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An essay on the improvement of time: and other literary remains, ed. by J.E. Ryland

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  • Publisher Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library
  • Publication date 2007
  • ISBN 10  1425592430
  • ISBN 13  9781425592431
  • Binding Paperback
  • Number of pages 268
  • Rating 4.5 avg rating • ( 4 ratings by Goodreads )

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Become a Writer Today

Essays About Time: Top 5 Examples and 8 Prompts

Essays about time involve looking into human existence and other intangible concepts. Check out our top examples and prompts to write an engaging piece about this subject.

Time entails many concepts that can be hard to explain. In its simplest sense, time is the period between the past, present, and future. It also encompasses every action or progression of events within those measures. Time never stops. It consistently ticks away, making it both a cruel teacher and an apt healer. It inspires many writers to write pieces about it, discussing time as a notion or an element in emotionally-driven compositions that both describe euphoric and heart-rending episodes. 

To aid you in writing a compelling piece, below are our top picks for great essays about time:

1. Time is Precious Essay by Anonymous on AreSearchGuide.com

2. an essay on time by david pincus, 3. time is money by supriya, 4. time waster by anonymous on exampleessays.com, 5. time management: using the less time to do more by anonymous on edubirdie.com, 1. how i spend my time, 2. what is time, 3. time and technology, 4. time management and procrastination, 5. if time doesn’t exist, 6. time as a currency, 7. the value of time, 8. time and productivity.

“Make most of your time and you will be rewarded ten folds of it, waste it and the little you have will be taken away, just like in the parable of talents.”

The essay begins with a convincing statement reminding the readers of the average life expectancy of a person to assert the importance of time. Then, in the later sections, the author answers why time is precious. Some reasons include time is always in motion, is priceless, and can never be borrowed. The piece also mentions why many “wait for the right opportunity,” not realizing they must plan first to get to the “right time.” Finally, at the end of the essay, the writer reminds us that balancing and planning how to spend time in all areas of life are critical to having a meaningful existence.

“I don’t know what time is, beyond a mysterious self-similar backdrop upon which we lead our lives. It is intricately woven across the scales of observation – from the quantum level to the phenomenological time of cultural revolutions.”

Pincus begins the essay with questions about time and then proceeds to answer them. Then, he focuses on time psychologically, relating it to traumas, disorders, and lack of meaning. In the next section, he discusses how psychotherapists use the concept of time to treat patients. 

In the last part of his essay, Pincus admits that he doesn’t know what time is but notes it’s akin to a thread that stitches moments together and anchors us through a complex world.

“Knowing how precious time is, we should never waste time, but make good use of it.”

Supriya’s essay is straightforward. After claiming that someone’s success depends on how they use their time, she gives an example of a student who studied well and passed an exam quickly. She follows it with more examples, referring to office workers and the famous and wealthy.

“Time is something you can’t have back, and should not be used to simply watch a computer screen for hours upon end.”

The writer shares one of his vices that leads him to waste time – technology, specifically, instant messaging. They mention how unproductive it is to just stare at a computer screen to wait for their friends to go online. They know many others have the same problem and hope to overcome the bad habit soon.

“I should strive for good time management skills which are essential to be learned and mastered in order to have a better personal and professional life… it can also help us learn more about self-discipline which is a crucial pillar for stable success… time management is a concept of balance and moderation of the things that are important to us.”

The essay affirms people need to protect time, as it’s a non-renewable resource. A great way to do it is by tracking your time, also known as time management. The writer shared their experience when they were a college student and how challenging it was to allocate their time between deadlines and other life demands. The following parts of the piece explain what time management is in detail, even recommending a tool to help individuals label their activities based on urgency. The following paragraphs focus on what the author learned about time management throughout their life and how they missed opportunities while continuously being stressed. Then, the last part of the essay suggests tips to conquer time management problems. 

Did you know that readability is critical to readers finishing your whole essay? See our article on how to improve your readability score to learn more. 

8 Writing Prompts For Essays About Time

Go through our recommended prompts on essays about time for writing:

In this essay, share how you use your time on a typical day. Then, decide if you want to keep spending your time doing the same things in the future. If not, tell your readers the reason. For instance, if you’re devoting most of your time studying now, you can say that you intend to use your future time doing other invaluable things, such as working hard to help your family.

Because there are many definitions of time, use this essay to define your interpretation of time. You can use creative writing and personify time to make your essay easy to understand. For example, you can think of time as a personal tutor who always reminds you of the things you should be able to finish within the day. For an engaging essay, use descriptive language to emphasize your points.

Essays About Time: Time and technology

List technologies that help people save time, such as smartphones, computers, and the internet. Delve into how these devices help individuals complete their tasks faster. On the other hand, you can also talk about how modernization negatively affects people’s time management. Like when they distract students and workers from completing their assignments.

Discuss reasons why people procrastinate. First, ensure to pick common causes so your readers can easily relate to your piece. Then, add tips on how individuals can battle dilly-dallying by recommending influential time management theories and models. You can even try some of these theories or models and tell your readers how they worked for you. 

Open a discussion about what can happen if there is no concept of time. Include what matters you think will be affected if time is abolished. You can also debate that time does not exist, that it’s just created by people to keep track of whatever they need to monitor. Finally, add your thoughts on the notion that “we only exist within an ever-changing now.”

Share your ideas of what can take place if we use “time” to buy food, pay rent, etc. You can also analyze that when we use our time to work, get paid for it, and then purchase our necessities, we’re technically exchanging our time to be able to buy what we need. A movie that used this theory is In Time , starring Justin Timberlake, Amanda Seyfried, and Cillian Murphy. You can write a review of this movie and add your opinions on it.

Everyone’s aware of the importance of time. For this prompt, delve into why time is precious. Write this essay from your perspective and probe how time, such as managing or wasting it, affects your life. You can also interpret this prompt by calculating the non-monetary or opportunity costs of spending time. 

Examine the direct relationship between time and productivity. Then, list productivity strategies schools and businesses use. You can also open a discourse about the number of hours workers are supposed to work in a week. For example, debate if you think a 40-hour full-time work week in America, results in more productive employees. Then, add other schedules from other countries and how it affects productivity, such as Denmark, Germany, and Norway, with less than 30 hours of the work week. 

Do you want to know how to convince your readers effectively? Read our guide on how to write an argumentative essay . Improve your writing skills; check out our guide packed full of transition words for essays .

essay on the improvement of time

Maria Caballero is a freelance writer who has been writing since high school. She believes that to be a writer doesn't only refer to excellent syntax and semantics but also knowing how to weave words together to communicate to any reader effectively.

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Value of Time Essay

Time is precious, and we should never waste it. We can recoup our financial outlays but not our lost time. Time becomes more important as a result of this. Therefore, we should utilise our time wisely. Here are a few sample essays on the importance of time.

  • 100 Words Essay on Value of Time

The most valuable resource in a person's life is time, which should never be wasted in any way. One will be more successful if one recognises the value of time. Time is often said to be more important than money . This is said because you can regain the money you spent but cannot regain time. The famous proverb “Time and tide wait for none” is very accurate because time indeed waits for no one, and we must learn how to manage it properly. A person who understands its value completely fulfils every task successfully. For one to be successful in life and achieve their goals, it’s important to learn the value of time and how to manage it.

200 Words Essay on Value of Time

500 words essay on value of time.

Value of Time Essay

You cannot purchase back time once it has passed, making time an invaluable resource. One needs to start learning how to use time effectively to achieve their goals. Time is an excellent teacher since it never stops and does not wait for anyone. Every person's life is greatly influenced by the passage of time, whether it be through daily activities like rising from bed, cleaning one's teeth, taking a shower, eating meals on schedule, or making plans for significant life events.

People frequently place greater importance on other things in their lives than time. The most valuable resource in life is time, not money. If you don't have enough time to enjoy your wealth, no amount of money you make will be worth anything. You cannot see or catch time, but you must move with it because it is constantly moving. Time is like air. Without anyone recognising it, it is like a wave that endlessly flows. The ones that are successful in life are those who are aware of this ever-flowing wave and who create effective routines to use their time well. And those who fail do so regretfully, always wishing they could go back.

One of the most priceless possessions a person is born with is time. Time never turns around and always continues in one direction. Time won't value you if you don't appreciate it. Time is a crucial component of success when discussing its progression. Our time has the power to ruin us if we waste it. Time is beautiful because it is with time how things develop, mature, and then die. It bears witness to a vast array of memories and choices, both good and negative. Since no one controls time, it is crucial to appreciate its significance.

For example, if you place a frog in a pot of boiling water, the frog begins to adjust to the temperature of the water. As the temperature gradually rises, the frog adjusts its body temperature accordingly. It does not understand when to jump out of the pot and thus continues to adapt. It eventually succumbs to the heat and perishes in the boiling water. The moral of the story is that we must recognise which decisions we must make before time runs out. Maintaining patience in certain situations and using your mind to solve them is critical. Panicking will only waste your time and resources.

Time is the agent of change, claimed to be a law of nature. Everything we do in life, including growing up, finishing school, earning a degree, and landing a job, depends on how we manage our time. Because of this, it's crucial to teach kids time management skills at a young age. Daily activities must be done on time, including eating, sleeping, exercising, and completing assignments. This ensures no room for procrastination and that time is used effectively.

Once you realise that one of the world's most vital elements is time, you have already overcome a challenge. It can create or shatter someone's life, career, and interpersonal connections. We humans may never fully understand the magnificence of time since it may only take a few months for some people to win while it may take years or even decades for others. It is undoubtedly a rare occurrence of nature to have everything suddenly taken away from you. We merely need to assess the best moment to seize life's opportunities.

In every aspect of life, it's essential to be on time. Being on time means you control your schedule and don't let the time dictate how you spend your time. Planning is crucial in managing time; once you have created a realistic plan that you know you can follow, just push yourself to finish within the allotted time.

Time Management

Time management is the process of planning and organizing how to allocate time effectively and efficiently towards specific activities, tasks, and goals. It helps individuals prioritize their responsibilities and avoid distractions, enabling them to achieve more in less time. Good time management skills can lead to increased productivity , reduced stress, and improved overall quality of life. To effectively manage time, one can use tools such as to-do lists, calendars, and time-tracking software, and develop habits such as setting goals, prioritizing tasks, and avoiding procrastination.

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Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Fund Manager

Are you searching for a fund manager job description? A fund manager is a stock market professional hired by a mutual fund company to manage the funds’ portfolio of numerous clients and oversee their trading activities. In an investment company, multiple managers oversee the clients’ money and make their respective decisions. 

