • How were the IV and DV operationalized?
  • Identify any controls used, e.g., counterbalancing and control of extraneous variables.
  • List all the materials and measures (e.g., what was the title of the questionnaire? Was it adapted from a study?).
  • You do not need to include wholesale replication of materials – instead, include a ‘sensible’ (illustrate) level of detail. For example, give examples of questionnaire items.
  • Include the reliability (e.g., alpha values) for the measure(s).
  • Describe the precise procedure you followed when conducting your research, i.e., exactly what you did.
  • Describe in sufficient detail to allow for replication of findings.
  • Be concise in your description and omit extraneous/trivial details, e.g., you don’t need to include details regarding instructions, debrief, record sheets, etc.
  • Assume the reader has no knowledge of what you did and ensure that he/she can replicate (i.e., copy) your study exactly by what you write in this section.
  • Write in the past tense.
  • Don’t justify or explain in the Method (e.g., why you chose a particular sampling method); just report what you did.
  • Only give enough detail for someone to replicate the experiment – be concise in your writing.
  • The results section of a paper usually presents descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics.
  • Report the means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each IV level. If you have four to 20 numbers to present, a well-presented table is best, APA style.
  • Name the statistical test being used.
  • Report appropriate statistics (e.g., t-scores, p values ).
  • Report the magnitude (e.g., are the results significant or not?) as well as the direction of the results (e.g., which group performed better?).
  • It is optional to report the effect size (this does not appear on the SPSS output).
  • Avoid interpreting the results (save this for the discussion).
  • Make sure the results are presented clearly and concisely. A table can be used to display descriptive statistics if this makes the data easier to understand.
  • DO NOT include any raw data.
  • Follow APA style.

Use APA Style

  • Numbers reported to 2 d.p. (incl. 0 before the decimal if 1.00, e.g., “0.51”). The exceptions to this rule: Numbers which can never exceed 1.0 (e.g., p -values, r-values): report to 3 d.p. and do not include 0 before the decimal place, e.g., “.001”.
  • Percentages and degrees of freedom: report as whole numbers.
  • Statistical symbols that are not Greek letters should be italicized (e.g., M , SD , t , X 2 , F , p , d ).
  • Include spaces on either side of the equals sign.
  • When reporting 95%, CIs (confidence intervals), upper and lower limits are given inside square brackets, e.g., “95% CI [73.37, 102.23]”
  • Outline your findings in plain English (avoid statistical jargon) and relate your results to your hypothesis, e.g., is it supported or rejected?
  • Compare your results to background materials from the introduction section. Are your results similar or different? Discuss why/why not.
  • How confident can we be in the results? Acknowledge limitations, but only if they can explain the result obtained. If the study has found a reliable effect, be very careful suggesting limitations as you are doubting your results. Unless you can think of any c onfounding variable that can explain the results instead of the IV, it would be advisable to leave the section out.
  • Suggest constructive ways to improve your study if appropriate.
  • What are the implications of your findings? Say what your findings mean for how people behave in the real world.
  • Suggest an idea for further research triggered by your study, something in the same area but not simply an improved version of yours. Perhaps you could base this on a limitation of your study.
  • Concluding paragraph – Finish with a statement of your findings and the key points of the discussion (e.g., interpretation and implications) in no more than 3 or 4 sentences.

Reference Page

The reference section lists all the sources cited in the essay (alphabetically). It is not a bibliography (a list of the books you used).

In simple terms, every time you refer to a psychologist’s name (and date), you need to reference the original source of information.

If you have been using textbooks this is easy as the references are usually at the back of the book and you can just copy them down. If you have been using websites then you may have a problem as they might not provide a reference section for you to copy.

References need to be set out APA style :

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work . Location: Publisher.

Journal Articles

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers

A simple way to write your reference section is to use Google scholar . Just type the name and date of the psychologist in the search box and click on the “cite” link.

google scholar search results

Next, copy and paste the APA reference into the reference section of your essay.

apa reference

Once again, remember that references need to be in alphabetical order according to surname.

Psychology Lab Report Example

Quantitative paper template.

Quantitative professional paper template: Adapted from “Fake News, Fast and Slow: Deliberation Reduces Belief in False (but Not True) News Headlines,” by B. Bago, D. G. Rand, and G. Pennycook, 2020,  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General ,  149 (8), pp. 1608–1613 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000729 ). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association.

Qualitative paper template

Qualitative professional paper template: Adapted from “‘My Smartphone Is an Extension of Myself’: A Holistic Qualitative Exploration of the Impact of Using a Smartphone,” by L. J. Harkin and D. Kuss, 2020,  Psychology of Popular Media ,  10 (1), pp. 28–38 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000278 ). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association.

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Published 17 Jul 2023

Lab Report: What is the Purpose of a Lab Report in Scientific Experiments? 

In learning how to write a hypothesis for a lab report, it is crucial to understand the main purpose and aspects of the scientific lab report itself. In simple terms, we are dealing with a particular structure that must reflect its importance and relevance. It can be related to an experiment, an assumption, or a hypothesis being made. It means discussing the aims and providing a hypothesis based on a particular methodology. It has to explain why the practical work has been conducted and what tools or solutions have been chosen. The method part must also be added to show how the work has been conducted and what data processing methods have been used. All of it brings us to the explanation of a hypothesis. 

This way, a lab report hypothesis represents a special statement that makes a proposal or an assumption of a scientific idea. The main purpose is to explain a phenomenon or an argument that follows your objectives. It can also be related to an event. Most importantly, it has to be a testable statement that can be evaluated and include a prediction. 

Understand the Role of Hypothesis and Scientific Methods: Defining The Differences

A hypothesis definition can be summed up by making a scientific assumption based on certain evidence. It means that one should have an initial point to start an investigation. It may include your objectives and transition of ideas into research questions and predictions of the outcomes. The crucial components include variables, sample groups, geopolitical factors, population peculiarities, or other variables to make a hypothesis trustworthy. 

The key is to test things in advance using your research work for that! The lab report represents a perfect environment for a real-time experiment where variables are tested. Learning how to write a hypothesis in a lab report, you may turn to prior observations like noticing how racial prejudice has shaped student movements during the 1970s and how things have changed since then. You may ask yourself about the interconnection between these two events and explain how exactly! 

The key differences between a hypothesis, a theory, and a fact can be explained easily this way: 

  • Fact: "When you drop an apple, it will hit the ground." 
  • Theory: "There is a gravitational force that will affect an apple once it falls.”
  • Hypothesis: "When an apple hits the ground, it happens because a certain force pulls it down." 

Summing up, we can safely state that a theory is the next step to a scientific fact. A hypothesis is a process that needs evidence to explain the scientific assumption. In creating a lab report hypothesis, leading your target audience to an explanation and justification of the outcomes is essential. 

Crucial Elements of a Good Hypothesis 

The structure plays a critical role in creating a strong hypothesis to help you proceed with the further elements of a scientific lab report. In most scenarios, you should provide the following: 

  • An assumption you offer should not be a stated question because the main purpose is to assume something based on facts by keeping your target audience motivated. Offer a practical objective instead! 
  • Your hypothesis lab report writing should be testable regarding empirical research, stating whether something is right or wrong. 
  • Keep your statement specific and precise! 
  • The key is to specify variables to help readers determine the relationship between what is being tested and the outcome (including methodology). 

Summing things up, we receive this: 

  • The research question or a problem. 
  • The independent variable. 
  • The dependent variable. 
  • A relationship between what is independent and dependent. 

The best way to compose a reliable hypothesis for a lab report is to first ask a question by formulating the problem and conducting preliminary research. Next, variables must be defined as the " IF X is so, then Y is that " pattern. Collect sufficient research data that will help to support your hypothesis. Finally, keep your tone confident as you develop an explanation and the conclusion part (basic summary) of your research lab report. 

Hypothesis vs. Null Hypothesis

Many students often feel confused when they have to learn the difference between working with a scientific hypothesis and a null hypothesis. To keep things simple and accessible, a hypothesis always stands for something that a person tries to prove as a researcher. Now, a null hypothesis is totally different because it is what you have to argue and disprove. Still, you can safely use both methods to research and evaluate your data.

When dealing with a classic hypothesis, you should speculate and brainstorm a particular theory. If your evidence is insufficient, it must be mentioned, as your lab report leads to even more testing, evaluation, and experiments. Learning how to write hypotheses in lab report limitations and using a null hypothesis will include the same set of variables with a major difference. It often states that there is no significance or strong relation between two variables that you have obtained. 

In terms of examples, a null hypothesis may state, "There is no difference in the number of autism cases between children who have gone through vaccination procedures and those who have not." It often speaks of the elimination of connections between this and that, unlike a hypothesis that would say, "Poor vaccination culture leads to autism risks among children." 

6 Steps to Take When Composing a Hypothesis in a Lab Report

While there are many ways to write a hypothesis statement, there are still universal ways to develop it for your lab report. Without a doubt, you must consult your academic advisor and check your grading rubric twice. Let's narrow things down a little bit to the following six steps: 

  • Provide a research question . It means that you must start with a research question introduction you offer. It should be precise and clear. 
  • Offer preliminary research work. Consider research theories and prior studies to support your methodology and an assumption. It is a step that should include lab analysis and evaluation aspects. 
  • Narrow down your hypothesis statement . When you have an idea, create a detailed yet short hypothesis like, "Playing video games daily improves cognitive skills". 
  • Refine your hypothesis with variables. It is where you must make your hypothesis possible to replicate and test as you offer a lab report. Talk about variables and specific sample groups, and add your predictions. 
  • Work on "IF" and "THEN" elements. Talk about relationships, positive or negative effects, differences, and comparisons. 
  • Compose a null hypothesis (If necessary). If something has no effect, state that "X has no effect on Y, as Z proves." 

The Most Popular Formats to Write a Hypothesis 

It's possible to choose various approaches to composing your hypothesis statement. Still, the best of them would be the classic method of the "If this happens under certain variables, then this is bound to happen" pattern. Taking things to practice, one can structure things by using a descriptive tone. The trick is to make an assumption and describe what will happen to the dependent variable in case you change the features of the independent variable. Other types of lab report hypothesis options may include but are not limited to the following: 

  • Simple (classic) hypothesis;
  • Complex hypothesis structure;
  • Directional hypothesis format;
  • Non-directional hypothesis method;
  • Discussion in a lab report approach; 
  • Null hypothesis;
  • Associative and causal hypothesis combination.

Choosing one of the above will depend on your type of lab reporting, research subject, and the list of variables. Choosing an associative evidence method will be the best solution if you want to work in the cause-and-effect field. Likewise, if you are unsure about what method to choose, the typical “IF” and “THEN,” “BECAUSE” would be the most universal approach. 

