MLA Guide (7th edition)

The examples provided in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (seventh edition). For types of resources not included in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further information about the examples included below, please consult the MLA Handbook itself , and/or a Reference Librarian . For help with layout, margins, spacing and page numbering, see the MLA Handbook (Fig. 12, page 131). Consider using RefWorks to help you track your research and automatically create a bibliography in MLA style.

If you need help with the current version of MLA, please see the guide for MLA ( 8th edition, 2016). If you are unsure which version of MLA to use, please consult with your professor.

Table of Contents:

Parenthetical Documentation Preparing the List of Works Cited A Brief Note on Footnotes and Endnotes For More Help

PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION

When using MLA documentation style, you need to reference your sources by using a combination of a list of works cited (see below) and parenthetical notation . Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Generally, brief parenthetical notations consisting of the author's last name and a page reference are sufficient. For example: (Drucker 30) .

Note: If you mention the author in your sentence, then you need only cite the page number . And if you cite more than one work by the same author , include the title of the work in your notation. For example: (Drucker, Management Cases 30) .

1. ONE AUTHOR

The character Folly denies satirizing Christianity when she says, "it is no part of my present plan to rummage through the lives of popes and priests," yet she spends much of her encomium doing just that (Erasmus 115).

2. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

Max Weber purported that value systems could be studied "without the social scientist's own values distorting such studies" (Keat and Urry 196).

According to Russell Keat and John Urry in Social Science as Theory, Max Weber believed that value systems could be studied "without the social scientist's own values distorting such studies" (196).

Max Weber believed that individuals can objectively study values without their own values interfering with their judgment (Keat and Urry 196).

3. CORPORATE AUTHOR

Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem (UNICEF 44).

4. NO AUTHOR

Marketers of health services and products will find the National Center for Health Statistics' site useful, particularly its statistics on mortality rates. Discovering a population's leading causes of death "tells the researcher a lot about its underlying health problems" ("Information to Die For" 40).

5. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

Cite the author of the essay or story and not the editor of the anthology unless they are the same.

Although some critics disliked Mel Brook's 1993 parody of Robin Hood, it is actually "in the mainstream of the Robin Hood tradition" (Knight 461).

6. INDIRECT QUOTATION

Chief Joseph concluded his surrender by stating eloquently: "[.. .] I will fight no more forever" (qtd. in Safire 108).

7. ONLINE RESOURCE

If the work is not paginated, include the name of the author or editor within the context of your sentence (for example, from a discussion list).

Posting on the VICTORIA listserv, Karen O'Connell mentioned a relevant novel by Wilkie Collins that deals with the 19th-century use of arsenic as a complexion improver.

If the work is paginated, cite it as you would a print resource.

Imagine that the sentences above could somehow be synthesized and used in a single paper. The works cited page would look like this:

WORKS CITED

Erasmus, Desiderius. The Praise of Folly. Trans. Clarence H. Miller. New Haven:

        Yale University Press, 1979. Print.

"Information to Die For."   Marketing Health Services 22.1 (2002): 40-42.  ABI/Inform.

        Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

Keat, Russell, and John Urry.   Social Theory as Science.   2nd ed.  London: Routledge

        and K. Paul, 1982.  Print.

Knight, Stephen.  "Robin Hood: Men in Tights: Fitting the Tradition Snugly."

        Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism.   Ed. Stephen

        Knight.  Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 1999.  461-467.  Print.

O'Connell, Karen.  "Re: Poisoning."  VICTORIA.  Indiana U.  3 Nov. 2000.  Web.

        14 Aug. 2009.

Safire, William.   Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W. W.

         Norton and Company, 1992. Print.

UNICEF.   Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the

         Former Soviet Union. Ed. Alexander Zouev. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

         Print.

PREPARING THE LIST OF WORKS CITED

As demonstrated above, a works cited page consists of an alphabetical listing of the books, articles and other sources that you parenthetically noted in your paper. The works cited page occurs at the end of your paper; however, it is useful to create a draft of it before you begin writing. Following are typical examples of the types of references you will use in your research.

Include some or all of the following elements in your book citation:

  • Author or editor
  • Title (italicized)
  • Translator or compiler
  • Volume(s) used
  • Name of series
  • Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication
  • Page numbers
  • Name of vendor, database, or provider (italicized)
  • Medium of publication consulted (e.g., Print)
  • Date of access (Web only; day, month, year)
  • Supplementary information and annotation

1. ONE AUTHOR OR EDITOR

Cather, Willa.   The Professor's House.   New York: A. A. Knopf, 1925.  Print.

UNICEF.   Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe

         and the Former Soviet Union.   Ed. Alexander Zouev.  Armonk: M. E.

         Sharpe, 1999.  Print.

Hudson, Valerie N., ed.   Culture and Foreign Policy.   Boulder: L. Rienner

         Publishers, 1997.  Print.

2. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS OR EDITORS

    Names should be given in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science. 2nd ed. London: Routledge

         and K. Paul, 1982. Print.

Kennedy, Mary, Kathy Lubelska, and Val Walsh, eds. Making Connections: Women's

         Studies, Women's Movements, Women's Lives. London: Taylor and Francis,

        1993. Print.

3. ELECTRONIC BOOK

    Include the vendor, database, or provider's name (italicized) and date of access (day, month, year) .

Turam, Berna. Between Islam and the State: The Politics of Engagement. Stanford,

         CA: Stanford UP, 2007. NetLibrary. Web. 14 Aug. 2009.

     If the book is accessed from a SCHOLARLY PROJECT , also include the project     name, place of publication, and the date of the electronic publication if available.

Child, Lydia Maria. An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans.

        Boston: Allen and Ticknor, 1833. Women Writers Online. Brown U. Web. 14

        Aug. 2009.

4. ANTHOLOGY

Knight, Stephen.  "Robin Hood: Men in Tights: Fitting the Tradition Snugly."          

        Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism.   Ed. Stephen

Barrick, Richard, John Sullivan, and Alexander White.  "The American Bloody Register."

       Pillars of Salt: An Anthology of Early American Criminal Narratives.   Comp. 

       Daniel E. Williams.  Madison: Madison House, 1993.  233-258.  Print.

5. INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, FOREWORD, OR AFTERWORD

Ritterson, Michael.  Introduction.   The Odin Field: A Story. By Wilhem Raabe.

      Trans. Michael Ritterson.  Studies in German Literature, Linguistics, and Culture.

      Rochester: Camden House, 2001.  xi-xxvii.  Print.

6. MULTIVOLUME WORK

Tomkins, Silvan S.   Affect, Imagery, Consciousness.   4 vols.  New York: Springer,

         1962-1992. Print.

Anthony, Robert N., and James S. Reece.   Accounting Principles.   7th ed.  Chicago:

        Irwin, 1995.  Print.

8. TRANSLATION

Erasmus, Desiderius.   The Praise of Folly.   Trans.  Clarence H. Miller.  New Haven:

        Yale, 1979. Print.

9. ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK

"Audubon, John James."   The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Micropaedia.   15th

        ed.  2002.  Print.

"Audubon, John James."   Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.   Encyclopaedia

        Britannica, 2009.  Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

Ebeling, Richard, ed.   Global Free Trade: Rhetoric or Reality?  Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale

        College Press, 1993.  Print.  Champions of Freedom 20.

B. Articles in Periodicals

Include some or all of the following in your article citation:

  • Article title (usually in quotation marks)
  • Periodical title (italicized)
  • Series/Issue number or name
  • Volume number
  • Issue number (if available)
  • Publication date (year for scholarly journals; day, month, year for others, as available)
  • Medium of publication
  • Name of database (italicized and placed before medium of publication) (Web only)
  • Date of access (day, month, year) (Web only)

1. SCHOLARLY JOURNAL

Freedman, L.  "The Changing Forms of Military Conflict."   Survival 40.4 (1998): 39-56.

        Print.

Kirby, John T.  "Aristotle on Metaphor."   American Journal of Philology 118.4

        (1997): 517-554.  Print.

Online Journal -- Use n. pag. to indicate the absence of inclusive page numbers.

Ketabgian, Tamara.  Rev. of The Body Economic: Life, Death, and Sensation in

        Political Economy and the Victorian Novel, by Catherine Gallagher.  Bryn Mawr

        Review of Comparative Literature 6.2 (2007): n. pag.  Web.  19 Aug. 2009.

Chan, Winnie.  "Curry on the Divide in Rudyard Kipling's Kim and Gurinder Chadha's

        Bend it Like Beckham."  ARIEL: A Review of International English

        Literature 36.3-4 (2005): 1-23. Web.  14. Aug. 2009.

      Full text of an article from a Database -- Include the name of the      database, the name of the database provider and the date of access.      Use n. pag. to indicate the absence of inclusive page numbers.   

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Forms of Military Conflict." Survival 40.4 (1998):

        39-56. ProQuest Research Library.  Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

  Kirby, John T.  "Aristotle on Metaphor."   American Journal of Philology 118.4 (1997):

       517-554.  JSTOR.  Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

2. MAGAZINE

     Monthly or Bimonthly

Goldberger, Paul. "Machines for Living: Architectonic Allure of the Automobile."

        Architectural Digest Oct. 1996: 82.