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Cardiothoracic Surgeon

Cardiothoracic surgeons are an important part of the surgical team. They usually work in hospitals, and perform emergency as well as scheduled operations. Some of the cardiothoracic surgeons also work in teaching hospitals working as teachers and guides for medical students aspiring to become a cardiothoracic surgeon. A career as a cardiothoracic surgeon involves treating and managing various types of conditions within their speciality that includes their presence at different locations such as outpatient clinics, team meetings, and ward rounds. 

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Fashion Journalist

Fashion journalism involves performing research and writing about the most recent fashion trends. Journalists obtain this knowledge by collaborating with stylists, conducting interviews with fashion designers, and attending fashion shows, photoshoots, and conferences. A fashion Journalist  job is to write copy for trade and advertisement journals, fashion magazines, newspapers, and online fashion forums about style and fashion.

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Production Manager

Quality controller.

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Engineer

A career as a Production Engineer is crucial in the manufacturing industry. He or she ensures the functionality of production equipment and machinery to improve productivity and minimise production costs to drive revenues and increase profitability. 

Product Designer

Individuals who opt for a career as product designers are responsible for designing the components and overall product concerning its shape, size, and material used in manufacturing. They are responsible for the aesthetic appearance of the product. A product designer uses his or her creative skills to give a product its final outlook and ensures the functionality of the design. 

Students can opt for various product design degrees such as B.Des and M.Des to become product designers. Industrial product designer prepares 3D models of designs for approval and discusses them with clients and other colleagues. Individuals who opt for a career as a product designer estimate the total cost involved in designing.

Commercial Manager

A Commercial Manager negotiates, advises and secures information about pricing for commercial contracts. He or she is responsible for developing financial plans in order to maximise the business's profitability.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

It consultant.

An IT Consultant is a professional who is also known as a technology consultant. He or she is required to provide consultation to industrial and commercial clients to resolve business and IT problems and acquire optimum growth. An IT consultant can find work by signing up with an IT consultancy firm, or he or she can work on their own as independent contractors and select the projects he or she wants to work on.

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Essay on Time Management

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  • Updated on  
  • Aug 27, 2022

Essay on Time Management (1)

“Time isn’t the main thing, it’s the only thing”- Mile Davis.

Time management is a prestigious topic for budding subconscious minds. It is one of the most crucial skills that you must inculcate from early on. This skill has vital importance when you move into a professional setting. It is extremely important to manage time efficiently as not managing time can create many problems in your day-to-day life. It is also a common essay topic in the school curriculum and various academic and competitive exams like IELTS , TOEFL , SAT , UPSC , etc. This blog brings you samples of essays on time management with tips & tricks on how to write an essay.

Essay on Time Management in 200 words

Time stops for none and is equal for all. Everyone has the same 24 hours in a day but some people make better use of time than others. This is one of the most important reasons some people are experts in what they do. Therefore, time management plays a vital role in both personal as well as professional lives.

Time management is basically an effort made consciously to spend a certain amount of time performing a task efficiently. Furthermore, it is estimated that to have better results, one needs to do productive work. Thus, productivity is the key focus here. Moreover, maintaining a careful balance between professional life, social life, and any other hobbies or activities is a great example of efficient time management.

Time management is also crucial for students from an academic perspective as students require to cover many subjects. Thus, efficiently managing time is an important skill in everyone’s life.  Around the world, there are two views for time management – linear time view and multi-active time view. The linear time view is predominant in America, Germany and England, and it aims at completing one task at a time. Whereas a multi-active view aims at completing a number at once and is predominant in India and Spain. Nevertheless, time management is one of the important traits of a successful individual, students are advised to follow whichever is convenient for them.

Essay on Time Management in 300 Words

Time Management is a key skill for job opportunities as employers recruit candidates who have this efficient skill. Thus, it is advised to initiate inculcating this vital skill as soon as possible. In the academic setting, time management plays a vital role and helps in the accomplishment of tasks efficiently and effectively.

Time management is the process of planning and performing pre-scheduled activities with the aim of increasing productivity, effectiveness and efficiency. Different cultures hold different views on Time Management. However, a multi-active time view and a linear time view are the two predominant views. In a linear time view, the aim is set to complete one particular task at a time whereas, in a multi-active view, the focus is on completing a greater number of tasks at once. Emphasis is given on productivity and effectiveness, but students are free to choose their own view of time management.

Time management is crucial as it is helpful in setting a timeline for achieving a particular goal. Moreover, it also increases the efficiency of the tasks at hand. It becomes necessary for working professionals as they need to balance their personal and professional life. Thus, they do not have time to dwell on each and every detail in every task. In such cases, a multi-active view is one of the helpful methods. Time management works best when a goal or target is set. For instance, a student becomes far more effective at learning when they decide to assign 2 hours for learning a particular concept. This is effectively a method of benchmarking progress. So, every time the activity is performed, one can measure themselves and improve upon various aspects of their tasks.The clear conclusion is that time management is a crucial skill for students and working professionals. Thus, everyone must practise time management to improve productivity and efficiency of tasks.

Tips for Writing an Essay on Time Management

To write an impactful and scoring essay here are some tips on how to manage time and write a good essay:

  • The initial step is to write an introduction or background information about the topic
  • You are required to use the formal style of writing and avoid using slang language.
  • To make an essay more impactful, write dates, quotations, and names to provide a better understanding
  • You can use jargon wherever it is necessary as it sometimes makes an essay complicated
  • To make an essay more creative you can also add information in bulleted points wherever possible
  • Always remember to add a conclusion where you need to summarise crucial points
  • Once you are done read through the lines and check spelling and grammar mistakes before submission

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Lastly, we hope this blog has helped you in structuring a terrific essay on time management. Planning to ace your IELTS, get expert tips from coaches at Leverage Live by Leverage Edu .

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Industrial policy 2025: bringing the state back in (again).

February 11, 2024

By Todd N. Tucker (Foreword), Kyunghoon Kim, Saule T. Omarova, Jonas Algers, Andrea Furnaro, César F. Rosado Marzán, Lenore Palladino

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The following essay collection brings together the ideas and reflections of a diverse group of scholars from around the world to answer the question: What institutions and strategies are missing from US industrial policy that could help it be more successful?

Digital generated image of multiple environmental rectangular cross sections with different types of energy supply. Sustainable city concept.

(Photo by Andriy Onufriyenko/Getty Images)


This collection of essays is a first-of-its-kind interdisciplinary analysis by a diverse group of scholars from around the world that aims to answer the question: What institutions and strategies are missing from US industrial policy that could help it be more successful? The collection looks at the potential tools of economic statecraft that could complement the tax credits and grants that have formed the core of the Biden administration’s first-term industrial agenda. 

The ideas in this collection have two things in common. First, the cases described in each essay involve a more active role for the state in the economy than neoliberal scholars or policymakers in the United States have embraced in recent decades. Second, they have been practiced somewhere in the world at some point in time (including right now).

In other words, they are not merely theoretical; they are real-world precedents that scholars, policymakers, and the broader public can study and learn from—assuaging potential concerns about an expanded role for the American state. The case studies do not revel in “statism” for its own sake. Rather, each of this collection’s contributors analyzes a toolkit or strategy that would address concrete problems that currently bedevil US industrial strategy.

This foreword starts by taking stock of the last three years of industrial policy developments, and the criticisms these have generated from certain observers about what has been seen as excessive levels of state intervention. A second section looks to how comparative politics research can provide further context as to whether and how higher levels of intervention could be justified. A third section introduces the reader to the essays that make up this compilation, and how they push both theory and practice forward.

The New Industrial Policy and Its Critics

After decades of policymakers attempting to minimize the actual or perceived role of the state in the economy, the state is undeniably back as a key actor. State-dominated countries like Russia and China make daily headlines. States are waging wars against one another and against non-state actors around the globe. Closer to home, Presidents Trump and Biden have used emergency powers from the FDR era to tackle everything from manufacturing vaccines to the baby formula shortage to deploying heat pumps. The US has also deployed tax credits, loans, and grants on a scale not seen in generations.

Indeed, statecraft is at the center of the current US policy agenda.

The Biden administration came into office pledging to tackle four interrelated crises: the COVID-19 pandemic, the shuttered economy, inequality (racial, income, and otherwise), and the climate crisis ( Linskey et al. 2022 ). Upon becoming president, Biden himself expanded on these goals in a press conference early in his term, insisting that “ we start to reward work, not just wealth. I want to change the paradigm.” He saw lifting up the middle class and unions as core to “restoring the soul of the nation” ( Biden 2021 ). While “Build Back Better” was the original and evocative frame for how Biden planned to respond to these interwoven crises, the press, and in particular Biden’s critics, began using the term Bidenomics ( Politi 2020 ). After the passage of four major bills through a razor-thin congressional margin, 1 and one of the most successful midterm election performances by an incumbent party in US history, Biden himself embraced the term.

Bidenomics is both a theory of economic growth and a theory of economic power, and it is meant to replace Reaganomics ( Blumenthal and Marans 2023 ). In lieu of the latter’s “trickle-down” emphasis on shrinking the public sector and reducing its burden on the rich (in the thinking that this would spur economic growth) ( Niskanen 1993 ), the former “is rooted in the recognition that the best way to grow the economy is from the middle out and the bottom up” ( White House 2023a ). This vision in turn centers on three pillars:

  • Making public investments in America;
  • Empowering workers to grow the middle class; and
  • Promoting competition and challenging corporate concentration ( White House 2023a ).

The first plank was operationalized through the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), and the CHIPS and Science Act—each a major piece of (green) industrial policy that could add up to trillions of dollars in new spending ( Carey and Ukita Shepard 2022 ; Goldman Sachs 2023 ). Former National Economic Council Director Brian Deese has explained that these investments are motivated by the desire to not only correct discrete market failures but also to provide a public backbone to a self-reinforcing growth dynamic that balances resilience and price stability, speed and resilience, and international and domestic considerations ( Deese 2022 ). 