Conclusion and Initial Section of Hypothesis 

The conclusion of your lab report must provide a summary with an analytical explanation. It should not become a repetition of the results but talk about your objectives and methodology mentioned in your conclusion. As you make a hypothesis, you always provide some evidence. Now, when you write your lab report , do not discuss the evidence and the facts but discuss the results achieved with limitations and challenges faced. If you are unsure how to structure the final part, consider whether your assumption has been made and what has been discovered. 

As a rule, your lab report conclusion should be about 15% of the total amount or even less. Do not introduce any new ideas or statistical data in this part because you should only summarize things and discuss the results by stating your hypothesis once again. Keep your tone and language simple in this part, and avoid using citations or references to prior research work. 

Eliminating the Most Common Mistakes 

As a way to receive the best grades for your hypothesis in a lab report, you must avoid the most common mistakes in addition to grammar and spelling issues: 

  • Your hypothesis should not be a question. 
  • Avoid placing a citation before and after your hypothesis statement. 
  • Do not use colloquial language in a lab report.
  • Avoid the first person in a lab report and hypothesis statement unless specified. 
  • Do not state a hypothesis that is not narrowed down and unclear. 
  • Do not use lengthy statistical data, as it is not a hypothesis but evidence that helps to support your assumption. 
  • Avoid submitting your lab report without proofreading your content aloud. 
  • Avoid using more than three citations per page (300 words).
  • Never submit a hypothesis in a lab report without a Method part that is clearly outlined after your goals and statement of the problem.

Writing a Hypothesis in a Lab Report Checklist 

If all of this sounds like rocket science to you and you are about to give up on your Chemistry lab report or any other subject, try to do the following by checking this simple hypothesis in a lab report checklist: 

  • Choose a particular problem that you would like to address. 
  • Continue with the specific format of hypothesis writing. 
  • Try predicting relationships between variables and the possible outcome. 
  • Keep your writing simple without being wordy. 
  • Make no assumptions about what your target audience knows or does not know. 
  • Keep your results replicable and possible to test and/or observe. 
  • Provide relevant examples to understand your method in a better way. 
  • It must be possible to repeat and analyze your research work. 
  • Proofread and edit things twice! 

Using Additional Helpful Resources 

When you are writing hypothesis for a lab report based on specific research, it is important to take your time and explore additional resources. These may include online libraries, academic journals, books in print, specific databases, or even paying a visit to the local library of your college or university. As you look at similar research works, you can find out why some problems are relevant and what methods work best or what approaches have not been taken. It will help you to narrow things down and make your research stand out from the rest. Here are some useful resources to help you explore your scientific subject: 

  • JStor Database ;
  • PubMed (good for healthcare and medical subjects);
  • ScienceDirect ;
  • Google Scholar ;
  • Web of Science ;
  • Semantic Scholar ;
  • Purdue OWL Writing Lab (good for learning more about citation format styles).

If something is unclear, check your grading rubric twice and ask questions by turning to your academic advisor! 

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how to write hypothesis in lab report

Princeton Correspondents on Undergraduate Research

How to Write An Effective Lab Report

how to write hypothesis in lab report

Whether you are in lab for general chemistry, independent work, or senior thesis, almost all lab experiments will be followed up with a lab report or paper. Although it should be relatively easy to write about an experiment you completed, this is often the most difficult part of lab work, especially when the results are unexpected. In this post, I will outline the components of a lab report while offering tips on how to write one.

Understand Your Experiments Thoroughly

Before you begin writing your draft, it is important that you understand your experiment, as this will help you decide what to include in your paper. When I wrote my first organic chemistry lab report, I rushed to begin answering the discussion questions only to realize halfway through that I had a major conceptual error. Because of this, I had to revise most of what I had written so far, which cost me a lot of time. Know what the purpose of the lab is, formulate the hypothesis, and begin to think about the results you are expecting. At this point, it is helpful to check in with your Lab TA, mentor, or principal investigator (PI) to ensure that you thoroughly understand your project. 

The abstract of your lab report will generally consist of a short summary of your entire report, typically in the same order as your report. Although this is the first section of your lab report, this should be the last section you write. Rather than trying to follow your entire report based on your abstract, it is easier if you write your report first before trying to summarize it.

Introduction and Background

The introduction and background of your report should establish the purpose of your experiment (what principles you are examining), your hypothesis (what you expect to see and why), and relevant findings from others in the field. You have likely done extensive reading about the project from textbooks, lecture notes, or scholarly articles. But as you write, only include background information that is relevant to your specific experiments. For instance, over the summer when I was still learning about metabolic engineering and its role in yeast cells, I read several articles detailing this process. However, a lot of this information was a very broad introduction to the field and not directly related to my project, so I decided not to include most of it. 

This section of the lab report should not contain a step-by-step procedure of your experiments, but rather enough details should be included so that someone else can understand and replicate what you did. From this section, the reader should understand how you tested your hypothesis and why you chose that method. Explain the different parts of your project, the variables being tested, and controls in your experiments. This section will validate the data presented by confirming that variables are being tested in a proper way.

You cannot change the data you collect from your experiments; thus the results section will be written for you. Your job is to present these results in appropriate tables and charts. Depending on the length of your project, you may have months of data from experiments or just a three-hour lab period worth of results. For example, for in-class lab reports, there is usually only one major experiment, so I include most of the data I collect in my lab report. But for longer projects such as summer internships, there are various preliminary experiments throughout, so I select the data to include. Although you cannot change the data, you must choose what is relevant to include in your report. Determine what is included in your report based on the goals and purpose of your project.

Discussion and Conclusion

In this section, you should analyze your results and relate your data back to your hypothesis. You should mention whether the results you obtained matched what was expected and the conclusions that can be drawn from this. For this section, you should talk about your data and conclusions with your lab mentors or TAs before you begin writing. As I mentioned above, by consulting with your mentors, you will avoid making large conceptual error that may take a long time to address.

There is no correct order for how to write a report, but it is generally easier to write some sections before others. For instance, because your results cannot be changed, it is easier to write the results section first. Likewise, because you also cannot change the methods you used in your experiment, it is helpful to write this section after writing your results. Although there are multiple ways to write and format a lab report or research paper, the goals of every report are the same: to describe what you did, your results, and why they are significant. As you write, keep your audience and these goals in mind.

— Saira Reyes, Engineering Correspondent

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Writing Lab Reports

Writing lab reports follows a straightforward and structured procedure. It is important to recognize that each part of a lab report is important, so take the time to complete each carefully. A lab report is broken down into eight sections: title, abstract, introduction, methods and materials, results, discussion, conclusion, and references. 

  • Ex: "Determining the Free Chlorine Content of Pool Water"
  • Abstracts are a summary of the experiment as a whole and should familiarize the reader with the purpose of the research. 
  • Abstracts will always be written last, even though they are the first paragraph of a lab report. 
  • Not all lab reports will require an abstract. However, they are often included in upper-level lab reports and should be studied carefully. 
  • Why was the research done or experiment conducted?
  • What problem is being addressed?
  • What results were found?
  • What are the meaning of the results?
  • How is the problem better understood now than before, if at all?


  • The introduction of a lab report discusses the problem being studied and other theory that is relevant to understanding the findings. 
  • The hypothesis of the experiment and the motivation for the research are stated in this section. 
  • Write the introduction in your own words. Try not to copy from a lab manual or other guidelines. Instead, show comprehension of the experiment by briefly explaining the problem.

Methods and Materials

  • Ex: pipette, graduated cylinder, 1.13mg of Na, 0.67mg Ag
  • List the steps taken as they actually happened during the experiment, not as they were supposed to happen. 
  • If written correctly, another researcher should be able to duplicate the experiment and get the same or very similar results. 
  • The results show the data that was collected or found during the experiment. 
  • Explain in words the data that was collected.
  • Tables should be labeled numerically, as "Table 1", "Table 2", etc. Other figures should be labeled numerically as "Figure 1", "Figure 2", etc. 
  • Calculations to understand the data can also be presented in the results. 
  • The discussion section is one of the most important parts of the lab report. It analyzes the results of the experiment and is a discussion of the data. 
  • If any results are unexpected, explain why they are unexpected and how they did or did not effect the data obtained. 
  • Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the design of the experiment and compare your results to other similar experiments.
  • If there are any experimental errors, analyze them.
  • Explain your results and discuss them using relevant terms and theories.
  • What do the results indicate?
  • What is the significance of the results?
  • Are there any gaps in knowledge?
  • Are there any new questions that have been raised?
  • The conclusion is a summation of the experiment. It should clearly and concisely state what was learned and its importance.
  • If there is future work that needs to be done, it can be explained in the conclusion.
  • If using any outside sources to support a claim or explain background information, those sources must be cited in the references section of the lab report. 
  • In the event that no outside sources are used, the references section may be left out. 

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How to Write a Lab Report

Lab Reports Describe Your Experiment

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Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Some instructors require a lab report to be included in a lab notebook , while others will request a separate report. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.

A lab report is how you explain what you did in ​your experiment, what you learned, and what the results meant.

Lab Report Essentials

Not all lab reports have title pages, but if your instructor wants one, it would be a single page that states:​

  • The title of the experiment.
  • Your name and the names of any lab partners.
  • Your instructor's name.
  • The date the lab was performed or the date the report was submitted.

The title says what you did. It should be brief (aim for ten words or less) and describe the main point of the experiment or investigation. An example of a title would be: "Effects of Ultraviolet Light on Borax Crystal Growth Rate". If you can, begin your title using a keyword rather than an article like "The" or "A".

Introduction or Purpose

Usually, the introduction is one paragraph that explains the objectives or purpose of the lab. In one sentence, state the hypothesis. Sometimes an introduction may contain background information, briefly summarize how the experiment was performed, state the findings of the experiment, and list the conclusions of the investigation. Even if you don't write a whole introduction, you need to state the purpose of the experiment, or why you did it. This would be where you state your hypothesis .

List everything needed to complete your experiment.

Describe the steps you completed during your investigation. This is your procedure. Be sufficiently detailed that anyone could read this section and duplicate your experiment. Write it as if you were giving direction for someone else to do the lab. It may be helpful to provide a figure to diagram your experimental setup.

Numerical data obtained from your procedure usually presented as a table. Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. It's just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean.

Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion.

Discussion or Analysis

The Data section contains numbers; the Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved.


Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means.

Figures and Graphs

Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis, the dependent variable (the one you are measuring) is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report: the first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc.

If your research was based on someone else's work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references.

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What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

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One of the most important aspects of conducting research is constructing a strong hypothesis. But what makes a hypothesis in research effective? In this article, we’ll look at the difference between a hypothesis and a research question, as well as the elements of a good hypothesis in research. We’ll also include some examples of effective hypotheses, and what pitfalls to avoid.

What is a Hypothesis in Research?