     Weekly

Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone.  "Silicon Valley Reboots."   Newsweek 25 Mar.

        2002: 42-50.  Print.

        2002: 42-50.  Academic Search Premier.  Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

3. ANONYMOUS ARTICLE

"Information to Die For."   Marketing Health Services 22.1 (2002): 40-42.  Print.

"Information to Die For."   Marketing Health Services 22.1 (2002): 40-42.   ABI/Inform.        14 Aug. 2009.

4. NEWSPAPER

Pianin, Eric.  "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End."   The Washington Post 13

       Feb. 2002, final ed.: A2.  Print.

Pianin, Eric.  "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End."   The Washington Post 13 Feb.

       2002, final ed.: A2.  LexisNexis Academic.   Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

Nash, Alanna.  "Hit 'em with a lizard!"  Rev. of   Basket Case, by Carl Hiaasen.  New

        York Times 3 Feb. 2002, late ed., sec. 7: 24.  Print.

        York Times 3 Feb.  2002, late ed., sec. 7: 24.  LexisNexis Academic.  Web.  14

C. Web Sites

Following are elements to include when citing entire Web sites. Keep in mind that

if you cannot find all of the elements, you should include whatever is available on the site . The URL is no longer required unless locating the site requires it or your professor requires it.

  • Title of Web site (italicized)
  • Site publisher/sponsor
  • Date of site's publication (if none, use n.d. )
  • Date of access (day, month, year)

1. SCHOLARLY PROJECT

Crane, Gregory, ed.  Perseus Digital Library.  Dept. of the Classics, Tufts U.

      n.d.  Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

2. PROFESSIONAL SITE

Financial Accounting Standards Board .  Feb. 2002.  Web.  14 Aug. 2009.

3. PERSONAL SITE

Lewis, Paul.  The Wilkie Collins Pages.   n.d.  Web. 14 Aug. 2009. 

       <http://www.paullewis.co.uk/>.

See also Electronic Book and Periodicals above.

D. Online Postings

To cite a posting from a discussion list, include the following elements if available:

  • Author of posting
  • Title of posting (from subject line of posting, in quotes)
  • Name of discussion list
  • Date of posting
  • 5. Medium of publication
  • Date of access

O'Connell, Karen.  "Re: Poisoning." VICTORIA. Indiana U.  3 Nov. 2000. Web.

A BRIEF NOTE ON FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES

Long explanatory footnotes or endnotes can distract the reader. Nevertheless, you may occasionally need to clarify a citation with a bibliographic note . Or you may wish to incorporate information that might interest your reader but which would seem tangential if included within the text of your paper. In this case, you would use a content note. Notes are indicated with consecutive superscript numbers within the text of your paper. The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper.

1. BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE

Nineteenth-century critics of cheap, mass-produced fiction feared that the gory subject matter of stories like Sweeney Todd would lead a generation of youth into depravity. 1

          1 For a selection of penny fiction as well as 19th-century criticism of it, see

Haining's The Penny Dreadful .

2. CONTENT NOTE

Charles Knight did not rely solely on the cheaply printed word in publications like the Penny Magazine to educate people; he also mass-produced images to diffuse knowledge visually. 2

2 Patricia Anderson's The Printed Image and the Transformation of Popular Culture, 1790-1860 provides examples of Penny Magazine images, such as depictions of flamingos, reproduced portraits of people like Benjamin Franklin, and engravings of famous artworks like "The Dying Gladiator" and "Laocoon" (50-83).

FOR MORE HELP

Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:

  • RefWorks : Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of MLA style.
  • Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) : Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.
  • Citing Sources : Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA , Chicago , MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.
  • Citing Electronic Primary Sources : From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats such as films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.

MLA Citation Guide: Citing in the body of your paper

  • "Works Cited" List Outlined
  • MLA Online Tutorials
  • Citing in the body of your paper
  • Books and book chapters
  • Periodicals

In-Text Citations (see pages 54 - 58, 116 - 128 of the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition)

In the body of your paper, use parenthetical documentation (Chapter 5 of MLA Handbook ). The purpose of your documentation is for your readers to be able to locate the sources which you cite in your text when they look at your bibliography ("Works Cited") located at the end of your paper. You give the minimum of information necessary for your readers to do this, such as just the author's last name and the page(s) to which you refer.

  • When you omit the author's name in your sentence:

This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).

  • When you include the author's name in your sentence:

Tannen has argued this point (178-85).

  • When you cite more than one work by the same author (shortened version of title is acceptable, using first words:

Shakespeare's King Lear has been called a "comedy of the grotesque" (Frye,  Anatomy 237).

  • When the work has more than one author:

Others hold the opposite point of view (e.g., Kerrigan and Braden 210-15).

  • When the work has no author, use title (shortened form is ok) of article or book:

A New York Times editorial called Ralph Ellison "a writer of universal reach" ("Death").

  • If your source uses explicit paragraph numbers rather than page numbers -- as some publications on the web do -- give the relevant number or numbers, preceded by the label par. or pars .  Change the label appropriately if another kind of part is numbered in the source instead of pages, such as sections ( sec., secs .) or chapters ( ch., chs .). If the author's name begins such a citation, place a comma after the name.

There is little evidence here for the claim that "Eagleton has belittled the gains of postmodernism" (Chan, par.41).

  • When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation.  Do not count unnumbered paragraphs or other parts.

"As we read we . . . construct the terrain of a book" (Hollmichel), something that is more difficult when the text reflows on a screen.

  • In parenthetical citations of a literary work available in multiple editions, such as commonly studied novel, play, or poem, it is often helpful to provide division numbers in addition to, or instead of, page numbers, so that readers can find references in any edition of the work.

Austen begins the final chapter of Mansfield Park with a dismissive "Let other pens dwell," thereby announcing her decision to avoid dwelling on the professions of love made by Fanny and Edmund (533; vol.3, ch.17).

  • For works in time-based media, such as audio and video recordings, cite relevant time or range of times.  Give the numbers of the hours, minutes and seconds as displayed on your media player, separating the numbers with colons.

Buffy's promise that "there's not going to be incidents like at my old school" is obviously not one on which she can follow through ("Buffy" 00:03:16-17).

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how to cite research papers in mla

Guide on How to Cite a Research Paper Using MLA Format: Best Tips

how to cite research papers in mla

Understanding What is MLA Formatting

If you are a high school or college student, there will be a time when you find yourself in an ambiguous situation on how to cite a research paper in MLA. There are various formatting styles, but the most commonly used are the MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. In the article, our writers will teach you how to cite a research paper using MLA format correctly.

Created by college educators in the late 1800s, the MLA format was intended to encourage American students to study modern languages as classical languages were becoming less popular. Thus, they developed the format for MLA citing in research paper to determine if it would successfully promote learning modern languages.

In a nutshell, MLA is the formatting style of the Modern Language Association used in areas such as English studies, comparative literature, foreign language, and literature or cultural studies. This academic style guides extensively used in the United States, Canada, and other countries.

Research Paper in MLA Format

So, how to format a research paper in MLA style? There are four key components that a research paper in MLA format includes.

Except for the running head, page margins should be precisely 1 inch on both sides of the text as well as on top and bottom.

Text Formatting

When writing a research paper or another academic assignment, it is recommended to use Times New Roman typeface as it is easily readable. Set the standard size, which is usually 12 points.

Change the line spacing from single to double-spaced. That makes reading less crammed on the eye and allows the professor to make essential comments in a neat and organized manner. Also, make sure to indent the first line of a paragraph ½ inch from the left margin.

Enter the required course information on the top-left corner of the front page. The MLA format research paper title page should look like this:

Guide on How to Cite a Research Paper

  • Name of Teacher/Professor
  • Name of Course
  • Due Date for Assignment

Type your title below the date after double spacing and align it centered with no period at the end. You shouldn't make your title bold, italicized, or underlined. There is only one exception from the rule: use italics if the title of another source is included in yours. Make sure you follow the capitalization rules. Check if it's correct in MLA Handbook (67–68) .

The MLA title for an MLA format research paper looks like this:

Sarah E. Johnson

Professor Lumpur

Biology 201

How Does Human Memory Work?

Page Numbers

If you wonder how do you cite a page number in research paper in MLA format, consider setting the automatic page numbering in the top right-hand corner. That is done to keep track of the page order, and it also looks pleasing to the eye. Leave a margin of ½ inch from the top and flush with the right margin.

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How to Cite a Research Paper with In-Text Citations

In-text citations are often subordinate, meaning that information is always added to the end of the sentence in parentheses. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation.

For example, if the author's name is found within the in-text citation, there is no need to add it at the end; insert the page number, and you are all done referencing.

Having two sources from the same author may confuse the reader. When they check the source, they will find two different articles. To avoid this confusion, you must include a short title of the research citation so the readers know which citations to look for.

You should include all authors' last names when a source has two or three authors. Whereas, when you have four or more authors, then you have to write them all out following the last name of the first Author.

When citing a research paper in MLA style, include references within two sections:

  • The quotes used within the essay
  • The Works Cited page at the end

To further enhance your understanding of citation practices, consider exploring our detailed article on research paper citation .

The citation information in the body of the paper itself is called the 'in-text citation.' The most obvious time to use it in the text is when you use a quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author.