The second plank, worker empowerment, is advanced through the promotion of tight (or “hot”) labor markets through the spending of the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) ( Khattar and Vela 2022 ), use of the presidency’s bully pulpit, changes in labor law interpretation by presidential appointees at independent agencies ( Meyerson 2023 ), weakening monopsony power in labor markets ( Kaplan 2023 ), and the corollary benefits of the public investments under the first plank ( Harvey 2022 ). 2

The third plank (competition) is operationalized primarily through a new (or old) approach to antitrust and monopoly policy that seeks to constrain not only business concentration that leads to increases in prices for consumers but also concentration per se (which is seen as ruinous to democracy and innovation). This agenda is executed largely though independent agencies and the courts, but also through select attacks on problematic pricing and “junk fee” practices ( Popp Berman 2022 ; Ramamurti 2023 ). 3

The economic data suggests that state intervention has been productive and effective. The contribution of manufacturing construction to GDP is at the highest levels on record ( Raimondo 2023 ). Employment in construction has reached highs not seen since the advent of modern record-keeping in 1939 ( Boushey 2023 ). Academic estimates suggest that US-made solar and wind energy are now cost competitive with imports for the first time in a generation ( DePillis 2023 ). According to the Rhodium Group and MIT’s Clean Investment Monitor, total investment in the clean energy economy reached $176 billion in late 2023, up 40 percent post-IRA and CHIPS ( Bermel et al. 2023 ).

Despite this record, US policymakers’ launch of their new approach was sometimes overly defensive about the extent of the state’s footprint in the economy. In 2021, former National Economic Council Director Brian Deese made a major speech calling for a “ one-time capital investment in this country” of hundreds of billions of dollars, noting, “ Now these may sound like large numbers, but, in fact, these are among the most prudent and modest investments that this country could make, a capital investment in ourselves” ( Atlantic Council 2021 , emphasis added). A July 2023 administration report stated that, “ President Biden’s approach is to collaborate with the private sector, with a strategy that is government-enabled and private sector-led” ( CEA 2023 ). In Biden’s major speech inaugurating his approach to economics, he almost apologetically offered, “I’m a capitalist. If you guys go out here and you can make a billion dollars, go get it. Just pay a little more in taxes” ( Biden 2023 ). 4

This defensiveness has been alongside a rising chorus of critiques of the new industrial strategy from the right and left. These have come in a few varieties: critiques of what, where, who, and how. These perspectives question the role of the state, the nation, the private sector, and the demos (respectively) in industrial policy. The what critique questions whether states anywhere are even able to conduct industrial policy (and whether they have been at any time in history), and posits that industrial policy is essentially impossible, given the state’s supposedly inferior knowledge base and its inability to operate in the public interest ( Lincicome and Zhu 2021 ). The where critique allows that industrial policy may be useful, but that it should be agnostic as to the national location of production (or even affirmatively seek out lowest cost locations) ( Posen 2023 ). The who critique comes from the opposite side of the ideological spectrum, and questions whether the private sector should have any role whatsoever in the green transition ( Gabor 2023 ). Finally, the how critique accepts the desirability of investment to increase the supply of clean energy, but takes issue with what it sees as the tendency of the public sector to do too many things at once. Sometimes called the “everything bagel” critique ( Klein 2023 ), it faults the Biden administration for being insufficiently attentive to the supposed trade-offs between its policy priorities ( Yglesias 2023 ).

There are elements within each that deserve respectful contemplation. The state will confront informational problems that will make it harder to enact the best policies. Excessive nationalism can make international cooperation harder. Relying too much on private actors can put public goals at the mercy of short-termist corporations that may suffer from their own information asymmetries, as shown by Danish wind company Orsted’s late 2023 cancellation of its offshore wind projects due to failure to add inflation adjustments into its contracts ( McGeehan 2023 ). And unquestioning adherence to current regulatory processes can lead to missing out on the chance to innovate new and smarter ways of governing. 5 Yet the practical upshot remains the same: There is no shortcut to more state capacity, as the market on its own cannot resolve the climate crisis. Indeed, careful studies have concluded that, even with the highly imperfect system of US statecraft, government entities with more capacity can help shepherd better outcomes ( Liscow, Nober, and Slattery 2023; Wang, Yuan, and Rogers 2023 ).

Bringing the State Back In

The debates around the new industrial strategy can sometimes feel like they are taking place in a vacuum. Is US industrial policy too condition-heavy? Are permitting processes too slow? Is the government doing too much second guessing of private actors, or not enough? Fortunately, there is a robust comparative politics scholarship on the theory of the state that can shine light on these debates. In particular, social science can help evaluate whether and how the new directions for US statecraft are surprising and/or likely to be successful.

A particularly useful contribution to this inquiry is Bringing the State Back In, a landmark 1985 volume edited by sociologists Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol. This book explored why so much research at the time appeared to minimize the actual or potential role of the state in economic life (Evans, Rueschemeyer, and Skocpol 1985). From liberal pluralists to neo-Marxists, many scholars treated the state as a relatively neutral arena of social conflict, with little appetite or capacity for independently shaping income growth or distribution. Rather, non-state social actors like business and labor groups had policy preferences determined exogenously by their “objective” economic interests or the ideas that attracted them, and they would then duke it out in political parties and government institutions. Whichever group was stronger would see their economic program prevail and carry the day. While state actors may appeal to notions of the national or public interest, in this view, such rhetoric is merely providing empty cover for delivering for the group or class that dominates the state as much as the rest of society.

The Bringing authors questioned these premises, finding many instances in which states were both willing and able to not only independently shape economic outcomes but also shape the very preferences and strategies of actors in the rest of society. The very growth of European states from the 16 th century relied on a complex interplay between states’ capacity for war-making, extraction (revenue), and protection services (spending) (Tilly 1985). 6 In the 19 th century, the British state centralized the provision of key social services that in the US remained decentralized, racialized, and used for patronage purposes, thereby creating a stronger and more uniform sense of working-class identity in the United Kingdom than in the US (Katznelson 1985). And in the 20 th century, the Taiwanese state was able to develop the island from a poor, agriculture-dominated economy to a manufacturing-dominated one through a sequence of interventions ranging from trade protection to monopolizing credit to relatively lighter-touch licensing regimes (Amsden 1985).

One case study is particularly instructive for this collection. What explains why some countries develop industrial policy and others do not? This chapter of Bringing looks at the differential responses of countries to the similar shock of the Great Depression. The UK, thanks in part to the aforementioned working-class mobilization, developed a national system of unemployment benefits in the early 20 th century. Sweden did not, and in turn around the same time helped alleviate job market pains through paying the unemployed to labor on public works projects. When the Great Depression hit, social democratic interests in each country leaned into the policy mix that each state had already developed. In the UK, this meant opening up the spigot of benefits payments, while in Sweden, the social demands centered around making public works pay closer to union wages. The former was dependent on the revival of economic growth (to in turn increase tax collection), while the latter helped endogenously generate growth through making infrastructure that helped productivity. Success begat success (both economically and politically), enabling Swedish Social Democrats to win a string of elections and institute more of their economic program (discussed in this collection’s essay by César Rosado Marzán) than UK Labour was able to (Weir and Skocpol 1985). 7

All of this is not to say that states are always (or even often) benevolent, efficiency-promoting, or effective. Rather, in cases in which states are able to establish some degree of autonomy from the classes that otherwise dominate the economy; develop a suite of administrative, legal, bureaucratic, and coercive powers; and then use those powers to reinforce the state’s own authority, legitimacy, and political longevity, they may be able to effectuate economic outcomes that reductive analyses would fail to predict.

While not a central reference point of the Bringing volume, present-day readers interested in questions of political economy might ask: How does all of this relate to neoliberalism and the search for alternatives to it? The answer: Quite a lot. The notions that bureaucrats lack sufficient information to engage in thoughtful planning, that government is invariably captured by the companies it seeks to regulate, or that government lacks the dynamism of private markets—each of these propositions found adherents among the political actors of the 1970s that modern historians credit (or fault) with making neoliberalism a reality (Slobodian 2018; Sabin 2021; Gerstle 2022). Furthermore, these notions are alive and well across the political spectrum today, hampering our ability to truly move beyond neoliberal policymaking tools. 

Indeed, almost 40 years after the initial publication, the Bringing project seems more relevant than ever. This scholarship would inspire numerous offshoots, such as American Political Development, historical institutionalism, and policy feedback theory ( Hacker et al. 2022 ; Fioretos 2017). In the subfields of climate politics and industrial policy, the state is seen as the indispensable actor in accompanying economic transitions ( Meckling and Nahm 2022 ; Juhász, Lane, and Rodrik 2023 ; Armitage, Bakhtian, and Jaffe 2023 ). 

Toward a Synthesis: Learning from What Works

The authors in this Industrial Policy 2025 collection provide rich comparative politics studies that have the potential to help answer questions and critiques sparked during Biden’s first term by “bringing the state back in.”

Kyunghoon Kim’s essay begins the collection with a thousand-foot view, exploring the question: Just how much state involvement is there out there? Much more than one might think, it turns out, and in unexpected places. By one indicator, France has more state involvement in the economy than Russia, and is not far behind centrally planned economies like China and Vietnam. Other major European economies like Switzerland and Germany have greater state involvement in the economy than countries with more recent avowedly “developmentalist” histories like South Africa, Argentina, and Chile. Some of the most recognizable multinational companies (such as Volkswagen) have state ownership, and indeed 20 percent of the planet’s largest companies (including numerous major players in finance) are state enterprises. Indonesia, a resource-rich emerging economy, has a wide range of state tools to manage resource rents. In short, as US policymakers and companies look at the competitive global landscape, they will encounter a “market” shaped indelibly by states at every level.

Saule Omarova’s essay establishes a rich taxonomy of state financial institutions. The first type, sovereign wealth funds, have long been associated with China and Middle Eastern countries. In fact, one of the largest such funds has been operational in Norway since 1969, is the single largest owner of stocks in the world, and is self-financed (and thus able to make social mission–oriented investments without the need to satisfy private bondholders). National development banking comprises a second type. One of the leading examples dates to 1948 in Germany, where the KfW provides loans and other supports for pandemic response, green transitions, and more. Singapore’s state holding company is exemplary of a third model, an institution that can exercise even more direct industrial policy state control over invested companies than the other types. Omarova then uncovers a US precedent that is not widely appreciated—the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which financed the New Deal and World War II mobilization under the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. She ends by discussing how her proposal for a National Investment Authority could flexibly combine the best of these models in the years ahead.