Simply put, a hypothesis is a research question that also includes the predicted or expected result of the research. Without a hypothesis, there can be no basis for a scientific or research experiment. As such, it is critical that you carefully construct your hypothesis by being deliberate and thorough, even before you set pen to paper. Unless your hypothesis is clearly and carefully constructed, any flaw can have an adverse, and even grave, effect on the quality of your experiment and its subsequent results.

Research Question vs Hypothesis

It’s easy to confuse research questions with hypotheses, and vice versa. While they’re both critical to the Scientific Method, they have very specific differences. Primarily, a research question, just like a hypothesis, is focused and concise. But a hypothesis includes a prediction based on the proposed research, and is designed to forecast the relationship of and between two (or more) variables. Research questions are open-ended, and invite debate and discussion, while hypotheses are closed, e.g. “The relationship between A and B will be C.”

A hypothesis is generally used if your research topic is fairly well established, and you are relatively certain about the relationship between the variables that will be presented in your research. Since a hypothesis is ideally suited for experimental studies, it will, by its very existence, affect the design of your experiment. The research question is typically used for new topics that have not yet been researched extensively. Here, the relationship between different variables is less known. There is no prediction made, but there may be variables explored. The research question can be casual in nature, simply trying to understand if a relationship even exists, descriptive or comparative.

How to Write Hypothesis in Research

Writing an effective hypothesis starts before you even begin to type. Like any task, preparation is key, so you start first by conducting research yourself, and reading all you can about the topic that you plan to research. From there, you’ll gain the knowledge you need to understand where your focus within the topic will lie.

Remember that a hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship that exists between two or more variables. Your job is to write a hypothesis, and design the research, to “prove” whether or not your prediction is correct. A common pitfall is to use judgments that are subjective and inappropriate for the construction of a hypothesis. It’s important to keep the focus and language of your hypothesis objective.

An effective hypothesis in research is clearly and concisely written, and any terms or definitions clarified and defined. Specific language must also be used to avoid any generalities or assumptions.

Use the following points as a checklist to evaluate the effectiveness of your research hypothesis:

  • Predicts the relationship and outcome
  • Simple and concise – avoid wordiness
  • Clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
  • Observable and testable results
  • Relevant and specific to the research question or problem

Research Hypothesis Example

Perhaps the best way to evaluate whether or not your hypothesis is effective is to compare it to those of your colleagues in the field. There is no need to reinvent the wheel when it comes to writing a powerful research hypothesis. As you’re reading and preparing your hypothesis, you’ll also read other hypotheses. These can help guide you on what works, and what doesn’t, when it comes to writing a strong research hypothesis.

Here are a few generic examples to get you started.

Eating an apple each day, after the age of 60, will result in a reduction of frequency of physician visits.

Budget airlines are more likely to receive more customer complaints. A budget airline is defined as an airline that offers lower fares and fewer amenities than a traditional full-service airline. (Note that the term “budget airline” is included in the hypothesis.

Workplaces that offer flexible working hours report higher levels of employee job satisfaction than workplaces with fixed hours.

Each of the above examples are specific, observable and measurable, and the statement of prediction can be verified or shown to be false by utilizing standard experimental practices. It should be noted, however, that often your hypothesis will change as your research progresses.

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How to Write a Good Lab Report

Published September 27, 2020. Updated May 4, 2022.

Lab Report Definition

Students typically write lab reports to define and analyze a laboratory experiment. Scientists often conduct such experiments to discover a scientific concept.

Overview of a Lab Report

The exact requirements and terminology for lab reports often differ from one course to the next. Instructors typically assign lab reports to enable students to conduct scientific research. Every lab report follows the same basic structure. The basic format of the report is also important.

Lab reports include a title, introduction, methods, results, conclusion or discussion, and references. Reports should use a professional font and size, with double-line spacing and page numbers. Specific sections of the report should have separate headings and subheadings.

Other sections include:

Worried about your writing? Submit your paper for a Chegg Writing essay check , or for an Expert Check proofreading . Both can help you find and fix potential writing issues.

Formatting Your Lab Report

Following a basic format for a lab report is important. General guidelines follow, but if your instructor has any specific requests, be sure to follow them.

  • For any lab report, use a professional font and size. For example, 12-point Times New Roman.
  • Double-space the report.
  • Include a page number, usually either in the top or bottom right corner of each page.
  • Clearly separate specific sections of the report with headings and subheadings.

Below is a quick overview of how to format a basic lab report:

Lab report outline

Next, let’s examine each section in detail and review how to structure a lab report.


An introduction is a paragraph often written before conducting the experiment. A good introduction paragraph should have at least three parts:

  • the purpose
  • the procedure
  • the hypothesis

Additionally, some introductions may require you to include a few sentences of background information on the topic. If you use information from an outside source, make sure you cite it (in the format preferred by your instructor)!

How to set up the introduction:

  • Purpose : Restate the question being asked. What is being tested or observed?
  • Procedure : What will you do during the experiment? How will you test/observe the results? How will you report the results?
  • Hypothesis : Based on what you know, what do you think your results will be?

An example of a good, concise introduction follows:

In this experiment, we will test the effects of temperature on enzyme reactions. The reaction rates of most enzymes increase with the increase in temperature (Keeling et al., 1994). To test this, we will perform identical enzyme reactions in water baths of different temperatures (hot, room temperature, and cold). The absorbance of each reaction will then be evaluated to determine how well the enzymes performed. Our hypothesis is that the reaction rate will increase with increasing temperature, but the rate may decrease in the hot temperature because high temperatures can denature enzymes.

Methods Section

The methods section is sometimes also known as the procedures section or methods and materials section. This part of your report describes exactly what was done in the experiment and what was used to do it. A good methods section is so detailed that anyone could follow it and repeat the experiment from start to finish, using the same materials. The methods section can sometimes be in bullet format, but it is often written in paragraphs.

Here are a few examples of good sentences for the methods section:

A cold-water bath was made by filling a beaker with ice and water.

We then filled nine test tubes with 3 mL of water, 2 mL of potato extract, and 1 mL of enzyme.

A graph was created, then the averages of our values were taken using Microsoft Excel.

Results Section

A results section includes exactly what you might think: your results! You can describe results in a paragraph and/or display data in tables and graphs. It is important to remember that this is not where you interpret your results, just report them.

When including tables and graphs:

  • Always list tables first, then graphs.
  • Label each table/graph and include a caption to describe the data it contains.
  • Always place captions above tables and below graphs.

An example of a good results section:

“The results of this experiment are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. Table 1 shows the values of absorbances for each tube (hot, room temperature, and cold) in each trial. The trials are visually compared in Figure 1.”

table example

Conclusion Section

A conclusion is basically a paragraph or two to summarize your whole experiment. The conclusion section may be divided, so the lab report includes a separate “discussion” section. If not, conclusions often include a mixture of the following topics:

  • restatement of the purpose
  • summary of how the experiment was conducted
  • explanation and interpretation of results
  • support/rejection of the hypothesis
  • possible sources of error
  • future methods to improve the experiment
  • relevance to the real world

Instructors usually let you know which of the above topics to focus on in your conclusion.

Here is an example of a good conclusion:

In this experiment, we tested the effects of temperature in an enzyme reaction by performing three trials of identical reactions in hot, room temperature, and cold-water baths. By comparing our data, it is shown that the rate of reaction increased with temperature. This supports our hypothesis that higher temperatures cause faster reactions. In trial 1, the cold-water reaction was faster than the room temperature reaction, but that is most likely due to human error. Another experiment could be performed in the future to see how fast the reaction can take place by testing the reaction in even hotter water baths. This experiment is relevant to the real world because enzymes are constantly working in the human body and all around us.

References Section

The references section should be on the last page of the lab report. References give credit to any source used to write your report (e.g., articles from the internet, a textbook, a lab manual). You should cite any source in a lab report that is not common knowledge.

There are multiple formats for citations and references. Make sure you are using the correct format. The most common format is to list references in alphabetical order with hanging indentions:

Cano, M. P., Hernandez, A., & Ancos, B. (1997). High Pressure and Temperature Effects on Enzyme Inactivation in Strawberry and Orange Products. Journal of Food Science, 62 (1), 85-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1997.tb04373.x

Keeling, P., Banisadr, R., Barone, L., Wasserman, B., & Singletary, G. (1994). Effect of Temperature on Enzymes in the Pathway of Starch Biosynthesis in Developing Wheat and Maize Grain. Functional Plant Biology, 21 (6), 807. https://doi.org/10.1071/pp9940807

Olson, A. R. (2011). Symbiosis: The Pearson custom library for the biological sciences . New York: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Optional Sections

Depending on your instructor or experiment, you may also need to include additional sections.

A title page is often required for formal lab reports. There are many different formats for a title page. In general, it should be the very first page of your lab report with the title in the center of the page. Beneath the title, include your name, course title, instructor’s name, and date (each on a separate line).

What was the goal or reason for the experiment? Explain in detail.

An abstract is a paragraph that provides a very brief overview of your experiment. The abstract should include a sentence or two describing each of the major parts of your lab report:

  • the purpose of the experiment
  • the methods used to do the experiment
  • the major results
  • the main conclusion

Write the abstract once the whole report has been completed. Place the abstract under the title of your report, before the introduction. After reading your abstract, we should have a clear summary of what the whole lab report is about.

Here is an example abstract:

Temperature and pH are widely known to affect the function of enzymes. In this experiment, we tested the effects of temperature on an enzyme reaction. This was done by performing three identical enzyme reactions in water baths of different temperatures (hot, room temperature, and cold). After the reactions proceeded for 5 minutes, the absorbance values of each reaction tube were measured using a spectrometer. After performing three trials and comparing the results, it was found that the reactions in the hot water baths gave higher absorbance values. Therefore, it can be concluded that temperature directly correlates with enzyme reaction rate.

Place the discussion section after the results and before the conclusion. The discussion should include an interpretation of the results and an explanation of errors. Often, these topics can be included in the conclusion, but they are sometimes required to be reported separately.

To sum up, the skeleton of every lab report is the same. By following this guide, you should be able to write each section of your lab report correctly. If you still have questions about the requirements for your specific lab, do not be afraid to ask your instructor for clarification!

Before you turn in that paper, don’t forget to cite your sources in APA format , MLA format , or a style of your choice.

Example and Template

Example lab report on papillomavirus and rats, example lab report: molecular biology, lab report template, common writing assignments, apps & tests.

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How to Write a Good Lab Conclusion in Science

Last Updated: June 18, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff, MA . Bess Ruff is a Geography PhD student at Florida State University. She received her MA in Environmental Science and Management from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 2016. She has conducted survey work for marine spatial planning projects in the Caribbean and provided research support as a graduate fellow for the Sustainable Fisheries Group. There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 1,767,409 times.