Generally, you must list the writer's last name and page number enclosed within parentheses straight after the quote. If the author's name is included as a feature of your sentence, you only have to add the page number in the bracket.

Example: "Two roads diverged in a wood, and I - I took the one less traveled by, and that has made all the difference" (Frost 1).

Kenneth Burke has described human beings as "symbol-using animals" (3).

As you can see, Burke's name was included in the sentence, so there is no need for repetition in the citation.

The Works Cited page

References: When providing references in a research paper in MLA style, you must inform the readers about the sources you used to cite this information. The reference page is known as the 'Works Cited.' This page is where the author gives credit to the source. Things that are placed within a citation include alphabetical order of the author's last name, the title of the article, and the publication date.

  • Follow this format exactly: Author(s)-> 'Title of Article.' ->Title of Journal Volume.->Issue (Year): pages
  • Electronic Sources. For electronic sources, utilize the inventor's name, page number, or area number for in-substance references. This is only if the information does not have page or section numbers by any method. By then, you would include the author's name in the section after you have referred to the recorded information.

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Guide on How to Cite a Research Paper

Research Paper MLA Format Example

The human memory remains an interesting research subject for psychologists. Typically, human beings live in the present. However, the past constitutes an integral component of life, and this makes the memory a fundamental element in daily operations. According to Zimmerman and Kelley (2010)...

Also, for a better understanding in essay writing formats, we recommend that you read about the APA essay format and the difference between APA and MLA .

FAQs on MLA Format Citation in Research Paper

We realize that mastering MLA citation may require more knowledge than the information given above can supply. Therefore, we've compiled some additional details below to provide you with a deeper understanding of how to cite a research paper MLA.

What is the Basic MLA Format in a Research Paper?

If you'd rather have a simple guideline on how to cite research paper, here are the simple steps for an MLA format paper.

Guide on How to Cite a Research Paper

  • Use standard 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
  • Use a 12-point font such as Times New Roman or Arial.
  • Place a half-inch indent at the beginning of each paragraph, then double-space each phrase.
  • Set all margins to be one inch.
  • Use appropriate punctuation by ending each phrase with a period and capitalizing the first letter of each new sentence.
  • Use paper binders and staples in the top-left corner of the page to bind hard-copy assignments in accordance with your professor's instructions.

Can I Give My Opinion in a MLA Research Paper?

While you may express your viewpoint in an MLA research paper, it is imperative to do so within the boundaries of academic writing and present evidence to back up your assertions.

The perspective you take can make a substantial contribution to meeting the final objective of an MLA format citation in research paper. Including your viewpoints will offer a well-researched and well-supported argument or analysis, as long as it is presented in a precise and professional fashion. Here are some examples of when to use 'I':

  • Narrating the journey of how you found out something is noteworthy or, at the least, amusing.
  • Detailing the technique you have employed in educating and encouraging student responses.
  • You are in disagreement with another scholar and want to make clear that you are not claiming to possess the only right answer.

Lastly, if you still ask, 'Can I give my opinion in a MLA research paper?' Yes, you can as long as you want to be direct and straightforward in your writing.

How to Format a Title of a Book in a Research Paper MLA?

As set forth by the MLA style handbook, the title of a book should be italicized in research papers. Here is the correct manner of formatting the title of a book in MLA style:

  • Set the title of the book in italic font.
  • Make sure to capitalize the initial letter of the primary title and any subordinate titles, as well as any other words usually written with a capital letter in the heading.
  • Maintain Title Case for the remaining words of the title, with the exception of articles, prepositions, and conjunctive phrases.

To demonstrate the correct way to cite a title of a book in a research paper MLA - 'To Kill a Mockingbird' by Harper Lee would be:

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird.

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Vancouver Style Citation Ultimate Handbook

Quetext

How To Cite a Research Paper: MLA, APA, and Chicago Style

  • Posted on January 25, 2022

When you’re writing a research paper, you’ll use a variety of sources to find information. You might find that you end up using other people’s research papers as sources of information for your own work. You need to know how to cite a research paper properly.

Using text citations tells readers where you got your information, and help build a sense of trust, allowing the reader to feel confident that you haven’t falsified the information. You have to prove that you’ve done the research and found data to back up the claims you’re making.

Writing a paper without giving credit to people whose work you’re using is plagiarism. Unless you’re citing a direct quote you want to change the language enough, by putting the quote in your own words, so it sounds like original content. Quetext’s plagiarism checker  helps you search for similar content across the web so you can turn in a completely original paper.

Whether you’re submitting a research paper to school or for publication in a peer-reviewed journal, you’re required to cite your sources. Editors often reread the work of writers and researchers to ensure the information is factual. A teacher or professor will definitely check that your sources are accurate, so using tools like Quetext will help avoid unintentional plagiarism errors or wrongfully cited information.

Why Text Citations are Important

If you don’t have sources to back up your research, others might accuse you of spreading false information or plagiarism. Any journal publishing papers should verify what they’re printing, but ultimately, as the author, the buck stops with you.

In general, it’s a kindness to cite your sources. The people who created them did a lot of work, so it’s wrong to claim ownership of their ideas and information. But it’s also an ethical issue that can have major repercussions.

There have been cases where researchers  make up information  or falsify their sources and must face the consequences. People depend on factual information and don’t react well when they realize you lied to them or falsely paraphrase information.

That’s why it’s common knowledge to write a well-researched paper with text citations. If anyone claims your information is incorrect, you can point them to the source where you found the data. This doesn’t guarantee that the information you cited is correct, but you’ll be able to provide readers with a source of where you gathered your information.

When you’re citing other people’s research papers, make sure the source is legitimate. You should only use peer-reviewed journals so you know the article has gone through edits and fact-checking. Something identified as a research paper that is only on a blog or message board isn’t always a reliable source.

Many students like to use  Wikipedia  because there’s so much information available from one source. However, Wikipedia allows users to edit the information. What you read in a specific entry might not be true. It’s best to scroll down to the works cited and go to the original source yourself. If you can’t find a reliable, original source for the information, you shouldn’t use it.

Using the Various Citation Styles

The information used in any citation is basically the same across each style guide. The formatting and order of some elements may vary, so it’s important to know the difference between Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), and Chicago Styles.

The style you use depends on what type of writing you’re doing. All will use these basic elements in some form or another:

Source name

Volume and edition

Publication date

Page numbers

Publisher name

City and country of the publisher

URL and DOI for web pages and digital sources

The date you accessed the material

In addition to a reference list at the end of your work, you’ll also use in-text citations. Whenever you reference an idea or data that isn’t yours, you cite it. Each style has different types of in-text citations as well. Read on to find out about each citation format.

You’ll likely use the  MLA citation guide  if you’re writing papers in the humanities, such as for language arts, literary criticism, cultural studies, and more. The current edition of the MLA Handbook is the ninth because the style constantly evolves. As new technology creates new potential sources, MLA adds information to help students and researchers cite everything correctly.

The MLA Handbook has instructions on how to cite song lyrics, social media posts, and digital images, along with all of the standard research outlets. The book also gives detailed information on how to cite a research paper.

The MLA Handbook includes information about how to format your reference page. Use a 12-pt standard font like Times New Roman, so the text in italics is clearly different from the regular font. Center the title, Works Cited, at the top of the page. Your last name and page number are in the top right corner, and the reference page always comes at the end of your document.

Alphabetize citations according to the last name of the author. Left-align the citations and double-space them with no extra lines between each entry. When a citation goes beyond a single line, use a hanging indent to format it correctly. This lets the reader know it’s still the same citation continuing on.

Now that you know the basic format for the Works Cited page read on to find out how to cite a research paper for inclusion on this list.

Citing a Research Paper in MLA Style

When you’re citing a research paper in MLA style, you start with the author’s full name, putting the last name of the author first, followed by the title of the research paper in quotation marks. Next comes the the title of the journal that published the paper in italics, followed by the volume number, issue number, and date of publication.

You’ll also include the page number since the paper is in a journal with many pages. If you found the source online, include the digital object identifier or DOI. The DOI is a way to give a document a permanent web address so people reading your work can easily find the source.

MLA format also asks you to include the date you accessed online materials. Doing so gives your reader more information about when you read the research if it changed since that date. Here is an example of a research paper citation in MLA style:

Writer, Maria. “My Research Paper.” Research Journal, vol 3, no. 4, 2020, pp. 7-9. doi:12.34/mfs.12.34. Accessed 13 March 2021.

If the work wasn’t published online, you could stop your citation after the page numbers.

Sometimes you might find research papers that aren’t published in a scholarly journal. You can still use those in your work, but the MLA citation will look different. You’ll still put the last name of the author first, but instead of putting the title of the research paper in quotation marks, you’ll put it in italics.

Here is an example of an unpublished research paper citation in MLA style:

Writer, Maria. My Research Paper. 2020, http://websiteused.com . Accessed 13 March 2021.

These two examples show you how to document the source on your Works Cited page. In-text citations look different.

In-Text Citations for a Research Paper in MLA Style

When you’re working with the MLA format, an in-text reference requires a parenthetical citation.

If you refer to someone else’s research in a sentence, either with a direct quote or by paraphrasing, you need to give that author credit. At the end of the sentence where you use the information, you’ll put the author’s information in parenthesis and then put the sentence’s ending punctuation.