Jonas Algers’s essay looks at how a variety of state institutions are remaking and decarbonizing the steel industry in Sweden. The world’s leading “green steel” project is HYBRIT, a joint venture between utility, steel, and mining companies that are wholly or partly owned by governments, including public institutions in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. This project, as well as privately owned competitor H2 Green Steel, is receiving a wide range of public supports from both Swedish and EU public institutions. These projects stand out as particularly high value from a climate perspective, since primary steel production is one the most emissions-intensive industries and demand for low-carbon steel is on the rise from auto companies and others. The engineering of two competitor projects stands out as a model for how anti-monopoly and industrial policies can go hand in hand.

Instead of exploring how to wind up a new industry like green steel, Andrea Furnaro’s essay looks at using industrial policy to wind down an old one, coal, in Germany. Here, a dense network of EU and German programs accounting for billions of dollars in spending aim to simultaneously phase out carbon-intensive production and leave formerly coal-producing regions in a better place than when the program started. Furnaro outlines key factors that have made the German programs successful, including focusing on the ability of local, regional, and European institutions to become better economic planners. She also makes a contribution to theory, helping the reader better conceptualize the relationship between “place-based policy” and “just transition policy,” which she considers as subsets of industrial strategies. 

How workers fare in industrial transitions is the theme of César Rosado Marzán’s essay, which discusses two historical cases. First, he looks at Sweden’s “Rehn-Meidner” model, the 1950s through 1970s socioeconomic arrangement whereby policymakers balanced industrial competitiveness, macroeconomic stability and wage gains for workers at the bottom of the pay scale. Then, he turns to Puerto Rico—the US territory that successfully developed a textile and apparel industry while adopting a sectoral bargaining strategy that gave mainland unions a toehold on the island. He closes by proposing “Fair Transition Boards” for the US clean energy transition, which could help turn what are currently low-wage jobs in emerging industries like solar module installation into higher-wage, good jobs.

Last but not least, Lenore Palladino’s essay brings us closer to the present through her case study of the bailout of Detroit automakers in the global financial crisis of 2008-2010. While much of our historical memory focuses on the ramifications of that crisis for the banking system, the US under President Obama and Vice President Biden partly nationalized manufacturing firms in ways that are not out of step with the previous case studies in this collection. Yet unlike some more forceful episodes of economic statecraft, the US refused to attach meaningful labor or other conditionalities in this bailout. Palladino concludes with recommendations of how the current EV transition could be made more economically and democratically sustainable. 

None of these case studies are perfectly transposable to the United States context in 2024 and 2025. Indeed, a common theme of many of the essays is the crucial role played by supportive timing. As Omarova shows, the US lost its Reconstruction Finance Corporation at just the time the model transposed to Germany. When energy shock and transitions hit the German economy (and as historian Stephen Gross [2023] has shown, this has happened many times), the existence of these institutions (explored by Furnaro) enabled a nimbler response. Indonesia’s big push toward new state institutions (explored by Kim) came after the global financial crisis, as did Puerto Rico’s development of labor institutions in response to developments in the broader US mainland economy (described by Marzán). 

The US has to take its own particularities into account, such as the outsized role played by a state-enabled yet non-state-checked billionaire class ( Farrow 2023 ) and the history of racial exclusion leading to uneven trust of the state by distinct demographic groups ( Tucker 2019 ). These characteristics can make the United States look more like a “failed state” than some of its close peers.

On the other hand, as a “late developer” in some modes of economic statecraft, the US can learn from what has come before. Indeed, part of the US turn toward industrial policy can be explained by observing the challenges to carbon pricing-centric approaches in other countries like Australia, Canada, and in Europe ( Green 2021 ). And the US benefits from a higher degree of early fiscal federalization—which was created in a pre-neoliberal era—as compared with European institutions that built federal markets but uneven federal states ( Bergsen et al. 2022 ; McNamara 2023 ; Stiglitz 2019 ). 

Our hope is that this collection offers policymakers and other observers of American life some useful inputs as we contemplate where to go next after the successes and implementation challenges of the Inflation Reduction Act and other new policies.

The author would like to thank Suzanne Kahn, Sonya Gurwitt, and Sunny Malhotra for comments and assistance on this project, as well as all the contributing authors.  

1 This included the rechristening by Senator Joe Manchin (D-WV) of the House-passed Build Back Better Act into the Inflation Reduction Act. 2 Labor power can also help improve the quality of public subsidies to private firms, by having “whistleblowers” that can make sure that the funds are used well ( Tucker et al. 2023 ). 3 It is also integrated into the public investment plank through limits on stock buybacks and corporate extraction ( Palladino and Estevez 2022 ). 4 In the speech, Biden conflated “trickle-down economics” and “MAGA-nomics” in ways that flatten important political economy differences. Reagan and Bush I, for instance, paved the way for multilateral neoliberal institutions like the World Trade Organization (WTO), which Trump sought to weaken through unilateral state-led actions. 5 See Bagley 2019 and Pahlka 2023 for discussion. 6 In contrast, states that never had to invest in their own capacities and relied on external military and other protection often failed to develop such a balance that roughly corresponds to constitutional checks and balances. 7 The United States under Franklin D. Roosevelt traversed a third way, responding in the early New Deal with industrial and infrastructure policy meant to help labor. America ultimately failed to institutionalize a robust version of that agenda due to state structures like a relatively powerful Supreme Court and Congress, leaving instead what the authors call “commercial Keynesianism”—a type of lower common denominator countercyclical policy that some share of the Republican Party and business interests could abide.

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Dayen, David. 2023. “How State Capacity Can Help America Build.” The American Prospect , August 17,  2023. https://prospect.org/api/content/d1ee552e-3c7b-11ee-bd90-12163087a831/ .

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There is a critical window to make the case for a more robust industrial policy—and we want to meet the moment. This essay collection offers policymakers and other observers of American life some useful inputs as we contemplate where to go next after the successes and implementation challenges of policies such as the Inflation Reduction Act, the Infrastructure and Jobs Act, the American Rescue Plan Act, and many more.

NEW 📰 With the state’s capacity back at the center of the US policy agenda, it’s time for a new generation of industrial policy. Our new report brings together authors & case studies from across the world, arguing for a more robust IP toolkit 🧵 #IP2025 https://t.co/5hQpR7vjXV pic.twitter.com/qg9jbDdwIc — Roosevelt Institute (@rooseveltinst) February 13, 2024

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Title: automated unit test improvement using large language models at meta.

Abstract: This paper describes Meta's TestGen-LLM tool, which uses LLMs to automatically improve existing human-written tests. TestGen-LLM verifies that its generated test classes successfully clear a set of filters that assure measurable improvement over the original test suite, thereby eliminating problems due to LLM hallucination. We describe the deployment of TestGen-LLM at Meta test-a-thons for the Instagram and Facebook platforms. In an evaluation on Reels and Stories products for Instagram, 75% of TestGen-LLM's test cases built correctly, 57% passed reliably, and 25% increased coverage. During Meta's Instagram and Facebook test-a-thons, it improved 11.5% of all classes to which it was applied, with 73% of its recommendations being accepted for production deployment by Meta software engineers. We believe this is the first report on industrial scale deployment of LLM-generated code backed by such assurances of code improvement.

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Time and Temporality in Neoliberal Aesthetics | ASAP15 (New York)

This panel will consider how neoliberalism shifts conceptions of time and temporality, especially in how they relate to aesthetics. We invite papers that engage critically with contemporary works of art and literature to ask how they represent time, and/or how shifting conceptions of time and temporality relate to aesthetic consumption and interpretation.

Questions to consider include: how has the internet/AI impacted aesthetic interpretation? Are neoliberal aesthetics a luxury now more than ever? Or are aesthetics more of a pastime, an embedded part of everyday life? In what other ways has neoliberalism changed where and how we find aesthetic joy? What formal constraints relate to the "acceleration of life" that have emerged over the past 15-20 years? What does the future look like regarding aesthetic experimentation and dissemination? How has AI/posthumanism influenced the aesthetic "marketplace"? Does a proliferation of styles and hybridity compress or distend time in neoliberalism? Have new "chronotopes" emerged in neoliberalism to describe human interaction? What aesthetic or otherwise human values have shifted or will continue to shift as a result of market pressures? Have specific aesthetic values have become reified or fetishized in neoliberalism? Are specific zones or geographies more given to aesthetic contemplation or consumption? How do we reconcile spatio-temporal stratification with aesthetic stratification? Do certain bodies feel the effects of neoliberal time differently than others? Does remote work create more space for aesthetic reflection? Is there an exchange between depth of aesthetic interpretation and neoliberal marketplace demands? 

Link to ASAP15:  https://www.cvent.com/c/abstracts/ef2d8807-b608-4109-847a-9d3f868c690d?e...

Please send 150-300 word abstracts with a short bio to Daniel Adler ( [email protected] ) by March 15th, 2024.

In My Marriage Money Was a Trap. After My Divorce It Was My Freedom

essay on the improvement of time

F our months after my divorce, I went to a party in New York City where a wine-drunk woman grilled me about my split. How did I manage? Did I get the house?

 This line of questioning was not unfamiliar. In the aftermath of my divorce, a lot of women asked me how I’d done it, and at this party, flushed from wine myself, I told her honestly that I was broke. But, I added, I was happy. She looked at me skeptically and said, “Money is important.” I’d think of her two years later when I finally dug myself out of divorce debt.

When I married my husband at 22, I barely knew how to balance a checkbook (we still did that then), and I had no idea what a 401(k) was. Before we got married, when my father-in-law wanted to talk to us about money, I was a compliant pupil. He’d mapped out my husband’s annual salary for his new job as an engineer in Excel, walking us through how much we could spend. It was immediately clear to me that the two of them had already worked on this together. In the box marked “rent” was the correct figure for the apartment my husband was living in, the one I’d move into after the wedding. The spreadsheet also factored in payments for my college loans.

Read More: I Got Divorce. But My Family Is Still Whole

The power dynamic was clear – I had nothing; I knew nothing. And I would adhere to the rules of the budget because I was the one bringing in debt and no assets. The concepts my husband’s father talked us through were a blur: high-yield savings account, 401(k) matching, Roth IRAs. But other things came into sharp focus. He said my debt would have to be paid down immediately. Debt was shameful; you could tell by the way my husband and his father looked at each other. We’d use every penny of my job (and I was still unemployed) to pay it down and live entirely off my husband’s income until it was gone.

Here was how we were going to do that:

$10 a month for haircuts

$200 a month for groceries

$10 for personal items.

"How does that even work?" I said, too embarrassed to tell them tampons would cost more than $10 a month.

"Even cheap shampoo costs $5, and..." I was also thinking about makeup. Even the cheap stuff, which was all I had, could set you back $50, and I needed that if I was going to find a job to pay off my loans.