A lab report describes an entire experiment from start to finish, outlining the procedures, reporting results, and analyzing data. The report is used to demonstrate what has been learned, and it will provide a way for other people to see your process for the experiment and understand how you arrived at your conclusions. The conclusion is an integral part of the report; this is the section that reiterates the experiment’s main findings and gives the reader an overview of the lab trial. Writing a solid conclusion to your lab report will demonstrate that you’ve effectively learned the objectives of your assignment.

Outlining Your Conclusion

Step 1 Go over your assignment.

  • Restate : Restate the lab experiment by describing the assignment.
  • Explain : Explain the purpose of the lab experiment. What were you trying to figure out or discover? Talk briefly about the procedure you followed to complete the lab.
  • Results : Explain your results. Confirm whether or not your hypothesis was supported by the results.
  • Uncertainties : Account for uncertainties and errors. Explain, for example, if there were other circumstances beyond your control that might have impacted the experiment’s results.
  • New : Discuss new questions or discoveries that emerged from the experiment.

Step 4 Plan other sections to add.

  • Your assignment may also have specific questions that need to be answered. Make sure you answer these fully and coherently in your conclusion.

Discussing the Experiment and Hypothesis

Step 1 Introduce the experiment in your conclusion.

  • If you tried the experiment more than once, describe the reasons for doing so. Discuss changes that you made in your procedures.
  • Brainstorm ways to explain your results in more depth. Go back through your lab notes, paying particular attention to the results you observed. [3] X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source

Step 3 Describe what you discovered briefly.

  • Start this section with wording such as, “The results showed that…”
  • You don’t need to give the raw data here. Just summarize the main points, calculate averages, or give a range of data to give an overall picture to the reader.
  • Make sure to explain whether or not any statistical analyses were significant, and to what degree, such as 1%, 5%, or 10%.

Step 4 Comment on whether or not your hypothesis is supported.

  • Use simple language such as, “The results supported the hypothesis,” or “The results did not support the hypothesis.”

Step 5 Link your results to your hypothesis.

Demonstrating What You Have Learned

Step 1 Describe what you learned in the lab.

  • If it’s not clear in your conclusion what you learned from the lab, start off by writing, “In this lab, I learned…” This will give the reader a heads up that you will be describing exactly what you learned.
  • Add details about what you learned and how you learned it. Adding dimension to your learning outcomes will convince your reader that you did, in fact, learn from the lab. Give specifics about how you learned that molecules will act in a particular environment, for example.
  • Describe how what you learned in the lab could be applied to a future experiment.

Step 2 Answer specific questions given in the assignment.

  • On a new line, write the question in italics. On the next line, write the answer to the question in regular text.

Step 3 Explain whether you achieved the experiment’s objectives.

  • If your experiment did not achieve the objectives, explain or speculate why not.

Wrapping Up Your Conclusion

Step 1 Describe possible errors that may have occurred.

  • If your experiment raised questions that your collected data can’t answer, discuss this here.

Step 3 Propose future experiments.

  • Describe what is new or innovative about your research.
  • This can often set you apart from your classmates, many of whom will just write up the barest of discussion and conclusion.

Step 6 Add a final statement.

Finalizing Your Lab Report

Step 1 Write in the third person.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

  • Ensure the language used is straightforward with specific details. Try not to drift off topic. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • Once again, avoid using personal pronouns (I, myself, we, our group) in a lab report. The first-person point-of-view is often seen as subjective, whereas science is based on objectivity. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • If you include figures or tables in your conclusion, be sure to include a brief caption or label so that the reader knows what the figures refer to. Also, discuss the figures briefly in the text of your report. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0

how to write hypothesis in lab report

  • Take care with writing your lab report when working in a team setting. While the lab experiment may be a collaborative effort, your lab report is your own work. If you copy sections from someone else’s report, this will be considered plagiarism. Thanks Helpful 4 Not Helpful 0

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  • ↑ https://phoenixcollege.libguides.com/LabReportWriting/introduction
  • ↑ https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/english/literacy/Pages/puttingittogether.aspx
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/brainstorming/
  • ↑ https://advice.writing.utoronto.ca/types-of-writing/lab-report/
  • ↑ http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/hypothes.php
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/conclusion
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction/researchproblem
  • ↑ http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/scientific-reports/
  • ↑ https://phoenixcollege.libguides.com/LabReportWriting/labreportstyle
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/

About This Article

Bess Ruff, MA

To write a good lab conclusion in science, start with restating the lab experiment by describing the assignment. Next, explain what you were trying to discover or figure out by doing the experiment. Then, list your results and explain how they confirmed or did not confirm your hypothesis. Additionally, include any uncertainties, such as circumstances beyond your control that may have impacted the results. Finally, discuss any new questions or discoveries that emerged from the experiment. For more advice, including how to wrap up your lab report with a final statement, keep reading. Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Write Hypothesis for Lab Report

  • How to Write Hypothesis for…

What Is a Real Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation for some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement that may include a prediction.

When Are Hypotheses Used?

The keyword is testable. That is, you will perform a test of how two variables might be related. This is when you are doing a real experiment. You are testing variables. Usually, a hypothesis is based on some previous observations such as noticing that in November many trees undergo color changes in their leaves and the average daily temperatures are dropping. Are these two events connected? How?

Any laboratory procedure you follow without a hypothesis is really not an experiment. It is just an exercise or demonstration of what is already known.

How Are Hypotheses Written?

  • Chocolate may cause pimples.
  • Salt in soil may affect plant growth.
  • Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light.
  • Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature.
  • Ultraviolet light may cause skin cancer.
  • The temperature may cause leaves to change color.

All of these are examples of hypotheses because they use the tentative word “may.”. However, their form is not particularly useful. Using the word may do not suggest how you would go about proving it. If these statements had not been written carefully, they may not have even been hypotheses at all. For example, if we say “Trees will change color when it gets cold.” we are making a prediction. Or if we write, “Ultraviolet light causes skin cancer.” could be a conclusion. One way to prevent making such easy mistakes is to formalize the form of the hypothesis.

Formalized Hypotheses example: If the incidence of skin cancer is related to exposure levels of ultraviolet light , then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer.

If leaf color change is related to temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color .

Notice that these statements contain the words, if and then. They are necessary for a formalized hypothesis. But not all if-then statements are hypotheses. For example, “If I play the lottery, then I will get rich.” This is a simple prediction. In a formalized hypothesis, a tentative relationship is stated. For example, if the frequency of winning is related to the frequency of buying lottery tickets . “Then” is followed by a prediction of what will happen if you increase or decrease the frequency of buying lottery tickets. If you always ask yourself that if one thing is related to another, then you should be able to test it.

Formalized hypotheses contain two variables. One is “independent” and the other is “dependent.” The independent variable is the one you, the “scientist” control, and the dependent variable is the one that you observe and/or measure the results. In the statements above the dependent variable is underlined and the independent variable is underlined and italicized .

The ultimate value of a formalized hypothesis is it forces us to think about what results we should look for in an experiment.

For the “ If, Then, Because ” hypothesis…you would use: “ IF pigs and humans share the same nutritional behaviors, THEN their internal organs should look relatively the same BECAUSE of similar function and composure.” That is an example. For the “If, Then, Because” you should follow this guideline:

IF X and Y both do or share this, THEN this should be found/confirmed, BECAUSE of this fact or logical assumption.

Example Question : How does the type of liquid (water, milk, or orange juice) given to a plant affect how tall the plant will grow? Hypothesis : If the plant is given water then the plant will grow the tallest because water helps the plant absorb the nutrients that the plant needs to survive.

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How would I write a hypothesis about a flying pig lab?

your lab hypothesis should have been written before the experiment. The purpose of the hypothesis was to create a testable statement in which your experimental data would either support or reject. Having a hypothesis based on a logical assumption (regardless of whether your data supports it) is still correct. If there is a disagreement between your hypothesis and experimental data it should be addressed in the discussion.

So you can go ahead an choose a hypothesis for either increase or decrease of adipogenesis after the inducement of insulin and not be wrong….as long as it is correctly formatted (see examples above).

Hey, I am having trouble writing my hypothesis.. I am supposed to write a hypothesis about how much adipogenesis was produced after the inducement of insulin. However, after proceeding with the experiments the results were On/Off .. meaning it will increase, decrease, increase, etc.. so it wasnt a constant result. It was supposed to be increasing.

please help!!!

this is very helpful but i don’t know how i would structure my hypothesis. i’m supposed to come up with a hypothesis related to the topic ‘how does mass effect the stopping distance of a cart?’. Could you help?

Thank you so much, it really help alot.:)

This is a rather difficult usage of this construct. It would most likely follow

“If the empirical formula of (enter compound’s name) is (enter compound’s formula) then it would be expected that combustion of _________ would yield _________, because (enter your rationale)

Need more background info.

For the “If, then, because” hypothesis I am doing an experiment to determine the empirical formula by using combustion but I am unsure on how to formulate the hypothesis using this structure.

For the “If, Then, Because” hypothesis…you would use: “IF pigs and humans share the same nutritional behaviors, THEN their internal organs should look relatively the same BECAUSE of similar function and composure.” That is an example. For the “If, Then, Because” you should follow this guideline:

Thanks, really helpful. Just one question, what about the ‘because’ part? right after the ‘if’ and ‘then’ parts?

I really need help for onion skin lab hypothesis for class

@Lauren An if/and statement is not usually apart of the convention. What exactly do you need help with?

Is there such thing as a if/and statement? I am in 8th grade science an I need to know for my lab report due tomorrow.HELP!!!!

Would have been better if more examples were given

If the purpose of your lab is “To obtain dissecting skills in an observational lab,” you can’t really formulate a testable hypothesis for that. I’ll assume you are doing some kind of pig or frog dissection. Often teachers give general outlines of skills that students are meant to ascertain from an experiment which aren’t necessarily what the actual experiment is directly testing. Obviously to do the dissection lab you need to obtain dissection skills but testing that would be rather subjective unless the teacher provided you with standards or operationally defined “dissecting skills”. If I were you, I would obviously mention it in the introduction of your lab but I am not sure if your teacher wants you to actually format it as a hypothesis; you can ask your teacher for clarification. If making a hypothesis from each purpose was some arbitrary exercise assigned to you then, it could look like this:

“If a student has successful acquired dissection skills, then they will be able to complete this observational lab with satisfactory competence because they utilized these newly acquired skills.”

For the “If, Then, Because” hypothesis…you pretty much have it. You would modify what you posted: “IF pigs and humans share the same nutritional behaviors, THEN their internal organs should look relatively the same BECAUSE of similar function and composure.” That is an example. For the “If, Then, Because” you should follow this guideline:

Thanks for this, it proved to be helpful. However, I do have a few questions. Obviously different teachers or instructors have their own requirements for their classes. How would you write an appropriate Question to follow each purpose in your lab report? For example: If the purpose was, “To obtain dissecting skills in an observational lab,” what question could you formulate with the purpose? (which is answered in the hypothesis)

And if a teacher requires the hypothesis to be in the format “If, Then, Because” how should this be written? I can actively complete the if and then, but I’m unsure how to incorporate the “because’ statement. For example, “If pigs and humans share the same nutritional behaviors, then their internal organs should function comparably and look relatively the same.” (how do i incorporate because?)