You use the author’s last name and the page number where you found the information for in-text citations. Then anyone reading your work can go to your Works Cited page, find the entry by the author’s last name, and access the document themselves. The page number directs them to where you got the specific information, so they don’t have to read the whole paper to find it. Here is an example of an in-text citation in MLA style:

Over 80% of the city’s garbage ended up in the ocean (Writer, 8).

You might mention the author’s name in your sentence. In that case, the parenthetical citation only needs to have the page numbers for reference. Here is an example:

According to Maria Writer, over 80% of the city’s garbage went into the ocean (8).

Researchers in the social science field, like sociology, anthropology, and psychology, use the  APA style  in their work. Like the MLA Handbook, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has gone through changes over the years. It’s currently on the 7th edition.

In addition to helping you understand how to cite research, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has information about how to format your paper to include tables, figures, and headings that often accompany scientific journal articles.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association also tells you how to format your reference page. In MLA style, this is the Works Cited page. For APA style, it’s either the Reference List or Reference Page.

This page uses the same font style as the rest of the paper but starts on its own page with a number in the top right corner. The title of the page is bold and centered at the top and should simply read “References.”

List citations in alphabetical order by author’s last name regardless of the type of source. Each citation is double-spaced and has a hanging indent if it goes beyond one line.

Now that you understand how to properly format your APA reference page, learn how to cite a research paper to include on the list.

Citing a Research Paper in APA Style

When you use a research paper in your work, you need to include it on your APA references page at the end of your document.

An APA citation includes the same information as the MLA format but in a different order. The citation starts with the author’s last name but only uses their first initial. Then comes the year of publication in parenthesis.

The paper’s title follows, then the title of the journal in italics. You also include the journal volume, issue number, and page numbers. As with MLA citations, include a DOI if you found the research paper online. Here is an example of a published research paper cited in APA format:

Writer, M. (2020). My Research Paper. Research Journal, 3(4), 7-9. doi:12.34/mfs.12.34

If the paper isn’t published in a journal, you can still use it in your work with a proper citation. Here is an example:

Writer, M. (2020). My Research Paper [PDF]. Retrieved from http://websiteused.com

In-Text Citations for a Research Paper in APA Style

In-text citations in the APA format differ from MLA style. You still put it in parenthesis, but you include different information. For APA parentheticals, include the author’s last name and the paper’s year of publication. This method applies when you’re summarizing or paraphrasing the author’s idea. Here is an example of an in-text citation for a research paper in APA style:

Over 80% of the city’s garbage went into the ocean (Writer, 2020).

If you’re using a direct quote from the work you need to include the page number so the reader can find the quotation. Here is an example:

Maria Writer said, “Over 80% of the city’s garbage is going into the ocean” (2020, p. 8).

Chicago Style

Chicago Style  got its name from the University of Chicago, where the style originated. Writers use this format for works in the field of history, but you can also use it for the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

MLA style has a Works Cited page, APA has References, and Chicago Style differs because it includes a Bibliography. The page comes at the end of your work with a page number in the top right corner. The title, “Bibliography,” is bold and centered at the top.

You will single-space your citations, but you’ll add an extra line between each entry. As with the other reference pages, you’ll left-align the work and use a hanging indent when a citation continues onto a second line.

Having an overview of how to format the bibliography will help you understand the citation styles for a research paper.

Citing a Research Paper in Chicago Style

Citations in Chicago Style are a mix of MLA and APA formats. It’s easiest to follow this template:

Writer, Maria. 2020. “My Research Paper.” Research Journal 3 (4): 7-9. doi:12.34/mfs.12.34.

As with other styles, you can reference an unpublished research paper as a document. Here is an example:

Writer, Maria. 2020. My Research Paper. PDF. http://websiteused.com .

In both instances, if there are multiple authors for a paper, list the rest of the authors in normal format. For example:

Author, Alan, Stanley Sample, and Maria Writer. 2020. “My Research Paper.” Research Journal 3 (4): 7-9. doi:12.34/mfs.12.34.

In-Text Citations for a Research Paper in Chicago Style

An in-text citation in Chicago Style is much simpler than both MLA and APA formats. You only need to include the last name of the author and year of publication in parenthesis with no comma in between them. For example:

Almost 80% of the city’s garbage goes into the ocean (Writer 2020).

You’ll include the page number for specificity if you’re quoting the author. Here’s an example:

Maria Writer said, “Over 80% of the city’s garbage is going into the ocean” (2020, 8).

You can also use endnotes in Chicago Style. A citation refers the reader to your source, but an endnote includes a bit of an explanation of why you used it. The information included in an endnote would disrupt the flow of your paper, but it’s still something you want the reader to know.

Make Text Citations Easy

Knowing when you need to cite a source helps you manage your research. Anytime you find information that you’re going to paraphrase, summarize, or quote in your work, you need to cite the source. The full citation will go on your reference page, but you’ll need an in-text citation where you use the information in your paper.

When you’re stating something that is  common knowledge , there’s no need to make a citation. Common knowledge is something that your reader would believe without needing proof. You can check if something is common knowledge by searching for it and finding it mentioned, without a citation, in at least five sources.

Once you learn the basics about citing a research paper in MLA, APA, and Chicago Styles, you’ll feel more confident in your work. The important thing is to pay attention to small details, like capitalization, italics and the use of abbreviations. But there’s no need to do it all on your own—Quetext has a  citation assistant  waiting to help. Give Quetext citation generator a try on your next project.

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Writing and Citing: MLA 9th Edition: MLA

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MLA Resources

  • MLA Style This resource is designed as a companion to the MLA 9 handbook. In this site, you will find practice templates, guides, sample papers, how to format your research paper, and FAQ's.
  • Purdue OWL This source contains contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers.

Getting Started

Welcome to the guide for mla 9th edition  .

Please use the tabs above to select the type of source you would like to cite.

The MLA style is most commonly used to format research papers and cite sources in Liberal Arts and Humanities. This research guide will provide you with examples of the most commonly used resources. The tabs above will present examples of work cited pages, in-text citations, as well as a formatting example. 

If you are still unclear on proper citations, please contact your  campus librarian  or use  Ask A Librarian  for a quick chat.

Basic Rules

Basic rules for citing most sources: .

Works cited must be double spaced and have a hanging indent. This means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Alphabetized by the first listed author. 

If same author, list sources in alphabetical order. 

In the titles of articles, books, webpages and most other sources capitalize each word, unless it is an article (the, an), preposition, or conjunction, unless it is the first word of a title: The Art of War, The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, To Kill a Mockingbird. 

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / MLA Journal Article Citation

How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA

This page is a how-to guide for using scholarly journals as sources and citing them correctly in your papers. Academic journals publish scholarly, peer-reviewed articles written by experts in a specific field. This guide will help you understand what journals are and why they are valuable for your research.

Quickly cite a journal article by using our online form here .

Citing a journal article in mla:, the importance of peer-reviewed academic journals, how journals are organized, where to find journal articles.

  • In-text citations
  • Works cited references
  • Citation with one author
  • Citation with two authors
  • Citation with three or more authors
  • Citation with no known author
  • Citation Structures and Examples: Web
  • Citation Structures and Examples: Print

Our guide will show you how to cite the journal article both in the text and in the Works Cited page following the guidelines of the Modern Language Association Handbook, 9th Edition.

What is an Academic Journal?

Academic or scholarly journals are periodicals published by universities and other research organizations to present the findings of original research conducted in a particular field. These journals contain highly specific knowledge and are written by experts in that field.

Journals are different from other periodicals such as newspapers or magazines, which cover a broad range of topics and are written in easy to read prose.

Because  journals are written by experts for other experts, they can be difficult to read. The writers often use jargon and other complex language that students may not understand. But that doesn’t mean you should not use journals in your research. Journals are where the most recent research is published and provide in-depth information on a topic.

Tip : Reading the abstract and the conclusion first may help you to understand the article as you read.

Journals are good sources for academic research not only because they are written by experts, but because most (but not all) are also reviewed by other experts before the article is published.

Journals that are peer-reviewed have a board of experts in the field that review articles submitted to the journal. The peer reviewers scrutinize every article closely to validate its findings and ensure that the research was done properly. The process of peer review gives credibility to the journal because it means that every article published has been approved by other experts in the field.

Academic journals are organized in volumes and issues.

  • Volume: The volume is all of the editions of the journal published in a calendar year.
  • Issue(s):   The issues are all the specific editions of the journal published in that year.
Tip : Journals frequently publish issues around a certain theme, so all of the articles in that issue will relate to a certain topic. This means that there may be other articles in a particular issue that you can use for your research. It pays to check the table of contents for the issue when you find an article that fits your needs.

You will need to include the volume and the issue numbers, and the page numbers in your citations so make sure to write those down when you take notes from a journal.

When you are doing scholarly research, you can’t use popular search engines like Google, Bing, or Yahoo. These will lead you to popular sources that may not work for a school paper. You need to search for information using an academic database which will lead you to scholarly articles.

Databases are organized computer-based collections of data that allow researchers to find a large number of articles quickly and easily.