"The $10 a month accumulates," my husband explained like I was a toddler. "So, in five months, when you need to restock, you’ll have $50." Five months to make a bottle of Suave 2-in-1 last. This was the start of a pattern that would continue throughout our marriage: even when I made money, I didn’t have control of how it was spent.

Marriage has always been about money. The first marriages were alliances between families to strengthen economic ties. A woman exchanged for gifts to ally the two families, to ensure the continuity of inheritance and of course purity of blood. As Western culture evolved, marriage, still a contract, became about mutual understanding and affection. But laws governing the economic freedom of women were slow to catch up. Women couldn’t apply for mortgages or open credit cards in their own names until the 1970s.

Read More: Why I Stayed in a Marriage That Was Making Me Miserable

There is an enduring narrative that marriage is about love. That the guiding light of our unions is the sweep-me-off-my-feet romance depicted in movies. And we convince ourselves that what underpins our unions isn’t economic. But the reality is different than the fairy tales. People rarely date or marry outside their socioeconomic status, which reinforces privilege and class boundaries. Wealth inequality between married partners overwhelmingly favors the husband in a heterosexual relationship, which can leave the wife with little financial freedom and stuck in a relationship that can be uncomfortable or even dangerous. And while more and more women are out-earning their husbands, they are still in the minority . Women in the U.S. still earn only 82 cents to the male dollar , and mothers earn 74 cents on average to a father’s dollar. Even if a woman comes into a marriage earning the same as her husband, that equality drops o ff as women age. And while wives still manage the day-to-day expenses of grocery shopping, it’s men who retain the majority of financial control.

A 2021 YouGov poll found that 35% of women are completely or somewhat financially dependent on their partner, compared to 11% of men. And a Glamour survey found that one in three women have stayed in a relationship because they didn’t have the money to leave . A culture that underpays women is a culture that forces them into economic codependence and traps them when they want out. But no one wants to think about that when they are walking into a relationship – love is supposed to be bigger than all of that.

Read More: You're Fighting With Your Partner All Wrong

I knew money would be tight when I left. I didn’t have access to our joint account and had to set up a secret account to save money for a lawyer. I wrote marketing copy for extra money and would deposit the checks there. Despite this, I was poor during the divorce. Friends loaned me money for groceries. I ghost-wrote op-eds and wrote even more marketing copy. My parents bought my kids their Christmas gifts. Even then, my life mostly ran on nearly maxed-out credit cards.

Still, a few months after I moved out, I went to buy new mascara and realized how free I felt. If I wanted the $30 mascara, there would be no disapproval. No argument. No silent treatment until I relented and admitted I’d screwed up. It felt like a small thing, just mascara, but it was everything. While most women who divorce find themselves financially struggling, the majority don’t regret their decision. According to one study, 73% of divorced women are happier than they were when they were married, even if they were poorer.

A recent spate of books and articles argue for marriage as a solution for our financial woes, as women outside the heterosexual family structure do not do as well economically as those who are married, but what is often excluded from that conversation is the unpaid labor that allows a man to work all day. If marriage is a means of keeping and preserving wealth, it’s at least in part because often one partner performs the functions of cook, house cleaner, chauffeur, shopper, all without compensation. Even women who outearn their husbands still perform this unpaid labor at higher rates than male partners.

When my friend was divorcing his stay-at-home wife, his lawyer told him he should have paid her a salary. Paying her would have been a way to value her work and give her an income. And it would have amounted to less in alimony. When my friend told me this, I was stunned. Imagine: Paying a woman for her work would have benefited everyone in the end. It was certainly a far cry from my husband’s request during our divorce that I compensate him $10,000 for his contributions to my brain. I laughed and the joke became a punchline I employed in my group chats and on my lady dates. Until once, my friend Serena said, “You should have replied, ‘I wonder what my other body parts cost? My virginity?’ You should have charged him for damage to your uterus for having children.” I was sitting in her kitchen, watching her cook, and hearing her say a thing that cut me to my core because it was true. Is that all I was? Just a calculation?

Three years after my divorce, I sat down with a financial consultant named Stephanie, because I refused to talk to men about money. I was terrified, remembering the shame that the budget talks with my husband had given me.

I’d been recently fired from my job at a newspaper, the one I’d taken to level out my finances, and I knew my income would be inconsistent. I wanted a plan. I wanted to be able to feed my kids, but also still afford more than $10 a month for toiletries. I sat for two hours, explaining my business, my haphazard income and spending habits, feeling sick and a little ashamed. But eventually Stephanie began to smile.

"This is so exciting," she said. "You are making twice as much as you did three years ago, and next year, you’ll be making four times as much! You got this!" She was impressed by the fact I’d sold and written an original audiobook, while also freelancing, working full-time for the newspaper, and taking care of two kids. It was a lot of work that I was suddenly able to do because with 50/50 custody after the divorce, I was no longer the primary caretaker of our children. And without a spouse, I was no longer performing the unpaid mental and emotional labor I’d been doing for years. Free from the mental load, I had a lot of time to earn money and it was beginning to pay off.

“Girl, you know how to work hard,” she said. She was the kind of blonde woman who called you “girlfriend” and said “you go, girl” unironically. The kind of woman I just loved with my whole heart because I knew she meant every word of it. She told me I had this. And I did.

When we were done, I was relieved and angry. Angry that for so long money had been a cudgel used against me. Angry that I’d been told everything I was doing was wrong. Angry that I’d looked to someone else for my stability, to provide for me, when I could have done it for myself all along. And I was angry that I was made to believe my labor wasn’t enough—when the reality was it just wasn’t valued.

In my relationship, money had been a trap, but when I had the support and the equality I needed, I finally could earn enough that money became my freedom.

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Adam Wagner orders us to enunciate.

Margaret Simpson, a Ghanaian athlete, vaults backward over a yellow high jump bar at a sports stadium.

By Sam Corbin

Jump to: Today’s Theme | Tricky Clues

MONDAY PUZZLE — One crossword entry that I rarely guess correctly is “ABCs,” which is often clued as “Fundamentals” or “Kindergarten stuff.” It seems unfair that such a basic concept is so challenging for me to guess. I rank it on par for difficulty with “A to Z,” an entry I too often misread as “atoz.” (I sense a vendetta against the alphabet brewing.)

In today’s crossword, Adam Wagner invites us to revisit another set of early education fundamentals with his theme. I confess that I found the trick of his entries nearly as difficult to pick up as my ABCs.

Sam Ezersky, a puzzle editor for The New York Times, assured me that I wouldn’t be alone in feeling addled. “There’s lots of fancy footwork going on here,” Mr. Ezersky said of Mr. Wagner’s theme, describing it as “a nice mix of phrases, with one real brain-bender of a revealer.”

Shall we get our minds in a twist together?

Today’s Theme

One word in Mr. Wagner’s revealer clue, easily missed among the others, is crucial to understanding what makes today’s theme entries special — more special than they already seem, that is.

He asks us to notice “What the first word of the answer to each starred clue counts , with respect to the second word” (61A). Did you catch that? It’s subtle but brilliant: Each entry begins with a spelled-out number, which counts the SYLLABLES in its second word.

To “Beat by a little, as in joke telling” (17A), for example, is to ONE-UP someone. UP has only ONE syllable. But “Unfaithful to, as a lover” (18A) is TWO-TIMING, where TIMING has TWO syllables.

“We knew it was imperative to spell things out perfectly or you’d just miss the true beauty of the theme,” Mr. Ezersky said of the revealer. He added that, while it might have taken close inspection of the wording to identify the theme, “whoever takes the time to read will know exactly what’s going on.”

Tricky Clues

23A. Despite my Canadian upbringing, the notion of commuting on a “Vessel for a frozen lake,” such as an ICE BOAT, sends shivers down my spine. (In regions where lake ice is used more frequently for travel in the winter, such as the Northwest Territories , snowmobiles are far more efficient.)

42A. Of all the instances in which the name ADRIAN has appeared as an entry in the Times Crossword, this is the first time it has been associated with “ADRIAN Fenty, former mayor of Washington, D.C.” Mr. Fenty served as the city’s sixth mayor, holding office from 2007 to 2011.

64A. A certain “Exaggerated kind of journalism” is called GONZO journalism, a style that places the writer at the center of the action — and in which the writer may actually engage in provocation or manipulation to drive events. The term is most often associated with the writing of Hunter S. Thompson, though it may already have had similar connotations in its etymology.

7D. In my opinion, tacking “to a toddler” onto a clue gives it the license to be gibberish of almost any kind — no offense, toddlers, but you sound goofy. So, sure, I guess “H20, to a toddler” could be WAWA.

43D. “Uzo ADUBA, of ‘Orange is the New Black,’” won several awards for her performance in the series as Suzanne Warren, also known as Crazy Eyes.

52D. “Sour fruit” can be either singular or plural, since it describes a category. The entry is LEMONS.

Constructor Notes

Well, this is new. I am elated to be making my Monday debut! This puzzle also completes my Sunday through Thursday “theme cycle,” which is a very real thing and not just an accolade I’m making up to feel better about my phobia of ever constructing a puzzle without theme constraints. Anyway, it turns out making an easy puzzle is really hard. Everything has to be light and friendly and accessible, which are three words that I don’t think anyone has ever said about one of my puzzles. Hopefully, that changes today. As for the theme, I really wanted to find phrases that didn’t just have any old number tacked on the front. “One out” could just as easily be “two outs” or “three outs,” for example. This made the theme set pretty tight — even the number two doesn’t have all that many unique phrases beyond “two-timing.” I did have to bend this rule for “four-dimensional,” but in my defense it was the only four + four-syllable word phrase I could find. And c’mon, it’s also just a cool thing. Beyond the number four, all I could find was “five pillars of Islam,” which doesn’t quite fit the pattern. If you can think of any others, please hit me up — I’d love to hear them. Big shout-out once again to my father — this is the second puzzle in a row he has inspired, this time with his beautifully succinct suggestion, “You should do something with syllables.” Keep ’em coming, Dad!

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  • Published: 19 February 2024

Genomic data in the All of Us Research Program

The all of us research program genomics investigators.