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How to Write a Good Conclusion For a Lab Report

How to Write a Good Conclusion For a Lab Report

Writing a good conclusion for your science lab report can be the difference between a good grade and a great one. It's your last chance to show you understand the experiment and why it matters. This article will help you learn how to write a lab conclusion that sums up your work and shows your teacher that you understood what you did.

What Should Be in Your Lab Report Conclusion?

A good lab report conclusion wraps up your lab work in a neat package. When you're thinking about how to write a conclusion for a lab report, focus on four main things. First, remind everyone in a sentence or two of your experiment objectives. Then, quickly mention how you did the experiment and what you found out, but don't introduce new ideas.

Next, talk about the most important things you learned from your experiment. Show how what you found out connects to what you initially tried to do. Lastly, think briefly about what your work means or any limitations you faced during the process. You may include suggestions for further investigation but refrain from proposing solutions.

How to Write a Lab Report Conclusion

To write a good lab conclusion, follow these steps:

  • Remind the reader why you did the experiment and its aims. 
  • Describe how you did the experiment and what tools you used.
  • Briefly discuss the samples used and the results obtained.
  • Provide a short analysis, including your arguments and assumptions.
  • Relate your findings to the broader scientific context of your discipline.
Important: Keep your conclusion short and easy to understand. A lab conclusion should be about 200-300 words or one paragraph. But if your experiment was really complex, you might need up to 500 words.

Remember, your lab conclusion is part of a bigger report. Always make sure your whole report is well-organized, with a title, introduction, how you did things, what you found, what it means, conclusion, and a list of where you got your information. If you have a lot of numbers or calculations, put them at the end in a separate section to make your report easier to read.

A Sample Lab Report Conclusion

Here's an example of how to write a scientific conclusion for a plant experiment:

The experiment examined how various light wavelengths impact tomato seedling growth. Our findings revealed that blue light (450-495 nm) significantly enhanced stem elongation and leaf surface area in tomato seedlings compared to red (620-750 nm) or full-spectrum white light. Throughout the 4-week study, seedlings exposed to blue light achieved an average height of 15.3 cm, surpassing those exposed to red (10.7 cm) and white light (12.1 cm).  These results align with our hypothesis that blue light promotes more vigorous vegetative growth in tomato seedlings, potentially due to its activation of phototropins and cryptochromes. While these outcomes provide valuable insights into early-stage tomato plant development, additional research is necessary to determine the long-term effects on fruit production and quality. This study contributes to our understanding of optimizing light conditions for improved seedling growth in controlled agricultural environments.

This example shows the important parts of a good lab conclusion: it reminds us what the experiment was for, tells how it was done, shares the results, and explains what it all means.

Useful Tips for Improving Your Lab Conclusion

To make your conclusion lab report better, try these tips:

  • Review your grading rubric to ensure you meet all requirements.
  • Maintain an appropriate tone (explanatory, descriptive, or process-oriented).
  • Keep your notes nearby so you can check your facts.
  • Use your own words to say what you were trying to do; don't just copy from your lab instructions.
  • Use passive voice and past tense , typically avoiding first-person perspective. Most lab reports are written in the third person.

When writing a discussion lab report, focus on clarity and sticking to what's important. Don't add new information or discuss things that aren't part of your experiment.

Making Your Scientific Conclusion Clear and Impactful

Writing a great lab report conclusion doesn't have to be hard. With the tips we've discussed on writing a scientific conclusion, you can now write good summaries of your science work. Remember, when writing your discussion lab report, stay focused on your experiment and what you found out. Don't talk about things that aren't related or say things you can't prove. Instead, explain your results, their meaning, and why they matter in science.

Need a little extra help polishing your scientific writing? Aithor might be just what you're looking for. This nifty AI writing tool will streamline your essay and report writing processes. It keeps your original ideas intact while giving your work a professional shine. Whether tackling a tricky lab report or a complex essay, this tool can help you craft well-structured, engaging content in no time. 

Give Aithor a try and see the difference it can make in your academic work.

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  • Three UChicago undergraduate students earn 2024 Goldwater Scholarships

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Thirty-one UChicago faculty members receive named, distinguished service professorships in 2024

Thirty-one members of the University of Chicago faculty have received distinguished service professorships or named professorships.

Profs. Clifford Ando, Curtis A. Bradley, Cathy J. Cohen, Steven Durlauf, Christopher Faraone, Ayelet Fishbach, Anthony Kaldellis, Young-Kee Kim, Sanjog Misra, Mitchell C. Posner and Alexander Todorov have been named distinguished service professors. Profs. David Archer, Daniel Bartels, David W. Chang, Paul Cheney, Tom S. Clark, Anna Costello, Benson Farb, Dwight N. Hopkins, Yamuna Krishnan, Gabriel Richardson Lear, Kay F. Macleod, Rochona Majumdar, Nadya Mason, Michael Minnis, Marcelo Nóbrega, Sarah Nooter, Joseph L. Pagliari, Eduardo Perozo, Oleg Urminsky and Yingming Zhao have received named professorships.

The appointments are effective July 1, unless otherwise noted.

Biological Sciences Division

David W. Chang has been named the first Ruth Hanna Simms Foundation Professor in the Department of Surgery.

Chang is a pioneer in the field of reconstructive surgery for cancer patients and is an expert in treating lymphedema—chronic swelling of the limbs that can occur in cancer patients after lymph node removal or radiation therapy. He has been instrumental in developing and promoting microsurgical treatments for lymphedema, including lymphovenous bypass and vascularized lymph node transplants.

An accomplished researcher, Chang has published widely and served on the editorial board of leading medical journals such as Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery . He is a past president of the American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery and the World Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery.

Kay F. Macleod has been named the Hospira Foundation Professor in the Ben May Department of Cancer Research and the College.

Macleod’s lab focuses on understanding the role of mitochondria in tissue homeostasis and cancer. As a basic researcher, she uses cutting-edge approaches—in cell and molecular biology, systems biology, novel mouse models and human patient samples—to investigate how mitochondria modulate normal tissue function, how mitochondrial stress responses are regulated and how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cancer progression and metastasis.

Since January 2024, Macleod has served as associate director for basic sciences for the University of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center, overseeing basic research activities and research program infrastructure.

Mitchell C. Posner has been named the Thomas D. Jones Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Surgery.

Posner is also Professor of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, and physician-in-chief for the University of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center.

He is a leading authority on the treatment and management of upper gastrointestinal cancers, pairing his skills as a surgeon with a commitment to multidisciplinary care. As an award-winning researcher, Posner focuses on the molecular basis of malignancies; he has designed and guided groundbreaking clinical trials for cancers of the pancreas, esophagus, colon, stomach, rectum and liver.

Posner serves as a deputy editor of the Annals of Surgical Oncology , the section editor of the education/training section of Surgical Oncology Insight and the section editor for gastrointestinal diseases for the American Cancer Society journal Cancer . He is also a past president of the Society of Surgical Oncology. He was recently awarded the distinction of fellow of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Marcelo Nóbrega has been named the A.N. Pritzker Professor in the Department of Human Genetics and the College.

Nóbrega’s research program focuses on how genetic variation increases the risk of human diseases, particularly the impact of noncoding genetic variants that are discovered by genome-wide association studies. His lab has developed pipelines that create integrated experimental and computational strategies to uncover the mechanisms linking regulatory variants to several human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, asthma, and preterm birth.

Nóbrega is an associate dean for faculty affairs for basic science faculty in the Biological Sciences Division, where he co-leads efforts to promote faculty development, including orientation of new faculty, career development, and skill-building workshops on such topics as preparing for promotion, scientific writing, grantsmanship, trainee mentoring, leadership training, and wellness. He has also served as the chair of the Committee on Genetics, Genomics and Systems Biology, along with several committees focused on recruitment, mentoring and training of graduate students and faculty.

Eduardo Perozo has been named the Lillian Eichelberger Cannon Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the College.

Perozo is a molecular neurobiologist whose lab seeks to define the molecular principles that drive the conversion of different forms of energy, such as electric fields and mechanical forces, into protein motion. He is particularly interested in protein dynamics, which link structure to function. His lab uses a combination of functional measurements at the single molecule and ensemble levels, biochemistry, and molecular biology, performing structural analyses through a combination of X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy of single particles. These structural techniques help them understand biological functions like mechanosensitivity in hearing and balance, and how proteins sense changes in the electric field across membranes of neurons and other excitable tissues.

He is the director of the newly formed Center for Mechanical Excitability, a senior fellow of the UChicago Institute for Integrative Physiology and is affiliated with the Institute for Biophysical Dynamics and the Neuroscience Institute. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the Biophysical Society.

Yingming Zhao has been named the Louis Block Professor in the Ben May Department of Cancer Research and the College.

Zhao’s research is primarily dedicated to developing and applying mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies, alongside various chemical and biological tools, to identify previously undescribed cellular pathways and investigate their functions. His team discovered 13 types of new, metabolite-mediated lysine acylation pathways. They also identified about 1,000 new histone marks bearing the new protein modifications, more than doubling the number of the previously known histone marks discovered during the first 50 years of chromatin biology. 

His work revealed numerous enzymes that can add or remove the new lysine acylations, identified specific binding proteins (or “readers’) for the novel histone marks, and discovered a new class of enzymes that can catalyze the synthesis of short-chain lipid CoAs which serve as co-factors for lysine acylations. His laboratory's findings demonstrate the crucial roles of these newly discovered ­­­­– pathways in epigenetic regulation and cellular pathophysiological changes. They have shown that these pathways contribute to various inborn metabolic diseases, affect the cellular microenvironment, including conditions like hypoxia, and play significant roles in the functions of immunological cells.

He has co-authored 190 peer-reviewed papers and has been ranked, since 2019, as one of the Highly Cited Researchers by Clarivate. He is a co-founder and serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of two biotechnology companies.

Humanities Division

Clifford Ando has been named the Robert O. Anderson Distinguished Service Professor in the Departments of Classics and History and the College, effective Sept. 1.

Ando’s research focuses on the histories of religion, law and government in the ancient world. His first book centered on the history of political culture in the provinces of the Roman empire, and he continues to write and advise on topics related to the provincial administration, the relationship between imperial power and local cultural change, and the form and structure of ancient empires. He has also written extensively on ancient religion. Significant themes were the connection of religion to empire and imperial government, especially in relation to pluralism and tolerance; and problems of representation in the use of objects in ritual. His current projects include a study of Latin as a language of the law and a study of legal theory in contexts of weak state power.