Examples of popular general academic databases include:

  • Academic Search Premier
  • Google Scholar

Examples of popular academic databases focused on specific subjects:

  • MEDLINE, PubMed Central — focus on biomedical and life sciences
  • Lexis Web — focus on legal information
  • Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) — focus on education

Many of these databases charge fees for use. The good news? Many can be accessed through a school or university library. Check your library’s website to see what databases it subscribes to and how you can access them.

Using a Journal Article in a Paper

You can use information from your research in three ways:

  • Paraphrase: Take the information from a specific paragraph or section of the article and rewrite it in your own words.
  • Summarize: Write a broad overview of the section or the article in your own words.
  • Quote: Repeat the exact words used by the author using quotation marks.

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information in your paper, you need to follow that information with an in-text citation and create a corresponding reference for the source (in the Works Cited).

Journal Article In-text Citations

Citations within your text are important. Each in-text citation:

  • Alerts your reader that you are using information from an outside source.
  • Usually appears in parentheses at the end of a sentence.
  • Is short and only has enough information to help the reader find the complete reference listed in the Works Cited page at the end of the paper.

A MLA style in-text citation has two parts (MLA Handbook 227-228):

  • If there is no author listed, include a shortened version of the title
  • While many online sources do not have a page number, academic journals almost always do, even when they are available online.

In most cases, the in-text citation is at the end of the sentence in parentheses. If you use the author’s name in the text, you don’t have to repeat it in the parenthesis at the end. Do not separate the author’s name and the page number with a comma. See below for examples.

Works Cited References for Journal Articles

A Works Cited page is included at the end of your paper. It lists full references/citations for all of the sources mentioned in your paper via your in-text citations.

MLA Containers

In the 9th edition of the official Handbook, MLA includes a new term for citing references, which was first introduced in the 8th edition — containers (134). Periodicals like journals are considered “containers” because they contain the articles that are part of a larger whole.

The container holds the source article and is crucial in identifying the source. The title of the first container, the journal name, is printed in italics and follows the article name. When accessing journals through a database, the database is considered the second container. This title is also printed in italics.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Another feature in citing sources is the DOI (Handbook 188) . DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier, which is used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web.

Although a website or database may change names, the DOI will not change and will help your readers locate the document from your citation. Whenever possible, list the DOI in place of the URL. When you have a DOI, you do not need to give the URL of the website. Indicate that a reference is a DOI by adding “https://doi.org/” before the DOI number of your source.

Another way to identify an online location is with a permalink. Permalinks are URLs that are identified as a stable link that the publisher promises not to change.

For journal references, the following elements need to be included in your Work(s) Cited entries: 

  • The name of the author or authors. Since journal articles often have more than one author, it is helpful to know when to use et al. in MLA .
  • Title of article
  • Title of journal (the container)
  • Volume and issue number
  • Date of publication
  • Page numbers
  • Database (the 2nd container)
  • DOI, permalink, or URL
  • Date of access (supplemental, but should be included if the information has no publication date listed)

Citing a Journal Article in MLA (found in databases)

The following are examples of how to cite a journal in MLA 9, both in text and as a full reference in the Works Cited. These were all found via a database.

Note that “Date Accessed” is the day that the journal article was found and read. This information is supplemental and does not always need to be included.

Journal Article Citation With One Author

Cite your source

Journal Article Citation With Two Authors

*Note:  When a source has multiple authors, you should always list them in your citation in the same order they are listed in the source.

Journal Article Citation With Three or More Authors

Journal article citation with no known author, citing a journal article in mla (print).

Citing a journal from a print source requires less information than an online source. For a print source, you need the following information:

  • The name of the author or authors for articles with one or two authors. For articles with three or more authors, only the first author’s name is used followed by et al.
  • The name of the article in quotation marks
  • The name of the journal in italics
  • The volume and issue numbers of the journal
  • The year of publication
  • The page number(s)

View Screenshot | Cite your source

Citing an Online Journal Article (not found using a database)

Some journal articles are accessible online without the use of a database. Citing an online journal article not found in a database requires that you cite the website that you used to access the article as the second container. Do not include the https:// in the web address.

*Note : Since journals are usually stable and credible sources, including an access date is supplemental and not required (“When Should I Include an Access Date for an Online Work”).

  • Works Cited

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.  

“When should I include an access date for an online work?” MLA Style Center , Modern Language Association, 29 Dec. 2016, style.mla.org/access-dates/.

Published October 31, 2011. Updated June 6, 2021.

Written by Catherine Sigler. Catherine has a Ph.D. in English Education and has taught college-level writing for 15 years.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

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  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.

No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.

Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.

Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free and an account is how you can save all the citation you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.

Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.

If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.

It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.

To cite a magazine with multiple authors and no page numbers in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the authors, the article’s title, the magazine’s title, the publication date, and the DOI, permalink, or URL. The templates and examples for in-text citations and a works-cited-list entry of a book written by multiple authors are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues” for sources with three or more authors. In subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”

Citation in prose:

First mention: Han Ong and colleagues…. or Han Ong and others ….

Subsequent occurrences: Ong and colleagues…. or Ong and others ….

Parenthetical:

….( Ong et al.).

Works-cited-list entry template and example:

The title of the article is in plain text and title case; it is placed inside double quotation marks. The title of the magazine is set in italics and title case. Follow the format given in the template and example for setting the day, month, and year.

Surname, First., et al. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Publication Date, DOI/permalink/URL.

Ong, Han, et al. “The Monkey Who Speaks.” The New Yorker , 13 Sept. 2021, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2021/09/13/the-monkey-who-speaks.

Use only the first author’s name in surname–first name order in the entry followed by “et al.”

To cite an online journal or magazine article in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the author, the article’s title, the journal or magazine’s title, the publication date, and the DOI, permalink, or URL. If available, also include a volume and an issue number of the journal or magazine. The templates for in-text citations and a works-cited-list entry of an online journal article and examples are given below for a source with one author:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author on the first occurrence. In subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author.

First mention: Elizabeth Garber ….

Subsequent occurrences: Garber ….

….(Garber).

The title of the journal or magazine article is set in plain roman text and title case; it is placed inside double quotation marks. The title of the journal or magazine is set in italics and title case. Follow the format given in the template and example for writing the publication month or season and year.

Surname, First. “Title of the Article.” Journal or Magazine Title , Volume, Issue, Publication Date, DOI/permalink/URL.

Garber, Elizabeth. “Craft as Activism.” The Journal of Social Theory in Art Education , vol. 33, no.1, spring 2013, www.scholarscompass.vcu.edu/jstae/vol33/iss1/6/ .

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English 102: College Writing (Prof. O'Ceallaigh): Cite it Right

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Documenting your sources is a necessity, which:

  • Allows readers to find your sources;
  • Provides evidence for your arguments;
  • Adds credibility to your work;
  • Avoids plagiarism, the consequence of which could be an allegation of academic misconduct. This could result disciplinary sanctions such as an oral reprimand, redoing your assignment, losing points off your grade, failing the class, being expelled, etc., all of which depend in part on the severity of the offense. For details, see the  Avoiding Academic Misconduct Procedures  web document and related documents such as  Disciplinary Procedures: Student Academic Misconduct: UWS Chapter 14 .

Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources in your research paper, you must cite each source you use. For rules and examples, look here:

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7 th ed. 2020. Reference Desk BF76.7 P83 2020
  • Citing References: APA Style (7th ed.)  (PDF) - (UW-Whitewater libraries)
  • How to Cite in APA Style (7th ed.)  (online guide) - (UW-Whitewater libraries)
  • APA Documentation Guide (7th ed.)  - (Writing Center, UW-Madison)
  • APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th ed.)  - (Online Writing Lab at Purdue)

Sometimes students will use online citation formatters provided free on the Web or within a library database. If you use one of these online formatters,  remember that they are not foolproof . You will need to review your citations to make sure they are correct. This Citation Helper Tools guide may have some tools you can use. The library supports both Zotero and EndNote , which are very useful when using many sources.

Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources you use in your research paper, you must cite each one. For rules and examples in MLA 8th ed. style, look here:

  • MLA Handbook  (9th ed.) - UW-Whitewater, Reference Collection, Call Number LB2369 .M52 2021
  • Citing References: MLA Style (8th ed.)  - (PDF) (UW-Whitewater libraries)
  • How to Cite in MLA Style (8th ed.)  - (UW-Whitewater libraries)
  • MLA Documentation Guide (8th ed.)  - (Writing Center, UW-Madison)
  • MLA Formatting and Style Guide (9th ed.)  - (Online Writing Lab at Purdue (OWL))

MLA Citation Outlines

Note : These tips are from the MLA Handbook  (8th ed.).

Each entry should include the following core elements, when known, which should be taken from the source's title page or the first page of a periodical article or webpage:

  • author name(s).
  • title of source.
  • title of container,
  • other contributors,
  • publication date,

You may find that you need to combine several examples to fit what you are citing .  

Book with two authors

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus . HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Journal article, online or in database, doi (preferred over URL)

Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture , vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse , doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Journal article, online or in database, no doi, stable link if available or, if not, other available URL

Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review , vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.

Journal article, print

Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.” PMLA , vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Brieger, Brian. “Lecture 3: Recruitment and Involvement of Trainees.” Management 320 course. 28 Jan. 2014, U of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Address.