Nature ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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  • Genetic variation
  • Genome-wide association studies

Comprehensively mapping the genetic basis of human disease across diverse individuals is a long-standing goal for the field of human genetics 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . The All of Us Research Program is a longitudinal cohort study aiming to enrol a diverse group of at least one million individuals across the USA to accelerate biomedical research and improve human health 5 , 6 . Here we describe the programme’s genomics data release of 245,388 clinical-grade genome sequences. This resource is unique in its diversity as 77% of participants are from communities that are historically under-represented in biomedical research and 46% are individuals from under-represented racial and ethnic minorities. All of Us identified more than 1 billion genetic variants, including more than 275 million previously unreported genetic variants, more than 3.9 million of which had coding consequences. Leveraging linkage between genomic data and the longitudinal electronic health record, we evaluated 3,724 genetic variants associated with 117 diseases and found high replication rates across both participants of European ancestry and participants of African ancestry. Summary-level data are publicly available, and individual-level data can be accessed by researchers through the All of Us Researcher Workbench using a unique data passport model with a median time from initial researcher registration to data access of 29 hours. We anticipate that this diverse dataset will advance the promise of genomic medicine for all.

Comprehensively identifying genetic variation and cataloguing its contribution to health and disease, in conjunction with environmental and lifestyle factors, is a central goal of human health research 1 , 2 . A key limitation in efforts to build this catalogue has been the historic under-representation of large subsets of individuals in biomedical research including individuals from diverse ancestries, individuals with disabilities and individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds 3 , 4 . The All of Us Research Program (All of Us) aims to address this gap by enrolling and collecting comprehensive health data on at least one million individuals who reflect the diversity across the USA 5 , 6 . An essential component of All of Us is the generation of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and genotyping data on one million participants. All of Us is committed to making this dataset broadly useful—not only by democratizing access to this dataset across the scientific community but also to return value to the participants themselves by returning individual DNA results, such as genetic ancestry, hereditary disease risk and pharmacogenetics according to clinical standards, to those who wish to receive these research results.

Here we describe the release of WGS data from 245,388 All of Us participants and demonstrate the impact of this high-quality data in genetic and health studies. We carried out a series of data harmonization and quality control (QC) procedures and conducted analyses characterizing the properties of the dataset including genetic ancestry and relatedness. We validated the data by replicating well-established genotype–phenotype associations including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and 117 additional diseases. These data are available through the All of Us Researcher Workbench, a cloud platform that embodies and enables programme priorities, facilitating equitable data and compute access while ensuring responsible conduct of research and protecting participant privacy through a passport data access model.

The All of Us Research Program

To accelerate health research, All of Us is committed to curating and releasing research data early and often 6 . Less than five years after national enrolment began in 2018, this fifth data release includes data from more than 413,000 All of Us participants. Summary data are made available through a public Data Browser, and individual-level participant data are made available to researchers through the Researcher Workbench (Fig. 1a and Data availability).

figure 1

a , The All of Us Research Hub contains a publicly accessible Data Browser for exploration of summary phenotypic and genomic data. The Researcher Workbench is a secure cloud-based environment of participant-level data in a Controlled Tier that is widely accessible to researchers. b , All of Us participants have rich phenotype data from a combination of physical measurements, survey responses, EHRs, wearables and genomic data. Dots indicate the presence of the specific data type for the given number of participants. c , Overall summary of participants under-represented in biomedical research (UBR) with data available in the Controlled Tier. The All of Us logo in a is reproduced with permission of the National Institutes of Health’s All of Us Research Program.

Participant data include a rich combination of phenotypic and genomic data (Fig. 1b ). Participants are asked to complete consent for research use of data, sharing of electronic health records (EHRs), donation of biospecimens (blood or saliva, and urine), in-person provision of physical measurements (height, weight and blood pressure) and surveys initially covering demographics, lifestyle and overall health 7 . Participants are also consented for recontact. EHR data, harmonized using the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model 8 ( Methods ), are available for more than 287,000 participants (69.42%) from more than 50 health care provider organizations. The EHR dataset is longitudinal, with a quarter of participants having 10 years of EHR data (Extended Data Fig. 1 ). Data include 245,388 WGSs and genome-wide genotyping on 312,925 participants. Sequenced and genotyped individuals in this data release were not prioritized on the basis of any clinical or phenotypic feature. Notably, 99% of participants with WGS data also have survey data and physical measurements, and 84% also have EHR data. In this data release, 77% of individuals with genomic data identify with groups historically under-represented in biomedical research, including 46% who self-identify with a racial or ethnic minority group (Fig. 1c , Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Note ).

Scaling the All of Us infrastructure

The genomic dataset generated from All of Us participants is a resource for research and discovery and serves as the basis for return of individual health-related DNA results to participants. Consequently, the US Food and Drug Administration determined that All of Us met the criteria for a significant risk device study. As such, the entire All of Us genomics effort from sample acquisition to sequencing meets clinical laboratory standards 9 .

All of Us participants were recruited through a national network of partners, starting in 2018, as previously described 5 . Participants may enrol through All of Us - funded health care provider organizations or direct volunteer pathways and all biospecimens, including blood and saliva, are sent to the central All of Us Biobank for processing and storage. Genomics data for this release were generated from blood-derived DNA. The programme began return of actionable genomic results in December 2022. As of April 2023, approximately 51,000 individuals were sent notifications asking whether they wanted to view their results, and approximately half have accepted. Return continues on an ongoing basis.

The All of Us Data and Research Center maintains all participant information and biospecimen ID linkage to ensure that participant confidentiality and coded identifiers (participant and aliquot level) are used to track each sample through the All of Us genomics workflow. This workflow facilitates weekly automated aliquot and plating requests to the Biobank, supplies relevant metadata for the sample shipments to the Genome Centers, and contains a feedback loop to inform action on samples that fail QC at any stage. Further, the consent status of each participant is checked before sample shipment to confirm that they are still active. Although all participants with genomic data are consented for the same general research use category, the programme accommodates different preferences for the return of genomic data to participants and only data for those individuals who have consented for return of individual health-related DNA results are distributed to the All of Us Clinical Validation Labs for further evaluation and health-related clinical reporting. All participants in All of Us that choose to get health-related DNA results have the option to schedule a genetic counselling appointment to discuss their results. Individuals with positive findings who choose to obtain results are required to schedule an appointment with a genetic counsellor to receive those findings.

Genome sequencing

To satisfy the requirements for clinical accuracy, precision and consistency across DNA sample extraction and sequencing, the All of Us Genome Centers and Biobank harmonized laboratory protocols, established standard QC methodologies and metrics, and conducted a series of validation experiments using previously characterized clinical samples and commercially available reference standards 9 . Briefly, PCR-free barcoded WGS libraries were constructed with the Illumina Kapa HyperPrep kit. Libraries were pooled and sequenced on the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 instrument. After demultiplexing, initial QC analysis is performed with the Illumina DRAGEN pipeline (Supplementary Table 2 ) leveraging lane, library, flow cell, barcode and sample level metrics as well as assessing contamination, mapping quality and concordance to genotyping array data independently processed from a different aliquot of DNA. The Genome Centers use these metrics to determine whether each sample meets programme specifications and then submits sequencing data to the Data and Research Center for further QC, joint calling and distribution to the research community ( Methods ).

This effort to harmonize sequencing methods, multi-level QC and use of identical data processing protocols mitigated the variability in sequencing location and protocols that often leads to batch effects in large genomic datasets 9 . As a result, the data are not only of clinical-grade quality, but also consistent in coverage (≥30× mean) and uniformity across Genome Centers (Supplementary Figs. 1 – 5 ).

Joint calling and variant discovery

We carried out joint calling across the entire All of Us WGS dataset (Extended Data Fig. 2 ). Joint calling leverages information across samples to prune artefact variants, which increases sensitivity, and enables flagging samples with potential issues that were missed during single-sample QC 10 (Supplementary Table 3 ). Scaling conventional approaches to whole-genome joint calling beyond 50,000 individuals is a notable computational challenge 11 , 12 . To address this, we developed a new cloud variant storage solution, the Genomic Variant Store (GVS), which is based on a schema designed for querying and rendering variants in which the variants are stored in GVS and rendered to an analysable variant file, as opposed to the variant file being the primary storage mechanism (Code availability). We carried out QC on the joint call set on the basis of the approach developed for gnomAD 3.1 (ref.  13 ). This included flagging samples with outlying values in eight metrics (Supplementary Table 4 , Supplementary Fig. 2 and Methods ).

To calculate the sensitivity and precision of the joint call dataset, we included four well-characterized samples. We sequenced the National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials (DNA samples) from the Genome in a Bottle consortium 13 and carried out variant calling as described above. We used the corresponding published set of variant calls for each sample as the ground truth in our sensitivity and precision calculations 14 . The overall sensitivity for single-nucleotide variants was over 98.7% and precision was more than 99.9%. For short insertions or deletions, the sensitivity was over 97% and precision was more than 99.6% (Supplementary Table 5 and Methods ).

The joint call set included more than 1 billion genetic variants. We annotated the joint call dataset on the basis of functional annotation (for example, gene symbol and protein change) using Illumina Nirvana 15 . We defined coding variants as those inducing an amino acid change on a canonical ENSEMBL transcript and found 272,051,104 non-coding and 3,913,722 coding variants that have not been described previously in dbSNP 16 v153 (Extended Data Table 1 ). A total of 3,912,832 (99.98%) of the coding variants are rare (allelic frequency < 0.01) and the remaining 883 (0.02%) are common (allelic frequency > 0.01). Of the coding variants, 454 (0.01%) are common in one or more of the non-European computed ancestries in All of Us, rare among participants of European ancestry, and have an allelic number greater than 1,000 (Extended Data Table 2 and Extended Data Fig. 3 ). The distributions of pathogenic, or likely pathogenic, ClinVar variant counts per participant, stratified by computed ancestry, filtered to only those variants that are found in individuals with an allele count of <40 are shown in Extended Data Fig. 4 . The potential medical implications of these known and new variants with respect to variant pathogenicity by ancestry are highlighted in a companion paper 17 . In particular, we find that the European ancestry subset has the highest rate of pathogenic variation (2.1%), which was twice the rate of pathogenic variation in individuals of East Asian ancestry 17 .The lower frequency of variants in East Asian individuals may be partially explained by the fact the sample size in that group is small and there may be knowledge bias in the variant databases that is reducing the number of findings in some of the less-studied ancestry groups.