He is also general editor of Roman Statutes: Renewing Roman Law , a collaborative project that will produce a new edition, translation and commentary on all epigraphically-preserved Roman laws. The project is supported by grants from the The Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation, the Neubauer Collegium, and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Christopher Faraone has been named the Robert O. Anderson Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Classics and the College.

A member of the UChicago faculty since 1992, Faraone focuses his research on ancient Greek poetry, religion and magic. He is the author of Talismans and Trojan Horses: Guardian Statues in Ancient Greek Myth and Ritual (1992); Ancient Greek Love Magic (1999); The Stanzaic Structure of Early Greek Elegy (2008); Transformation of Greek Amulets in Roman Imperial Times (2019); and Hexametrical Genres from Homer to Theocritus (2021).

He has also coedited a dozen scholarly volumes including (with I. Polinskaya), Curses in Context 3: The Greek Curse Tablets of the Classical and Hellenistic Periods, Papers and Monographs from the Norwegian Institute at Athens 12 (2021), (with F. Naiden), Ancient Victims, Modern Observers: Reflections on Greek and Roman Animal Sacrifice (Cambridge 2012), with D. Obbink, The Getty Hexameters: Poetry, Magic and Mystery in Ancient Greek Selinous (Oxford 2013). Most recently, he has co-edited with Sofia Torallas-Tovar The Greco-Egyptian Magical Formularies vol. 1 (Berkeley 2022) and The Greco-Egyptian Magical Formularies: Libraries, Books and Individual Recipes (Ann Arbor 2022), the latter of which was awarded the 2023 Charles Beebe Goodwin Book Award.

Anthony Kaldellis has been named the Gaylord Donnelley Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Classics and the College.

Kaldellis’ research explores the history, culture and literature of the east Roman empire from antiquity to the 15th century. An earlier phase of it focused on the reception of ancient Hellenic culture, for example on how authors conceived their projects in relation to classical models ( Procopius of Caesarea , 2004), as well as the history of identities ( Hellenism in Byzantium , 2007), monuments ( The Christian Parthenon , 2009), and genres ( Ethnography after Antiquity , 2013). A second phase brought to light the enduring Roman matrices of Byzantine life and thought, focusing on its political sphere ( The Byzantine Republic , 2015) and ethnic identities ( Romanland: Ethnicity and Empire in Byzantium , 2019).

He has translated into English the works of many medieval Greek writers, such as Prokopios, Genesios, Psellos, Attaleiates and Laonikos Chalkokondyles. His own monographs have been translated into other modern languages, including Turkish, French, Romanian, Russian and Greek. In 2019, he created the first academic podcast for his field, Byzantium & Friends . He has just published a new, comprehensive history of Byzantium, The New Roman Empire (2023), which embeds social, economic, religious and demographic developments within a lively narrative framework.

Gabriel Richardson Lear has been named as the Arthur and Joann Rasmussen Professor in Western Civilization in the Department of Philosophy, the John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought and the College.

Lear is the chair of the John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought. Her first book, Happy Lives and the Highest Good: An Essay on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Princeton, 2004), is about the relationship between morally virtuous action and theoretical contemplation in the happiest life. She continues to publish on aspects of Aristotle’s ethics.

In addition, she has published a number of articles about the idea, pervasive in Ancient Greek ethics, that virtue is beautiful or splendidly good ( kalon ) and about the intersection of ethics and poetics in Plato’s philosophy. She co-edited Plato’s Philebus: A Philosophical Discussion (Oxford, 2019), which was the inaugural publication of the international Plato Dialogue Project.

Rochona Majumdar has been named the George V. Bobrinskoy Professor in the Departments of South Asian Languages and Civilizations, Cinema and Media Studies, and the College.

Majumdar is a historian of modern India with a focus on Bengal. Her writings span histories of gender and sexuality, Indian cinema and modern Indian intellectual history. Majumdar also writes on postcolonial history and theory.

Majumdar's first book, Marriage and Modernity: Family Values in Colonial Bengal challenges the assumption that arranged marriage is an antiquated practice. It was shortlisted by the International Convention of Asia Scholars (Social Science short-list) in 2011. Her second work, Writing Postcolonial History , analyzed the impact of postcolonial theory on historiography.

Her third book, Art Cinema and India's Forgotten Futures: Film and History in the Postcolony, is an analysis of global art cinema in independent India. It was awarded The Chidananda Dasgupta Memorial award for the best writing on Indian cinema in 2023, an Honorable Mention for the Modernist Studies Association Book Prize 2022, and commended for the Kraszna-Krausz Moving Image Book Award 2022.

Majumdar is currently working on two projects. The first is a collaborative project funded by the University of Chicago Center in Delhi entitled A Global history of the Hindoo/ Presidency College: Excellence and Exclusion (under contract with Cambridge University Press) with Upal Chakrabarti and Sukanya Sarbadhikary. The second is an annotated translation of Fifty Years of Politics That I Have Witnessed ( Amar Dekha Rajnitir Panchansh Bachar ) by the Bangladeshi intellectual and nationalist thinker Abul Mansur Ahmad.

Sarah Nooter has been named the Edward Olson Professor in the Department of Classics and the College.

Nooter writes about Greek drama and modern reception, and also about poetry, the voice, embodiment, queer theory, and performance. Her first book, When Heroes Sing: Sophocles and the Shifting Soundscape of Tragedy (2016), explores the lyrically powerful voices of Sophocles’ heroes. The Mortal Voice in the Tragedies of Aeschylus (2022) is on voice in Aeschylus and Greek poetry and thought more generally. Her most recent book, Greek Poetry in the Age of Ephemerality (2023), consists of a series of essays on Greek poems, understood as attempts at embodiment through performance and objecthood in the face of the ephemerality of human life. Her volume of translations called How to Be Queer: An Ancient Guide to Sexuality (2024) has just been released.

She has co-edited a book called Sound and the Ancient Senses with Shane Butler (2019) and a volume with Mario Telò entitled Radical Formalisms: Reading, Theory and the Boundaries of the Classical (2024). Finally, she is Editor-in-Chief of Classical Philology and has edited special issues on Poetry and Its Means , Athens: Stage, Page, Assembly , Tragedy: Reconstruction and Repair , and, most recently, Philology Transfigured .

Physical Sciences Division

David Archer has been named the first Allyse and Helmut Heydegger Professor in the Department of the Geophysical Sciences and the College.

Archer uses computer simulations to understand the balance between carbon dioxide levels in the oceans and in the atmosphere in the past to better predict the impact that changing levels will have on future climate. He has worked on a wide range of topics pertaining to the global carbon cycle and its relation to global climate, as well as the evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

He is the author of The Long Thaw: How humans are changing the next 100,000 years of Earth's climate (2008), which earned him the 2009 Walter P. Kistler Book Award; as well as The Global Carbon Cycle (Princeton Primers in Climate) (2010), The Warming Papers: The Scientific Foundation for the Climate Change Forecast (2010) and an undergraduate textbook for non-science majors, titled Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast .

He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union.

Benson Farb has been named the first Ann Gillian Sheldon Professor of Mathematics and the College.

Farb's work has spanned geometric group theory, low-dimensional topology, dynamical systems, differential geometry, Teichmuller theory, cohomology of groups, representation theory, algebraic geometry and 4-manifold theory, as well as the connections among these topics.

Farb was elected a fellow of the American Mathematical Society in 2012 and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2021 and spoke at the International Congress of Mathematicians in 2014. Farb and his former student Dan Margalit were awarded the 2024 Steele Prize for their book “A Primer on Mapping Class Groups.” He has supervised 52 Ph.D. students and has been senior scientist for 15 NSF postdocs.

Young-Kee Kim has been named the Albert A. Michelson Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and the College.

Kim, special advisor to the provost, previously held the Louis Block Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and the College. She is an experimental particle physicist and devotes much of her research to understanding the origin of mass for fundamental particles.

Kim co-led the Collider Detector at Fermilab experiment, a collaboration with more than 600 particle physicists from around the world. She is currently working on the ATLAS particle physics experiment at CERN, as well as on accelerator physics research. She was deputy director of Fermilab between 2006 and 2013 and has served on numerous national and international advisory committees and boards.

She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the Korean Academy of Science and Technology, and a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Sloan Foundation, as well as the recipient of the Ho-Am Prize and the Arthur L. Kelly Faculty Prize.

Kim notes that Albert A. Michelson, the recipient of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Physics, for whom the chair is named, was the first chair of the UChicago Department of Physics in 1892; Kim served as chair of that department between 2016 and 2022. Michelson also served as president of the American Physical Society in 1901-1902, and Kim is currently president of the American Physical Society.

Yamuna Krishnan has been named the Louis Block Professor of Chemistry and the College.

Krishnan is a groundbreaking chemist who crafts tiny “machines” out of DNA that can be used to monitor and explore how cells work at the microscopic level. Such knowledge can help us better understand diseases and disorders, develop drug targets, and check whether a drug is reaching its intended target in a cell. She investigates the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids, nucleic acid nanotechnology, cellular and subcellular technologies.

She has received numerous awards, including the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award, the Infosys Prize for Physical Sciences, the Sun Pharma award for Basic Medical Sciences and the Bhatnagar Award for Chemical Sciences and the Scientific Innovations Award from the Brain Research Foundation. She has been named one of Lo Spazio Della Politica’s Top 100 Global Thinkers of 2014 and to research journal Cell Press’s “40 Under 40.”

Social Sciences Division

Paul Cheney has been named the Sorin and Imran Siddiqui Professor in the Department of History and the College, effective Aug. 1.

A historian of Europe with a specialization in old regime France and its colonial empire, Paul Cheney exemplifies the qualities recognized by this appointment: a brilliant scholar and a dedicated teacher with a demonstrated commitment to Core programs of the College. His scholarly work has significantly influenced several fields with an ambitious combination of economic, cultural, and intellectual historical approaches.

His first book, Revolutionary Commerce (Harvard, 2010), is a new history of economic and political culture in enlightenment France, resulting in a new understanding of the origins of the French Revolution. His second, prize-winning book, Cul de Sac (Chicago, 2017) delves into the practical history of colonial economic life in the form of a "global microhistory" of a sugar plantation on Saint Domingue. His work has appeared in Past & Present, The William and Mary Quarterly, Dix-huitième siècle, Les Annales historiques de la Révolution française , and Modern Intellectual History .

Cheney has advanced this bold and creative agenda in research while also making superior contributions to the University community and to the undergraduate curriculum, including service as Chair of multiple Core sequences since his appointment as Assistant Professor of European History in 2006.

Tom S. Clark has been named the David and Mary Winton Green Professor in the Department of Political Science and the College.

Clark joined the UChicago faculty on July 1 from Emory University. Recognized for his leadership in American politics as a scholar of the U.S. judiciary, his approach is distinctive for its attention to the judiciary as an institution that operates as part of the broader political processes of government.