Citing Criticism from Literature Criticism Online/Gale Literary Sources in MLA Style

Holladay, Hillary. “Narrative Space in Ann Petry’s Country Place.” Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism , edited by Linda Pavlovski and Scott Darga, vol. 112, Gale, 2002, pp. 356-62. Literature Criticism Online , go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=JVPFJB936361473&v=2.1&u=h2o&it= r&p=GLS&sw=w&asid=ddb4aa8a6683d6872d5e69b99859ca71. Originally published in Xavier Review , vol. 16, no. 1, 1996, pp. 21-35.

Turabian Style

Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources you use in your research paper, you must cite each one. For rules and examples, look here:

  • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations   by Kate Turabian, 9th ed. 2018. UW-Whitewater Reference Collection LB2369 .T8 2018
  • How to Cite in Turabian Style (9th ed.)  (online guide) - (UW-Whitewater libraries)

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MLA Style (9th ed.): Citation Guide

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MLA Basic Formatting Rules for Student Papers

The following guidelines are the basic formatting rules outlined in the  MLA Handbook  9th edition. If your instructor sets different requirements, always use your instructor's guidelines first.

  • size between 11-13pt
  • clearly legible font (ex- Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri
  • double spaced throughout all parts of the paper
  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Indent the first line of each paragraph by 1/2-inch (tab)
  • left-justified for the body of the paper
  • upper left-hand corner (also double-spaced)
  • Instructor's name
  • Title of the course
  • Due Date for Assignment

Page Headers:

  • on every page within the paper, including Works Cited
  • consists of your last name and the page number in the top right corner
  • no title page unless requested by your instructor
  • title of paper in title case (capitalizing all but articles and prepositions) centered on the first line after the heading

MLA Works Cited Formatting

  • needs to start on a new page following the end of your paper
  • include the title Works Cited centered on the first line of the page
  • everything after the title is left-justified
  • Every item included in your Works Cited must be cited within your paper. Every item sited in your paper needs to have a Works Cited entry.
  • listed in alphabetical order by the first part of the citation (usually the author)
  • double spaced throughout all parts
  • Each citation should have a hanging indent- or it should start at the left margin and then have all lines after it indented by 1/2-inch

Click on the information circles for tips on how to use Microsoft Word to format your paper in MLA Style.

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Formatting Your Research Project

To learn how to set up your research project in MLA format, visit our free sample chapter on MLA Handbook Plus , the only authorized subscription-based digital resource featuring the  MLA Handbook, available for unlimited simultaneous users at subscribing institutions.

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Citation Managers

In order to organize and manage your citations, consider using a Citation Manager like Zotero . More information on Zotero and other citation managers can be found on the Citation Managers Guide . 

MLA Style Manuals & Citation Help

MLA style is a popular citation style for English language and literature. Below are resources that can help you when you're formatting your bibliography and papers. Some professors (or publishers, if you are writing an article to be published) may prefer a different style, such as Chicago style, so always check before you format and submit your work. Ask a librarian if you have questions about MLA or other citation styles. 

  • The MLA Style Center - Using MLA Format The official website on MLA style. This site will show you how to document sources, set up your paper, and improve your writing.
  • Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting & Style Guide An essential resource from Purdue University with examples and advice for creating in-text citations and bibliographies using MLA style.

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What Is a Citation?

In academic writing, you're asked to recognize those who've helped build your knowledge and ideas. This is done in the form of a citation and it tells your reader (usually your instructor) where you got your information.

It’s important to cite your sources every time you’re using ideas or information from someone else. This includes when you  summarize  information,  paraphrase  (put things into your own words), or use a  direct quote .

Paraphrasing  means you restate what an author said in your own words;  summarizing  is when you talk about the main concepts or points. A  direct quote  is when another person's exact words into your own writing.

Why You Must Cite Your Sources

Citing sources  adds credibility  to your argument. Citing is proof that you did research and that your conclusions are based on reliable information.

It helps you  avoid plagiarism  by giving credit to the people whose ideas and research you used to make your argument.

Citing  shares the sources you discovered  by presenting information about your sources in a standardized format that any scholar can use to track down the very same sources you consulted.

This resource offers advice on how to avoid plagiarism in your work.

Learn about when and how to cite, and how to avoid accidental plagiarism. From the UCLA Library.

TUJ's policy on plagiarism

MLA Handbook

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When to Cite

You will always cite your sources twice. The first time is in the body of the paper with a short note called an in-text citation . In MLA style, it's the author’s last name and the page number of where you found the information.  

Then you cite a second time at the end of your paper with a list of works cited . These citations have all the details your reader would need to get back to the original source like author name(s), article or book titles, dates, and a few other key elements. 

Citing Sources

MLA Citation Style

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FYS: Writing for your Life (Reading)

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Additional Resources

GENERAL RESOURCE:

  • Modern Language Association Answers frequently asked questions, including ones about how to cite recent information formats such as tweets and e-books. Additional resources are at https://style.mla.org/

FORMATTING / STYLE:

  • Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL): General Formatting Guidelines for headers, first pages, and other format details within MLA style.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS:

  • Purdue OWL: In-text Citations Explains the basics of citing within your text. Includes examples for multiple authors and different types of sources.
  • Purdue OWL: Formatting Quotations Guidelines for formatting short and long quotations within your text.

WORKS CITED:

  • Purdue OWL: Works Cited Page Basic Format Explains basic formatting rules for your works cited page. Then, once you are ready to create a works cited entry for a source, use the menu on the left of the screen to select the right type of source (Books, Periodicals, Electronic Sources, Other Common Sources). This menu also includes helpful information about creating tables, PowerPoint presentations, and more.

MLA Style Manuals

There are two different manuals for MLA Style Citations: the Handbook and the Style Manual. The Handbook was revised in 2021; copies of both the new 2021 9th edition and the older 2016 8th edition are listed below.

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Plagiarism Explanation in <3 Minutes

Key Elements of a Citation

There are certain pieces of information that you should note as you are doing your research.  In various types of citations, these elements will be important to recognize and take note of:

  •   Author's full name (and whether or not there are multiple authors).
  •  Full precise title of book, journal article, dissertation, etc.
  • If resource is book, dissertation, or AV item, place of publication . name of publisher , and date of publication .
  •  If resource is an article from a journal or newspaper, you need to note not only the author and title of the article but also the precise title of the journal/newspaper in which the article was published,  the volume and/or issue number, the date of the publication , and the pagination of the article.
  • If the resource is digital, note if it has been assigned a " D.O.I. " = Digital Object Identification (number).
  • If you found the article as the result of a search on an online database, note the name of the database NOT the name of the vendor (EBSCO, ProQuest, Gale, Web of Science, etc. are vendors, NOT databases names).

Direct Quotes, Summaries & Paraphrases

  • Direct Quotations
  • Common Knowledge

YOU SHOULD CITE WHEN:

  • Referring to a source and stating someone else's opinions, thoughts, ideas, or research
  • Using an image or media file that you did not create

When in doubt, cite it

WHEN REFERRING TO A SOURCE, YOU HAVE THREE OPTIONS FOR USING IT:

Handwritten text that starts with a quotation mark and ends with a parenthetical citation.

  • Directly Quoting  
  • Summarizing  
  • Paraphrase 

"Which option you should choose depends on how much of a source you are using, how you are using it, and what kind of paper you are writing, since different fields use sources in different ways." Grounds for Argument. When to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize a Source . Used under CC BY NC SA

Image:   Random quote  by  Gabriel Jones . Used under  CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

YOU DO NOT NEED TO CITE:

  • Your thoughts and your interpretations
  • Common knowledge​

WHAT IS A DIRECT QUOTATION:  

" Must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author."   Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012).  Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

  • If summarizing or paraphrasing cannot capture the essence or meaning of the text 
  • To retain a specific or unique phrasing used by the source's author
  • If you are analyzing the text itself (often in English or language classes)

BE ADVISED:

Most of the time when you cite a source, you want to summarize or paraphrase. Direct quotations should be used sparingly when the situation meets the criteria above.  When you do use direct quotations:

  • Do not take the quote out of context. The author's meaning should not change.
  • Be sure to integrate multiple sources within your text. You don't want to have a paper or a passage that seems to have come only from one source, with little original text from you.
  • Use transitions to make sure your quote adds to your paper without interrupting its flow.

HOW TO CITE A DIRECT QUOTATION:  

  • Place quotation marks around the entire word-for-word passage, whether it's a phrase or a sentence.
  • Attribute with an in-text citation ; most citation styles request that you provide a page or paragraph number when directly citing.  
  • If your quotation is longer, check with your citation style guide to see if additional formatting is necessary (block quotations, for example).  
  • When and How Much to Quote From the Harvard Guide to Using Sources

WHAT IS A SUMMARY:  

" Involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s).... Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material."   Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012).  Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

"Similar to paraphrasing, summarizing involves using your own words and writing style to express another author's ideas. Unlike the paraphrase, which presents important details, the summary presents only the most important ideas of the passage."  University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.).  Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.