Genetic ancestry and relatedness

Genetic ancestry inference confirmed that 51.1% of the All of Us WGS dataset is derived from individuals of non-European ancestry. Briefly, the ancestry categories are based on the same labels used in gnomAD 18 . We trained a classifier on a 16-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) space of a diverse reference based on 3,202 samples and 151,159 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We projected the All of Us samples into the PCA space of the training data, based on the same single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the WGS data, and generated categorical ancestry predictions from the trained classifier ( Methods ). Continuous genetic ancestry fractions for All of Us samples were inferred using the same PCA data, and participants’ patterns of ancestry and admixture were compared to their self-identified race and ethnicity (Fig. 2 and Methods ). Continuous ancestry inference carried out using genome-wide genotypes yields highly concordant estimates.

figure 2

a , b , Uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) representations of All of Us WGS PCA data with self-described race ( a ) and ethnicity ( b ) labels. c , Proportion of genetic ancestry per individual in six distinct and coherent ancestry groups defined by Human Genome Diversity Project and 1000 Genomes samples.

Kinship estimation confirmed that All of Us WGS data consist largely of unrelated individuals with about 85% (215,107) having no first- or second-degree relatives in the dataset (Supplementary Fig. 6 ). As many genomic analyses leverage unrelated individuals, we identified the smallest set of samples that are required to be removed from the remaining individuals that had first- or second-degree relatives and retained one individual from each kindred. This procedure yielded a maximal independent set of 231,442 individuals (about 94%) with genome sequence data in the current release ( Methods ).

Genetic determinants of LDL-C

As a measure of data quality and utility, we carried out a single-variant genome-wide association study (GWAS) for LDL-C, a trait with well-established genomic architecture ( Methods ). Of the 245,388 WGS participants, 91,749 had one or more LDL-C measurements. The All of Us LDL-C GWAS identified 20 well-established genome-wide significant loci, with minimal genomic inflation (Fig. 3 , Extended Data Table 3 and Supplementary Fig. 7 ). We compared the results to those of a recent multi-ethnic LDL-C GWAS in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) TOPMed study that included 66,329 ancestrally diverse (56% non-European ancestry) individuals 19 . We found a strong correlation between the effect estimates for NHLBI TOPMed genome-wide significant loci and those of All of Us ( R 2  = 0.98, P  < 1.61 × 10 −45 ; Fig. 3 , inset). Notably, the per-locus effect sizes observed in All of Us are decreased compared to those in TOPMed, which is in part due to differences in the underlying statistical model, differences in the ancestral composition of these datasets and differences in laboratory value ascertainment between EHR-derived data and epidemiology studies. A companion manuscript extended this work to identify common and rare genetic associations for three diseases (atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes) and two quantitative traits (height and LDL-C) in the All of Us dataset and identified very high concordance with previous efforts across all of these diseases and traits 20 .

figure 3

Manhattan plot demonstrating robust replication of 20 well-established LDL-C genetic loci among 91,749 individuals with 1 or more LDL-C measurements. The red horizontal line denotes the genome wide significance threshold of P = 5 × 10 –8 . Inset, effect estimate ( β ) comparison between NHLBI TOPMed LDL-C GWAS ( x  axis) and All of Us LDL-C GWAS ( y  axis) for the subset of 194 independent variants clumped (window 250 kb, r2 0.5) that reached genome-wide significance in NHLBI TOPMed.

Genotype-by-phenotype associations

As another measure of data quality and utility, we tested replication rates of previously reported phenotype–genotype associations in the five predicted genetic ancestry populations present in the Phenotype/Genotype Reference Map (PGRM): AFR, African ancestry; AMR, Latino/admixed American ancestry; EAS, East Asian ancestry; EUR, European ancestry; SAS, South Asian ancestry. The PGRM contains published associations in the GWAS catalogue in these ancestry populations that map to International Classification of Diseases-based phenotype codes 21 . This replication study specifically looked across 4,947 variants, calculating replication rates for powered associations in each ancestry population. The overall replication rates for associations powered at 80% were: 72.0% (18/25) in AFR, 100% (13/13) in AMR, 46.6% (7/15) in EAS, 74.9% (1,064/1,421) in EUR, and 100% (1/1) in SAS. With the exception of the EAS ancestry results, these powered replication rates are comparable to those of the published PGRM analysis where the replication rates of several single-site EHR-linked biobanks ranges from 76% to 85%. These results demonstrate the utility of the data and also highlight opportunities for further work understanding the specifics of the All of Us population and the potential contribution of gene–environment interactions to genotype–phenotype mapping and motivates the development of methods for multi-site EHR phenotype data extraction, harmonization and genetic association studies.

More broadly, the All of Us resource highlights the opportunities to identify genotype–phenotype associations that differ across diverse populations 22 . For example, the Duffy blood group locus ( ACKR1 ) is more prevalent in individuals of AFR ancestry and individuals of AMR ancestry than in individuals of EUR ancestry. Although the phenome-wide association study of this locus highlights the well-established association of the Duffy blood group with lower white blood cell counts both in individuals of AFR and AMR ancestry 23 , 24 , it also revealed genetic-ancestry-specific phenotype patterns, with minimal phenotypic associations in individuals of EAS ancestry and individuals of EUR ancestry (Fig. 4 and Extended Data Table 4 ). Conversely, rs9273363 in the HLA-DQB1 locus is associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes 25 , 26 and diabetic complications across ancestries, but only associates with increased risk of coeliac disease in individuals of EUR ancestry (Extended Data Fig. 5 ). Similarly, the TCF7L2 locus 27 strongly associates with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and associated complications across several ancestries (Extended Data Fig. 6 ). Association testing results are available in Supplementary Dataset 1 .

figure 4

Results of genetic-ancestry-stratified phenome-wide association analysis among unrelated individuals highlighting ancestry-specific disease associations across the four most common genetic ancestries of participant. Bonferroni-adjusted phenome-wide significance threshold (<2.88 × 10 −5 ) is plotted as a red horizontal line. AFR ( n  = 34,037, minor allele fraction (MAF) 0.82); AMR ( n  = 28,901, MAF 0.10); EAS ( n  = 32,55, MAF 0.003); EUR ( n  = 101,613, MAF 0.007).

The cloud-based Researcher Workbench

All of Us genomic data are available in a secure, access-controlled cloud-based analysis environment: the All of Us Researcher Workbench. Unlike traditional data access models that require per-project approval, access in the Researcher Workbench is governed by a data passport model based on a researcher’s authenticated identity, institutional affiliation, and completion of self-service training and compliance attestation 28 . After gaining access, a researcher may create a new workspace at any time to conduct a study, provided that they comply with all Data Use Policies and self-declare their research purpose. This information is regularly audited and made accessible publicly on the All of Us Research Projects Directory. This streamlined access model is guided by the principles that: participants are research partners and maintaining their privacy and data security is paramount; their data should be made as accessible as possible for authorized researchers; and we should continually seek to remove unnecessary barriers to accessing and using All of Us data.

For researchers at institutions with an existing institutional data use agreement, access can be gained as soon as they complete the required verification and compliance steps. As of August 2023, 556 institutions have agreements in place, allowing more than 5,000 approved researchers to actively work on more than 4,400 projects. The median time for a researcher from initial registration to completion of these requirements is 28.6 h (10th percentile: 48 min, 90th percentile: 14.9 days), a fraction of the weeks to months it can take to assemble a project-specific application and have it reviewed by an access board with conventional access models.

Given that the size of the project’s phenotypic and genomic dataset is expected to reach 4.75 PB in 2023, the use of a central data store and cloud analysis tools will save funders an estimated US$16.5 million per year when compared to the typical approach of allowing researchers to download genomic data. Storing one copy per institution of this data at 556 registered institutions would cost about US$1.16 billion per year. By contrast, storing a central cloud copy costs about US$1.14 million per year, a 99.9% saving. Importantly, cloud infrastructure also democratizes data access particularly for researchers who do not have high-performance local compute resources.

Here we present the All of Us Research Program’s approach to generating diverse clinical-grade genomic data at an unprecedented scale. We present the data release of about 245,000 genome sequences as part of a scalable framework that will grow to include genetic information and health data for one million or more people living across the USA. Our observations permit several conclusions.

First, the All of Us programme is making a notable contribution to improving the study of human biology through purposeful inclusion of under-represented individuals at scale 29 , 30 . Of the participants with genomic data in All of Us, 45.92% self-identified as a non-European race or ethnicity. This diversity enabled identification of more than 275 million new genetic variants across the dataset not previously captured by other large-scale genome aggregation efforts with diverse participants that have submitted variation to dbSNP v153, such as NHLBI TOPMed 31 freeze 8 (Extended Data Table 1 ). In contrast to gnomAD, All of Us permits individual-level genotype access with detailed phenotype data for all participants. Furthermore, unlike many genomics resources, All of Us is uniformly consented for general research use and enables researchers to go from initial account creation to individual-level data access in as little as a few hours. The All of Us cohort is significantly more diverse than those of other large contemporary research studies generating WGS data 32 , 33 . This enables a more equitable future for precision medicine (for example, through constructing polygenic risk scores that are appropriately calibrated to diverse populations 34 , 35 as the eMERGE programme has done leveraging All of Us data 36 , 37 ). Developing new tools and regulatory frameworks to enable analyses across multiple biobanks in the cloud to harness the unique strengths of each is an active area of investigation addressed in a companion paper to this work 38 .

Second, the All of Us Researcher Workbench embodies the programme’s design philosophy of open science, reproducible research, equitable access and transparency to researchers and to research participants 26 . Importantly, for research studies, no group of data users should have privileged access to All of Us resources based on anything other than data protection criteria. Although the All of Us Researcher Workbench initially targeted onboarding US academic, health care and non-profit organizations, it has recently expanded to international researchers. We anticipate further genomic and phenotypic data releases at regular intervals with data available to all researcher communities. We also anticipate additional derived data and functionality to be made available, such as reference data, structural variants and a service for array imputation using the All of Us genomic data.

Third, All of Us enables studying human biology at an unprecedented scale. The programmatic goal of sequencing one million or more genomes has required harnessing the output of multiple sequencing centres. Previous work has focused on achieving functional equivalence in data processing and joint calling pipelines 39 . To achieve clinical-grade data equivalence, All of Us required protocol equivalence at both sequencing production level and data processing across the sequencing centres. Furthermore, previous work has demonstrated the value of joint calling at scale 10 , 18 . The new GVS framework developed by the All of Us programme enables joint calling at extreme scales (Code availability). Finally, the provision of data access through cloud-native tools enables scalable and secure access and analysis to researchers while simultaneously enabling the trust of research participants and transparency underlying the All of Us data passport access model.