In his research, Clark has investigated how federal judges respond to varying public support for their positions, and the ways in which Congress’s actions serve to signal public support to the courts. These issues were the focus of his first book The Limits of Judicial Independence (2011, Cambridge University Press). In his second book, The Supreme Court: An Analytic History of Constitutional Decision Making (2019, Cambridge University Press), he examines the ways in which social and political forces affect the cases that are brought to the Court, and ultimately shape judicial decisions and the evolution of constitutional law. In addition to his two monographs, Clark is the author of dozens of substantive journal articles in the field’s top outlets, a casebook, and a forthcoming book studying police shootings in U.S. cities.

He has been a visiting fellow at Stanford’s Center for the Advanced Study of Behavioral Sciences, Princeton’s Center for the Study of Democratic Politics and the Institute for Advanced Study at the Toulouse School of Economics. Clark’s work has been recognized by major scholarly awards, including the William H. Riker Award, awarded for best book on political economy from the Political Economy Section of the American Political Science Association, the Joseph Bernd Award and the Neal Tate Award from the Southern Political Science Association and the Midwest Political Science Association’s Emerging Scholar Award.

Cathy J. Cohen has been named the D. Gale Johnson Distinguished Service Professor in the Departments of Race, Diaspora, and Indigeneity and Political Science, and the College.

She was previously the David and Mary Winton Green Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science. Cohen’s research has challenged her discipline to reimagine the boundaries of the political sphere, and to reevaluate conventional assumptions about the nature of political activity. She is the founder of GenForward, a nationally representative and intensive survey of young adults that pays special attention to how race and ethnicity shape how respondents experience and think about the world.

Cohen is the author of several books, including the award-winning and highly-cited  The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics  (1999, University of Chicago Press), and  Democracy Remixed: Black Youth and the Future of American Politics  (2010, Oxford University Press). She is also the co-editor of  Women Transforming Politics  (1997, NYU Press). Her articles have been published in numerous journals and edited volumes.

In addition to her scholarly contributions, Cohen has a distinguished record of service and leadership at the University and within the academy. She is currently the inaugural chair of the Department of Race, Diaspora, and Indigeneity and has previously served as director of the Center for the Study of Race, Politics and Culture, as deputy provost for graduate education, and as chair of the Political Science Department. She is a member of the board of the Russell Sage Foundation and has served in advisory and leadership roles in the American Political Science Association, the Social Science Research Council and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Booth School of Business

Daniel Bartels has been named the Leon Carroll Marshall Professor of Marketing.

Bartels investigates the mental representations and processes underlying consumer financial decision-making, moral psychology, and intertemporal choice.

His research has been published in Journal of Consumer Research , Cognitive Psychology , Psychological Bulletin , Cognition, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , and Psychological Science and has been featured in The New York Times , The Economist , The Atlantic, Wall Street Journal, Time, US News and World Report, Money Magazine, among other outlets. He is associate editor at Cognition .

Prior to joining Booth as a faculty member, Bartels taught behavioral economics at Columbia Business School. He also had a previous affiliation with Booth as a postdoctoral fellow for the Center for Decision Research from 2007-2010. Bartels earned a PhD in cognitive psychology from Northwestern University and a BS in psychology from the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay.

Anna Costello has been named the Jeffrey Breakenridge Keller Professor of Accounting.

Before joining Booth, she previously served as an assistant professor of accounting at the University of Michigan Ross School of Business and the MIT Sloan School of Management.

Costello’s research investigates the role of information sharing between supply chain partners. Specifically, her work shows that information asymmetry between buyers and suppliers impacts the terms and restrictions in long-term supply contracts. She also studies how trade credit between supply chain partners influences firm-specific and market-wide risk. Her research has been published in the Journal of Political Economy, the Journal of Financial Economics, the Journal of Accounting Research, the Journal of Accounting and Economics, and The Accounting Review .

Costello was awarded the Best Dissertation Award from the Financial Accounting and Reporting Section of the American Accounting Association. She received the 2014-2015 MBA Teacher of the Year Award from the MIT Sloan School of Management.

Ayelet Fishbach has been named the Eric J. Gleacher Distinguished Service Professor of Behavioral Science and Marketing.

Fishbach studies social psychology, management, and consumer behavior. She is the past president of the Society for the Science of Motivation and the International Social Cognition Network, and the author of GET IT DONE: Surprising Lessons from the Science of Motivation .

Fishbach is an expert on motivation and decision-making. Her groundbreaking research on human motivation has won the Society of Experimental Social Psychology’s Best Dissertation Award and Career Trajectory Award, the Society of Consumer Psychology’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution award, and the Fulbright Educational Foundation Award. She further received the Provost’s Teaching Award from the University of Chicago.

Fishbach’s work shows how people can live up to their highest aspirations. She’s written about exercising, healthy eating, working, studying, and saving money—the hard-but-worth-it challenges that occupy our lives. She studies self-control, intrinsic motivation, feedback, patience, and promoting a healthy lifestyle. 

Fishbach’s research has been published in many journals, including Nature , Psychological Review , Psychological Science, Journal of Consumer Research , Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , Journal of Marketing Research , and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology . Her research is regularly featured in the media, including The New York Times, Financial Times , WSJ , CNN , and NPR .

Michael Minnis has been named the Fuji Bank and Heller Professor of Accounting.

He studies the role of accounting information in allocating investment efficiently by both managers and capital providers. His recent research focuses on understanding the role of privately held companies in the U.S. economy and how these firms use financial reporting to access, deploy, and manage capital.

Minnis joined the Booth faculty in 2010 and has served as the director of the Chookaszian Accounting Research Center since 2022. As launch committee co-chair, he has played an integral role in the development of the school’s new Master in Management and Master in Finance Programs.

From 2018-2023, he served two terms as a member of the Private Company Council, the primary advisory council to the Financial Accounting Standards Board on private company issues. He has also been engaged in a variety consulting projects outside of academia.

Before pursuing his PhD, Minnis worked in a variety of professional roles. He first started in corporate finance at Eli Lilly and Company, Inc. and later at Fitzgerald | Isaac, p.c. as a certified public accountant. He went on to found Controller Associates LLC. His firm provided part-time controller and Chief Financial Officer services to start-ups, small companies, and non-profit organizations, as well as a variety of financial statement analysis and consulting services.

Minnis received his PhD from the University of Michigan and his BS from the University of Illinois.

Sanjog Misra has been named the Charles H. Kellstadt Distinguished Service Professor of Marketing and Applied AI.

His research focuses on the use of AI, machine learning, deep learning, and structural econometric methods to study consumer, firm, and policy decisions. In particular, his research involves building data-driven intelligent models aimed at understanding how individuals make choices and investigating private and public policies that might influence those choices. More broadly, Misra is interested in the development of scalable algorithms, calibrated on large-scale data, and the implementation of such algorithms in real world decision environments.

Misra’s research has been published in Econometrica , The Journal of Marketing Research, The Journal of Political Economy, Marketing Science, Quantitative Marketing and Economics, the Journal of Law and Economics , among others. He has served as the co-editor of Quantitative Marketing and Economics and as area editor at Management Science , the Journal of Business and Economic Statistics , Marketing Science , Quantitative Marketing and Economics , the International Journal of Research in Marketing and the Journal of Marketing Research.

Prior to joining Booth, Misra was professor of marketing at UCLA Anderson School of Management and professor at the Simon School of Business at the University of Rochester. In addition, he has been visiting faculty at the Johnson School of Management at Cornell University and the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University.

Joseph L. Pagliari has been named the first John Mazarakis and Chicago Atlantic Clinical Professor, effective Feb. 1. He focuses his research and teaching efforts (based on over 40 years of industry experience) on issues broadly surrounding institutional real estate investment, attempting to answer important questions from a rigorous theoretical and empirical perspective. These issues include: the risk-adjusted performance of core and non-core funds; principal/agent issues in incentive fees; a comparison of REITs and private real estate; real estate’s pricing and return-generating process; real estate’s role in a mixed-asset portfolio; analysis of high-yield (or mezzanine) financing; and the strategic uses of leverage.

 He has authored (or co-authored) numerous papers on a variety of these topics. He has also co-authored several chapters in the Handbook of Real Estate Portfolio Management, of which he is also the editor. He has presented these papers and thoughts on other topics at a variety of industry events (including ARES, AREUEA, NCREIF, NAREIM, PREA and ULI) as well as the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and testimony before a subcommittee of the House of Representatives. His views on these and other topics have also been published in the popular press, including Barron’s and The Wall Street Journal.

Alexander Todorov has been named the Walter David “Bud” Fackler Distinguished Service Professor of Behavioral Science.

Todorov studies perception, judgment, and decision-making. As an alternative to standard theory-driven experiments to study perception and judgment, Todorov’s lab pioneered data-driven computational methods. These methods model and visualize the perceptual basis of judgments (e.g., what makes an object beautiful) without prior assumptions, and can be used as a discovery tool. Building on this past work, his current research uses generative AI to model individual human preferences. Another line of research is on the incompleteness of human statistical intuitions and the conditions under which these intuitions impair decision-making.

Todorov’s research has been published in many journals, including Science , PNAS , Nature Human Behavior , Trends in Cognitive Sciences , Psychological Science , Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Vision , and Journal of Neuroscience . Media coverage of his research has spanned internationally. Among the outlets in the US that have covered his research are PBS, NBC Today Show, NPR, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal. Todorov was awarded the 2008 SAGE Young Scholar Award from the Foundation for Personality and Social Psychology, a 2010 Guggenheim Fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and the 2019 Career Trajectory Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. His most recent book is Face Value: The Irresistible Influence of First Impressions .

Prior to joining Booth, Todorov was a professor of psychology at Princeton University from 2002 to 2020.

Oleg Urminsky has been named the Theodore O. Yntema Professor of Marketing.

Urminsky studies decision-making and the implications for consumers, policymakers and firms. He studies how information, incentives, goals, temporal horizons, identity, emotions and the decision environment interact to shape individual decision-making. He teaches experimental research methods for MBA and PhD students.

Urminsky’s research has been published in Cognition , Journal of Consumer Research , Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Marketing Research , Marketing Science , Nature Human Behavior and Psychological Science as well as other journals. His paper, “The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention” was a finalist for the 2007 Paul Green award and 2011 O’Dell award. His recent research investigates how the relationships between emotions and economic decisions vary around the world, how planning and anticipated interpersonal interactions impact patience, how language impacts online engagement, and the importance of field experiments for testing policies.

Urminsky’s past experience includes political polling and advertising research, including working on the largest worldwide study of brands, the Brand Asset Valuator, as well as presidential and senate campaigns.

Divinity School

Dwight N. Hopkins has been named the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor.