  • To provide necessary background information for your audience
  • When broad, concise information will suffice 

HOW TO CITE A SUMMARY:   

  • Attribute with an  in-text citation ; some citation styles request that you provide a  page or paragragh number  whenever available.
  • You should not be using any word-for-word quotations or language unique to the source, so you do NOT need quotation marks around your summary.
  • When and How to Summarize From the Harvard Guide to Using Sources

WHAT IS A PARAPHRASE:  

"A  paraphrase is a detailed restatement in your own words of a written or sometimes spoken source material. Apart from the changes in organization, wording, and sentence structure, the paraphrase should be nearly identical in meaning to the original passage. It should also be near the same length as the original passage and present the details of the original." University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.). Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.

Paraphrasing is "your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form."  Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2012).   Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

When paraphrasing, you must change both the sentence structure and the language of the original text

  • "When the wording is less important than the meaning of the source"  University of Houston-Victoria Student Success Center (n.d.).  Decide when to Quote, Paraphrase & Summarize.
  • If a summary would not provide enough specific details

HOW TO CITE A PARAPHRASE:   

  • When paraphrasing, you must change both the sentence structure and language of the original text.  Therefore, since you will be changing the text, you do NOT need quotation marks around your paraphrase.
  • Purdue OWL: Paraphrasing Includes 6 steps to effective paraphrasing and examples.
  • When and How to Paraphrase From the Harvard Guide to Using Sources

COMMON KNOWLEDGE:

It doesn't necessarily mean that most people would know it offhand. And sometimes it's a judgment call because what seems like common knowledge to one person isn't to another. H ere are good rules of thumb:

  • If you can find the same information in multiple places, stated in relatively the same way, it's common knowledge  ( Generally, it is said that you should find the information three to five sources)
  • If most people are aware of this fact, or if it's general reference, it's common knowledge

CAUTION:  Opinions and unique terminology/phrasing do not qualify as common knowledge.

When in doubt, cite

Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism

READ THE SOURCE IN ITS ENTIRETY

  • It's easy to take something out of context if you only read a portion of it! If you read the entire source, you should have a better feel of the author's meaning.

TAKE DETAILED NOTES AS YOU READ

  • Anytime you note something word-for-word, immediately place it in quotation marks. Also note what page or section you found it on.
  • On each page, make sure you note the original source and the date you accessed the source. This will make citation much easier, especially if you are working with multiple sources or doing research over a long stretch of time.
  • Try not to mix your own thoughts and commentary with excerpts from your source. Keep them on separate pages, draw two columns on your page, or switch your pen color.
  • If you find it difficult to take notes with electronic sources - or if you find yourself drawn to the copy-paste method - print out your sources and deal with them in print form.

RETURN TO YOUR NOTES LATER

  • In order to do this, you must not procrastinate on your projects. If you don't have sufficient time, you won't do your best work, and it may lead you to make poor decisions when including your sources. Remember, if you get caught plagiarizing, the situation or your intentions won't be an excuse. Build in time to synthesize and properly work in your sources.
  • Make sure the source is fresh in your mind, but not right in front of you. If you see the original text, you are more likely to want to use their terms and sentence structure.
  • Check your writing against the original. Remember, you should have changed the sentence structure and the language but the meaning of the source should still be the same. Any language that is unique to the source should be placed in quotation marks or removed. You may find it necessary to do several edits.

CONSULT WITH THE EXPERTS

  • If you need a second opinion, ask!  Ask a librarian, a classmate, the Writing Center, or your professor. 
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Ms131 cultural studies research methodology (spring 2024): citing sources.

  • Getting Started
  • Finding Books & Articles
  • Primary Sources

Citing Sources

Citations are often daunting, but don't be discouraged!

How to Avoid Plagiarism

In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when

  • You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories.
  • You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge.
  • You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word.
  • You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word.

Recommendations

  • Begin the writing process by stating your ideas; then go back to the author's original work.
  • Use quotation marks and credit the source (author) when you copy exact wording.
  • Use your own words (paraphrase) instead of copying directly when possible.
  • Even when you paraphrase another author's writings, you must give credit to that author.
  • If the form of citation and reference are not correct, the attribution to the original author is likely to be incomplete. Therefore, improper use of style can result in plagiarism. Get a style manual and use it.

This content is part of the Understanding Plagiarism tutorial created by the Indiana University School of Education.

Citing Your Sources

The UCB Library Guide to Citing Your Sources discusses why you should cite your sources and links to campus resources about plagiarism.  It also includes links to guides for frequently used citation styles.  Also:

  • MLA handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th edition. New York : Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Doe Reference Reference Hall LB2369 .G53 2009 Main Gardner Stacks LB2369 .G53 2009 Many older editions available throughout the UCB libraries.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style (UCB-only access) 15th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2003. Searchable, online version of the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition). Many print editions available throughout the UCB Libraries.
  • Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More (UCB-only access) Charles Lipson. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2006. Many print editions throughout the libraries.
  • Columbia Guide to Online Style (UCB-only access) Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor. 2nd ed. NY: Columbia Univ. Press. 2006. Many print editions throughout the UCB libraries.

Citation Management Tools

Citation management tools help you manage your research, collect and cite sources, organize and store your PDFs, and create bibliographies in a variety of citation styles.  Each one has its strengths and weaknesses, but all are easier than doing it by hand!

  • Zotero help from the UCB Libraries
  • Zotero help from zotero.org
  • RefWorks help from the UCB Libraries
  • RefWorks help from RefWorks
  • EndNote : Desktop software for managing your references and formatting bibliographies. You can  purchase  EndNote from the Cal Student Store . 

Tip:  After creating a bibliography with a citation management tool, it's always good to  double check the formatting;  sometimes the software doesn't get it quite right.

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REA 091 - Your Librarian - Sol Gómez: MLA Citation Format

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How to Cite a PDF in MLA | Format & Examples

Published on January 14, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 16, 2022.

MLA doesn’t treat PDFs as their own source type. When you want to cite a PDF, you should determine what type of source it contains (e.g. a book or journal article) and cite it in the appropriate format.

If you feel it’s relevant, you may mention in your reference that the source was accessed as a PDF by adding “PDF file.” Note that you can write “PDF download” instead if you link to a page where the PDF can be downloaded (rather than directly to the PDF).

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes.

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Table of contents

Citing a book in pdf form, citing a journal article, citing a newspaper or magazine article, citing a report, frequently asked questions about mla citations.

Extracts from books (or sometimes entire books) are commonly encountered as PDFs online. You can recognize them by the inclusion of a copyright page or title page.

To cite an online book like this, list the usual information for a book, followed by the name of the site where it was found and a URL or DOI .

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Journal articles usually indicate the volume, issue, and name of the journal. It’s best to include a  DOI to provide a stable link to the article, but if no DOI is available, you can include the URL of the PDF instead.

A PDF scan of a print newspaper or magazine article will usually include the page numbers, which you can use in your citation, optionally including a link and specifying the PDF format if you think it’s relevant.

Reports are issued by organizations and governments. They sometimes have a report number and are often attributed to the organization rather than an individual author. If the organizational author is the same as the publisher, only include it once.

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See an example

how to cite research papers in mla

If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title . Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation .

If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only the author’s name (or the title).

If you already named the author or title in your sentence, and there is no locator available, you don’t need a parenthetical citation:

  • Rajaram  argues that representations of migration are shaped by “cultural, political, and ideological interests.”
  • The homepage of The Correspondent describes it as “a movement for radically different news.”

In MLA style citations , format a DOI as a link, including “https://doi.org/” at the start and then the unique numerical code of the article.

DOIs are used mainly when citing journal articles in MLA .

The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .

Search by book title, page URL, or journal DOI to automatically generate flawless citations, or cite manually using the simple citation forms.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a PDF in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 6, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/pdf-citation/

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MLA Works Cited Page: Periodicals

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Periodicals include magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals. Works cited entries for periodical sources include three main elements—the author of the article, the title of the article, and information about the magazine, newspaper, or journal. MLA uses the generic term “container” to refer to any print or digital venue (a website or print journal, for example) in which an essay or article may be included.

Below is the generic citation for periodicals using the MLA style. Use this as guidance if you are trying to cite a type of source not described on this page, omitting any information that does not apply:

Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publisher Date, Location (pp.). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Pub date, Location (pp.).

Article in a Magazine

Cite by listing the article's author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title. Follow with the date of publication. Remember to abbreviate the month. The basic format is as follows:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical , Day Month Year, pages.

Poniewozik, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.

Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping, Mar. 2006, pp. 143-48.

Article in a Newspaper

Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article, but note the different pagination in most newspapers. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition after the newspaper title.

Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Washington Post, 24 May 2007, p. LZ01.

Krugman, Andrew. "Fear of Eating." New York Times, late ed.,  21 May 2007, p. A1.

If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication, include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper.

Behre, Robert. "Presidential Hopefuls Get Final Crack at Core of S.C. Democrats." Post and Courier [Charleston, SC],29 Apr. 2007, p. A11.

Trembacki, Paul. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette, IN], 5 Dec. 2000, p. 20.

To cite a review, include the title of the review (if available), then the phrase, “Review of” and provide the title of the work (in italics for books, plays, and films; in quotation marks for articles, poems, and short stories). Finally, provide performance and/or publication information.

Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Review of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, page.

Seitz, Matt Zoller. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living." Review of Radiant City , directed by Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times, 30 May 2007, p. E1.

Weiller, K. H. Review of Sport, Rhetoric, and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations , edited by Linda K. Fuller. Choice, Apr. 2007, p. 1377.

An Editorial & Letter to the Editor

Cite as you would any article in a periodical, but include the designators "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work it is.

"Of Mines and Men." Editorial. Wall Street Journal, eastern edition, 24 Oct. 2003, p. A14.

Hamer, John. Letter. American Journalism Review, Dec. 2006/Jan. 2007, p. 7.

Anonymous Articles

Cite the article’s title first, then finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical.

"Business: Global Warming's Boom Town; Tourism in Greenland." The Economist , 26 May 2007, p. 82.

"Aging; Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare." Women's Health Weekly, 10 May 2007, p. 18.

An Article in a Scholarly Journal

A scholarly journal can be thought of as a container, as are collections of short stories or poems, a television series, or even a website. A container can be thought of as anything that contains other pieces of work. In this case, cite the author and title of article as you normally would. Then, put the title of the journal in italics. Include the volume number (“vol.”) and issue number (“no.”) when possible, separated by commas. Finally, add the year and page numbers.

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu ." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

Duvall, John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise ." Arizona Quarterly , vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp. 127-53.

An Article in a Special Issue of a Scholarly Journal

When an article appears in a special issue of a journal, cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space, in italics. Add the descriptor “special issue of” and include the name of the journal, also in italics, followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation.

Web entries should follow a similar format, and should include a DOI (if available), otherwise include a URL or permalink.

Burgess, Anthony. "Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene." Literature and Society, special issue of Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 2, no. 2, 1967, pp. 93-99.

Case, Sue-Ellen. “Eve's Apple, or Women's Narrative Bytes.” Technocriticism and Hypernarrative, special issue of Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 43, no. 3, 1997, pp. 631-50. Project Muse , doi:10.1353/mfs.1997.0056.

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  3. How to Cite a Research Paper: APA, MLA, and Chicago Formats

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COMMENTS

  1. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    Cite your source automatically in MLA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source's entry on the Works Cited page.

  2. MLA Format

    The MLA Handbook provides guidelines for creating MLA citations and formatting academic papers. This quick guide will help you set up your MLA format paper in no time. Start by applying these MLA format guidelines to your document: Times New Roman 12 1″ page margins Double line spacing ½" indent for new paragraphs

  3. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    Guidelines on writing an MLA style paper MLA Formatting and Style Guide Overview of how to create MLA in-text citations and reference lists In-Text Citations Resources on using in-text citations in MLA style The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Works Cited Page

  4. MLA: Citing Within Your Paper

    MLA: Citing Within Your Paper What is an MLA In-Text Citation? An in-text citation is a citation within your writing that shows where you found your information, facts, quotes, and research. All MLA in-text citations require the same basic information: Author's last name (no first names or initials) Page number (if available)

  5. Student's Guide to MLA Style (2021)

    To cite sources in MLA style, you need In-text citations that give the author's last name and a page number. A list of Works Cited that gives full details of every source. Make sure your paper also adheres to MLA format: one-inch margins, double spacing, and indented paragraphs, with an MLA style heading on the first page.

  6. How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA

    An MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article contains the author (s); article title; journal name; volume and issue; month and year; page range; and a DOI if accessed online. In the in-text citation, include the author's last name and the page number. Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr

  7. MLA Guide (7th edition)

    PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION When using MLA documentation style, you need to reference your sources by using a combination of a list of works cited (see below) and parenthetical notation. Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source.

  8. PDF Formatting a Research Paper

    Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations half an inch as well (for examples, see 76-80 in the MLA Handbook).

  9. MLA Citation Guide: Citing in the body of your paper

    In-Text Citations (see pages 54 - 58, 116 - 128 of the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition) In the body of your paper, use parenthetical documentation (Chapter 5 of MLA Handbook).The purpose of your documentation is for your readers to be able to locate the sources which you cite in your text when they look at your bibliography ("Works Cited") located at the end of your paper.

  10. How to Cite a Research Paper in MLA with a Sample Paper

    Literature Reviews Formatting Styles Topics Formatting Styles Guide on How to Cite a Research Paper Using MLA Format: Best Tips Written by Samantha W. March 22, 2023 5 min read Share the article Understanding What is MLA Formatting

  11. How To Cite a Research Paper: MLA, APA, and Chicago Style

    How To Cite a Research Paper: MLA, APA, and Chicago Style by Quetext Posted on January 25, 2022 When you're writing a research paper, you'll use a variety of sources to find information. You might find that you end up using other people's research papers as sources of information for your own work.

  12. Writing and Citing: MLA 9th Edition: MLA

    The MLA style is most commonly used to format research papers and cite sources in Liberal Arts and Humanities. This research guide will provide you with examples of the most commonly used resources. The tabs above will present examples of work cited pages, in-text citations, as well as a formatting example.

  13. MLA

    In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order: Author. Title of source. Title of container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Each element should be followed by the corresponding punctuation mark shown above.

  14. How to Cite a Scientific Paper in MLA

    Full Citation Rules. Citing a scientific paper in MLA on the Works Cited page follows the format for citing a journal article. Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, vol. Volume, no. Issue, Year, Page #, DOI or URL. Accessed Day Mo. Year.

  15. How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA

    In subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author. The title of the journal or magazine article is set in plain roman text and title case; it is placed inside double quotation marks. The title of the journal or magazine is set in italics and title case.

  16. Research, Citation, & Class Guides: English 102: College Writing (Prof

    Whether you choose to quote, summarize, or paraphrase sources you use in your research paper, you must cite each one. For rules and examples in MLA 8th ed. style, look here: MLA Handbook (9th ed.) - UW-Whitewater, Reference Collection, Call Number LB2369 .M52 2021; Citing References: MLA Style (8th ed.) - (PDF) (UW-Whitewater libraries)

  17. Formatting a Paper in MLA

    MLA Works Cited Formatting. The following guidelines are the basic formatting rules outlined in the MLA Handbook 9th edition. If your instructor sets different requirements, always use your instructor's guidelines first. General: needs to start on a new page following the end of your paper

  18. Formatting Your Research Project

    Formatting Your Research Project. To learn how to set up your research project in MLA format, visit our free sample chapter on MLA Handbook Plus , the only authorized subscription-based digital resource featuring the MLA Handbook, available for unlimited simultaneous users at subscribing institutions. MLA Style Center, the only authorized Web ...

  19. Bibliography & Citation Resources

    MLA style is a popular citation style for English language and literature. Below are resources that can help you when you're formatting your bibliography and papers. ... online, or as an e-book--or perhaps listened to as an audiobook. Writers of research papers routinely need to know how to cite works on Web sites, videos on platforms like ...

  20. Cite Sources

    With this focus on source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the skills of information and digital literacy so crucial today. The many new and updated chapters make this edition the comprehensive, go-to resource for writers of research papers, and anyone citing sources, from business writers, technical writers, and ...

  21. Citation and Plagiarism

    On each page, make sure you note the original source and the date you accessed the source. This will make citation much easier, especially if you are working with multiple sources or doing research over a long stretch of time. Try not to mix your own thoughts and commentary with excerpts from your source. Keep them on separate pages, draw two ...

  22. Citing Sources

    The UCB Library Guide to Citing Your Sources discusses why you should cite your sources and links to campus resources about plagiarism. It also includes links to guides for frequently used citation styles. Also: MLA handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th edition. New York : Modern Language Association of America, 2009.

  23. MLA Citation Format

    Research Guides; REA 091 - Your Librarian - Sol Gómez; MLA Citation Format; ... MLA Citation Format; Formatting Your Paper . How to Format an MLA Bibliography. MLA Format Resources! << Previous: How to Modify a Search Using MegaSearch; Last Updated: Feb 6, 2024 4:42 PM;

  24. How to Cite a PDF in MLA

    Citing a newspaper or magazine article. A PDF scan of a print newspaper or magazine article will usually include the page numbers, which you can use in your citation, optionally including a link and specifying the PDF format if you think it's relevant. MLA format. Last name, First name. " Article Title .".

  25. MLA Works Cited Page: Periodicals

    Cite by listing the article's author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title. Follow with the date of publication. Remember to abbreviate the month. The basic format is as follows: Author (s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages. Poniewozik, James.

  26. Research Guides: English Composition 3DX (Prescott-Johnson): Citing

    MLA Citation Resources. Most recent print guide to Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Online summary of information in the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook. Does not include the full content of the print Handbook, but does include supplemental material, such as guidelines for formatting papers. Use the examples on this page.

  27. LibGuides: EDUC 1300

    Cornell University - Info and Activity on Recognizing & Avoiding Plagiarism. "Integrity entails a firm adherence to a set of values, and the values most essential to an academic community are grounded on the concept of honesty with respect to the intellectual efforts of oneself and others."

  28. Research Guides: ENG 105-8: True Fictions (O'Kelly): Cite Sources

    Citation Management Software: EndNote, Zotero, Mendeley. All of these programs can: store references in one place. export citations directly from databases. automatically format bibliographies and citations in MLA, APA, Chicago Manual of Style, or thousands of other styles. keep reading notes linked to sources. insert citations directly into Word.