Hopkins is a constructive social impact theologian (his first Ph.D. degree) with emphasis on wealth ownership informed by history, politics, and religion (his second Ph.D. degree). He asks: how does faith plus wealth equal freedom? — which is the content and goal of human liberation. Wealth means the ownership of earth, air, and water. Faith underscores humans having collective visions beyond the individual self. And freedom points to humans not owing anything to anyone. In this way of life, people are free fully to pursue living.

His MBA degree complements this path to relate the humanities/theology with wealth/business to expand being fully human for people whose traditions pursue faith plus wealth equals freedom. For him, educational technology and ethics in Artificial Intelligence represent a door opening to such a visionary and practical freedom, especially for younger generations.

Hopkins’ research begins with how people have always had agency and opportunity. For example, he developed three courses on Black Ownership of Wealth, from 1619 to the present.

Like John D. Rockefeller (the founder of the University of Chicago), Hopkins comes out of the Baptist tradition, but framed by Episcopalian impacts.

Harris School

Steven Durlauf has been named the Frank P. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor.

The director of the Stone Center for Research on Wealth Inequality and Mobility, Durlauf conducts research that spans topics in economics, including poverty, inequality and economic growth. He helped pioneer the application of statistical mechanics techniques to the modeling of socioeconomic behavior and has also developed identification analyses for these models. Durlauf is also known as a critic of the use of the concept of social capital by social scientists and has also challenged the ways that agent-based modeling and complexity theory have been employed by social and natural scientists to study socioeconomic phenomena.

Durlauf is currently a general editor of the Elsevier Handbooks in Economics series. He was a general editor of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), the most extensive compendium of economic knowledge in the world. He was also the editor of the Journal of Economic Literature from 2013 to 2022.

He is a fellow of the Econometric Society, a fellow of the Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory, a fellow of the International Association of Applied Econometrics and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2011.

Curtis A. Bradley has been named the Allen M. Singer Distinguished Service Professor of Law.

A foreign relations law expert, Bradley has research interests that include international law, constitutional law and federal court jurisdiction. His latest book, Historical Gloss and Foreign Affairs: Constitutional Authority in Practice —due out in October—examines how the constitutional law governing the conduct of foreign affairs has evolved significantly throughout history, positing that these changes were developed through the practices of presidents and Congress rather than by Supreme Court rulings or formal constitutional amendments.

He is also the author of International Law in the US Legal System (3d ed. 2020), the editor of The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Foreign Relations Law (2019), and the coauthor of two casebooks: Foreign Relations Law: Cases and Materials (8th ed. 2024) and Federal Courts and the Law of Federal-State Relations (10th ed. 2022).

From 2012-2018, Bradley served as a reporter on the Restatement (Fourth) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States, and in 2023, began serving as a reporter on the latest phase of this Restatement. Early in his career, Bradley clerked for Judge David Ebel on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit and Justice Byron White on the U.S. Supreme Court. In 2004, he served as counselor on international law in the Legal Adviser’s Office of the U.S. State Department.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering

Nadya Mason has been named the first Robert J. Zimmer Professor of Molecular Engineering, effective Feb. 1.  

The dean of the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, Mason focuses her research on nanoscale electronic properties in systems such as nano-scale wires, atomically thin membranes, and nanostructured superconductors, with applications in nanoscale and quantum computing.

Before joining UChicago in 2023, Mason was the Rosalyn S. Yalow Professor of Physics at the University of Illinois and directed the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology.

Dedicated to advancing diversity in the physical sciences and mentoring, Mason is the former chair of the American Physical Society Committee on Minorities, where she helped initiate the “National Mentoring Community.” She regularly contributes to science outreach through local TV appearances, the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, and a TED talk on "Scientific Curiosity."

Mason is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is the recipient of numerous awards, including the 2009 Denise Denton Emerging Leader Award, the 2012 APS Maria Goeppert Mayer Award and the 2019 APS Bouchet Award.

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  1. TEP025 Writing the aims and hypotheses of your laboratory report

    how to write hypothesis in lab report

  2. how to write a hypothesis in lab report

    how to write hypothesis in lab report

  3. How Write A Lab Report

    how to write hypothesis in lab report

  4. How to Formulate a Hypothesis for an Experiment

    how to write hypothesis in lab report

  5. How to Write a Hypothesis

    how to write hypothesis in lab report

  6. How to Write a Lab Report

    how to write hypothesis in lab report


  1. Proportion Hypothesis Testing, example 2

  2. Writing a Hypothesis

  3. How to write a hypothesis

  4. Science Lab Report/Report Writing/How to Write Science Report?




  1. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Developing a hypothesis (with example) Step 1. Ask a question. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question.

  2. How To Write A Lab Report

    Introduction. Your lab report introduction should set the scene for your experiment. One way to write your introduction is with a funnel (an inverted triangle) structure: Start with the broad, general research topic. Narrow your topic down your specific study focus. End with a clear research question.

  3. How to Write a Lab Report

    Hopefully this will be useful as you begin your lab report. 1) Title (ex: Effects of Sunlight on Basil Plant Growth) 2) Abstract (approx. 200 words) Background ( This experiment looks at…) Objectives ( It aims to contribute to research on…) Methods ( It does so through a process of….)

  4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Learn how to write hypotheses for scientific research projects, with examples and tips. Find out how to phrase hypotheses, null hypotheses, and alternative hypotheses in different ways.

  5. How to Write a Lab Report: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

    Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. A simple way to write your reference section is to use Google scholar. Just type the name and date of the psychologist in the search box and click on the "cite" link. Next, copy and paste the APA reference into the ...

  6. A Guide on How to Write a Hypothesis in a Lab Report

    The dependent variable. A relationship between what is independent and dependent. The best way to compose a reliable hypothesis for a lab report is to first ask a question by formulating the problem and conducting preliminary research. Next, variables must be defined as the " IF X is so, then Y is that " pattern.

  7. PDF The Complete Guide to Writing a Report for a Scientific ...

    All forms of technical writing are equally significant, but this article categorically emphasizes the skills and techniques required for writing a comprehensive experimental lab report. Since several tips discussed in the guide come from the personal experience of experimental physicists, there is room for adaptation and exercising personal ...

  8. How to Write An Effective Lab Report

    Explain the different parts of your project, the variables being tested, and controls in your experiments. This section will validate the data presented by confirming that variables are being tested in a proper way. Results. You cannot change the data you collect from your experiments; thus the results section will be written for you.

  9. How to Write a Hypothesis: 13 Steps (with Pictures)

    1. Select a topic. Pick a topic that interests you, and that you think it would be good to know more about. [2] If you are writing a hypothesis for a school assignment, this step may be taken care of for you. 2. Read existing research. Gather all the information you can about the topic you've selected.

  10. Library Research Guides: STEM: How To Write A Lab Report

    The introduction of a lab report discusses the problem being studied and other theory that is relevant to understanding the findings. The hypothesis of the experiment and the motivation for the research are stated in this section. Write the introduction in your own words. Try not to copy from a lab manual or other guidelines. Instead, show ...

  11. How to Write a Lab Report

    Learn how to write a lab report with this guide that covers title, introduction, materials, methods, data, results, discussion, conclusions, and references. Find out where to state your hypothesis and how to format your report.

  12. What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

    An effective hypothesis in research is clearly and concisely written, and any terms or definitions clarified and defined. Specific language must also be used to avoid any generalities or assumptions. Use the following points as a checklist to evaluate the effectiveness of your research hypothesis: Predicts the relationship and outcome.

  13. How to Write a Lab Report

    For any lab report, use a professional font and size. For example, 12-point Times New Roman. Double-space the report. Include a page number, usually either in the top or bottom right corner of each page. Clearly separate specific sections of the report with headings and subheadings.

  14. Student Tutorial: Introduction to Writing Lab Reports

    An effective introduction to a lab report typically performs the following tasks, generally in the order presented: 1. it establishes the learning context for the lab by: a. saying what the lab is about, that is, what scientific concept (theory, principle, procedure, etc.)Ý the researcher is supposed to be learning about by doing the lab; and. b.

  15. PDF how to write a lab report + sample report

    A. A clear discussion of the results obtained in the lab, including examples from the data. B. Clearly state whether or not the hypothesis is supported by the data. C. Clearly and accurately explain the scientific principles that produced the results (scientifically why the hypothesis was right or wrong). D. Clearly state what was learned in ...

  16. PDF Biology Lab Report Sample

    Created by Writing Center tutors D.N. & J.S. 11/21/2016 Biology Lab Report Sample, Cont'd Materials and Methods Use the information you recorded in your lab notebook as a guide to write this section in paragraph format. Provide enough information so that the reader could repeat the experiment, but

  17. LabCheck : Improving your lab report

    Improving your Introduction. successfully establishes the scientific concept of the lab. To establish the scientific concept for the lab you need to do two things: 1. state what the lab is about, that is, what scientific concept (theory, principle, procedure, etc.) you are supposed to be learning about by doing the lab.

  18. How to Write a Scientific Report

    In this post, we'll guide you step-by-step through how to write a scientific report and provide you with an example.

  19. 5 Ways to Write a Good Lab Conclusion in Science

    1. Write in the third person. Avoid using "I," "we" or "me" in your lab report. Instead, use language such as, "The hypothesis was supported…". [11] 2. Read through the full report. Once you've finalized your conclusion, read through the entire report to make sure it is logical.

  20. Science: Lab report

    A science lab report is a structured way of communicating the outcomes of your practical work. The structure of a typical lab report includes the following sections: Introduction - Why you conducted the practical work, and indicate your aim, hypothesis or research question. Method - How you conducted the practical work and how any data processed.

  21. How to Write Hypothesis for Lab Report

    If leaf color change is related to temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. Notice that these statements contain the words, if and then. They are necessary for a formalized hypothesis. But not all if-then statements are hypotheses. For example, "If I play the lottery, then I will get rich.".

  22. How to Write a Good Conclusion For a Lab Report

    How to Write a Lab Report Conclusion. To write a good lab conclusion, follow these steps: Remind the reader why you did the experiment and its aims. Describe how you did the experiment and what tools you used. Briefly discuss the samples used and the results obtained. Provide a short analysis, including your arguments and assumptions.

  23. LabCheck : Improving your lab report

    Introduction: research problem of lab; hypothesis; Methods: a quick description of the procedure; Results: statement of the overall findings; ... Every source that you formally used to write your lab report should appear in the References. These include the lab manual, textbooks, technical documents, any source you use and cite in the report. ...

  24. Thirty-one UChicago faculty members receive named, distinguished

    Thirty-one members of the University of Chicago faculty have received distinguished service professorships or named professorships. Profs. Clifford Ando, Curtis A. Bradley, Cathy J. Cohen, Steven Durlauf, Christopher Faraone, Ayelet Fishbach, Anthony Kaldellis, Young-Kee Kim, Sanjog Misra, Mitchell C. Posner and Alexander Todorov have been named distinguished service professors.