The clinical-grade sequencing carried out by All of Us enables not only research, but also the return of value to participants through clinically relevant genetic results and health-related traits to those who opt-in to receiving this information. In the years ahead, we anticipate that this partnership with All of Us participants will enable researchers to move beyond large-scale genomic discovery to understanding the consequences of implementing genomic medicine at scale.

The All of Us cohort

All of Us aims to engage a longitudinal cohort of one million or more US participants, with a focus on including populations that have historically been under-represented in biomedical research. Details of the All of Us cohort have been described previously 5 . Briefly, the primary objective is to build a robust research resource that can facilitate the exploration of biological, clinical, social and environmental determinants of health and disease. The programme will collect and curate health-related data and biospecimens, and these data and biospecimens will be made broadly available for research uses. Health data are obtained through the electronic medical record and through participant surveys. Survey templates can be found on our public website: https://www.researchallofus.org/data-tools/survey-explorer/ . Adults 18 years and older who have the capacity to consent and reside in the USA or a US territory at present are eligible. Informed consent for all participants is conducted in person or through an eConsent platform that includes primary consent, HIPAA Authorization for Research use of EHRs and other external health data, and Consent for Return of Genomic Results. The protocol was reviewed by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the All of Us Research Program. The All of Us IRB follows the regulations and guidance of the NIH Office for Human Research Protections for all studies, ensuring that the rights and welfare of research participants are overseen and protected uniformly.

Data accessibility through a ‘data passport’

Authorization for access to participant-level data in All of Us is based on a ‘data passport’ model, through which authorized researchers do not need IRB review for each research project. The data passport is required for gaining data access to the Researcher Workbench and for creating workspaces to carry out research projects using All of Us data. At present, data passports are authorized through a six-step process that includes affiliation with an institution that has signed a Data Use and Registration Agreement, account creation, identity verification, completion of ethics training, and attestation to a data user code of conduct. Results reported follow the All of Us Data and Statistics Dissemination Policy disallowing disclosure of group counts under 20 to protect participant privacy without seeking prior approval 40 .

At present, All of Us gathers EHR data from about 50 health care organizations that are funded to recruit and enrol participants as well as transfer EHR data for those participants who have consented to provide them. Data stewards at each provider organization harmonize their local data to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model, and then submit it to the All of Us Data and Research Center (DRC) so that it can be linked with other participant data and further curated for research use. OMOP is a common data model standardizing health information from disparate EHRs to common vocabularies and organized into tables according to data domains. EHR data are updated from the recruitment sites and sent to the DRC quarterly. Updated data releases to the research community occur approximately once a year. Supplementary Table 6 outlines the OMOP concepts collected by the DRC quarterly from the recruitment sites.

Biospecimen collection and processing

Participants who consented to participate in All of Us donated fresh whole blood (4 ml EDTA and 10 ml EDTA) as a primary source of DNA. The All of Us Biobank managed by the Mayo Clinic extracted DNA from 4 ml EDTA whole blood, and DNA was stored at −80 °C at an average concentration of 150 ng µl −1 . The buffy coat isolated from 10 ml EDTA whole blood has been used for extracting DNA in the case of initial extraction failure or absence of 4 ml EDTA whole blood. The Biobank plated 2.4 µg DNA with a concentration of 60 ng µl −1 in duplicate for array and WGS samples. The samples are distributed to All of Us Genome Centers weekly, and a negative (empty well) control and National Institute of Standards and Technology controls are incorporated every two months for QC purposes.

Genome Center sample receipt, accession and QC

On receipt of DNA sample shipments, the All of Us Genome Centers carry out an inspection of the packaging and sample containers to ensure that sample integrity has not been compromised during transport and to verify that the sample containers correspond to the shipping manifest. QC of the submitted samples also includes DNA quantification, using routine procedures to confirm volume and concentration (Supplementary Table 7 ). Any issues or discrepancies are recorded, and affected samples are put on hold until resolved. Samples that meet quality thresholds are accessioned in the Laboratory Information Management System, and sample aliquots are prepared for library construction processing (for example, normalized with respect to concentration and volume).

WGS library construction, sequencing and primary data QC

The DNA sample is first sheared using a Covaris sonicator and is then size-selected using AMPure XP beads to restrict the range of library insert sizes. Using the PCR Free Kapa HyperPrep library construction kit, enzymatic steps are completed to repair the jagged ends of DNA fragments, add proper A-base segments, and ligate indexed adapter barcode sequences onto samples. Excess adaptors are removed using AMPure XP beads for a final clean-up. Libraries are quantified using quantitative PCR with the Illumina Kapa DNA Quantification Kit and then normalized and pooled for sequencing (Supplementary Table 7 ).

Pooled libraries are loaded on the Illumina NovaSeq 6000 instrument. The data from the initial sequencing run are used to QC individual libraries and to remove non-conforming samples from the pipeline. The data are also used to calibrate the pooling volume of each individual library and re-pool the libraries for additional NovaSeq sequencing to reach an average coverage of 30×.

After demultiplexing, WGS analysis occurs on the Illumina DRAGEN platform. The DRAGEN pipeline consists of highly optimized algorithms for mapping, aligning, sorting, duplicate marking and haplotype variant calling and makes use of platform features such as compression and BCL conversion. Alignment uses the GRCh38dh reference genome. QC data are collected at every stage of the analysis protocol, providing high-resolution metrics required to ensure data consistency for large-scale multiplexing. The DRAGEN pipeline produces a large number of metrics that cover lane, library, flow cell, barcode and sample-level metrics for all runs as well as assessing contamination and mapping quality. The All of Us Genome Centers use these metrics to determine pass or fail for each sample before submitting the CRAM files to the All of Us DRC. For mapping and variant calling, all Genome Centers have harmonized on a set of DRAGEN parameters, which ensures consistency in processing (Supplementary Table 2 ).

Every step through the WGS procedure is rigorously controlled by predefined QC measures. Various control mechanisms and acceptance criteria were established during WGS assay validation. Specific metrics for reviewing and releasing genome data are: mean coverage (threshold of ≥30×), genome coverage (threshold of ≥90% at 20×), coverage of hereditary disease risk genes (threshold of ≥95% at 20×), aligned Q30 bases (threshold of ≥8 × 10 10 ), contamination (threshold of ≤1%) and concordance to independently processed array data.

Array genotyping

Samples are processed for genotyping at three All of Us Genome Centers (Broad, Johns Hopkins University and University of Washington). DNA samples are received from the Biobank and the process is facilitated by the All of Us genomics workflow described above. All three centres used an identical array product, scanners, resource files and genotype calling software for array processing to reduce batch effects. Each centre has its own Laboratory Information Management System that manages workflow control, sample and reagent tracking, and centre-specific liquid handling robotics.

Samples are processed using the Illumina Global Diversity Array (GDA) with Illumina Infinium LCG chemistry using the automated protocol and scanned on Illumina iSCANs with Automated Array Loaders. Illumina IAAP software converts raw data (IDAT files; 2 per sample) into a single GTC file per sample using the BPM file (defines strand, probe sequences and illumicode address) and the EGT file (defines the relationship between intensities and genotype calls). Files used for this data release are: GDA-8v1-0_A5.bpm, GDA-8v1-0_A1_ClusterFile.egt, gentrain v3, reference hg19 and gencall cutoff 0.15. The GDA array assays a total of 1,914,935 variant positions including 1,790,654 single-nucleotide variants, 44,172 indels, 9,935 intensity-only probes for CNV calling, and 70,174 duplicates (same position, different probes). Picard GtcToVcf is used to convert the GTC files to VCF format. Resulting VCF and IDAT files are submitted to the DRC for ingestion and further processing. The VCF file contains assay name, chromosome, position, genotype calls, quality score, raw and normalized intensities, B allele frequency and log R ratio values. Each genome centre is running the GDA array under Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-compliant protocols. The GTC files are parsed and metrics are uploaded to in-house Laboratory Information Management System systems for QC review.

At batch level (each set of 96-well plates run together in the laboratory at one time), each genome centre includes positive control samples that are required to have >98% call rate and >99% concordance to existing data to approve release of the batch of data. At the sample level, the call rate and sex are the key QC determinants 41 . Contamination is also measured using BAFRegress 42 and reported out as metadata. Any sample with a call rate below 98% is repeated one time in the laboratory. Genotyped sex is determined by plotting normalized x versus normalized y intensity values for a batch of samples. Any sample discordant with ‘sex at birth’ reported by the All of Us participant is flagged for further detailed review and repeated one time in the laboratory. If several sex-discordant samples are clustered on an array or on a 96-well plate, the entire array or plate will have data production repeated. Samples identified with sex chromosome aneuploidies are also reported back as metadata (XXX, XXY, XYY and so on). A final processing status of ‘pass’, ‘fail’ or ‘abandon’ is determined before release of data to the All of Us DRC. An array sample will pass if the call rate is >98% and the genotyped sex and sex at birth are concordant (or the sex at birth is not applicable). An array sample will fail if the genotyped sex and the sex at birth are discordant. An array sample will have the status of abandon if the call rate is <98% after at least two attempts at the genome centre.

Data from the arrays are used for participant return of genetic ancestry and non-health-related traits for those who consent, and they are also used to facilitate additional QC of the matched WGS data. Contamination is assessed in the array data to determine whether DNA re-extraction is required before WGS. Re-extraction is prompted by level of contamination combined with consent status for return of results. The arrays are also used to confirm sample identity between the WGS data and the matched array data by assessing concordance at 100 unique sites. To establish concordance, a fingerprint file of these 100 sites is provided to the Genome Centers to assess concordance with the same sites in the WGS data before CRAM submission.

Genomic data curation

As seen in Extended Data Fig. 2 , we generate a joint call set for all WGS samples and make these data available in their entirety and by sample subsets to researchers. A breakdown of the frequencies, stratified by computed ancestries for which we had more than 10,000 participants can be found in Extended Data Fig. 3 . The joint call set process allows us to leverage information across samples to improve QC and increase accuracy.

Single-sample QC

If a sample fails single-sample QC, it is excluded from the release and is not reported in this document. These tests detect sample swaps, cross-individual contamination and sample preparation errors. In some cases, we carry out these tests twice (at both the Genome Center and the DRC), for two reasons: to confirm internal consistency between sites; and to mark samples as passing (or failing) QC on the basis of the research pipeline criteria. The single-sample QC process accepts a higher contamination rate than the clinical pipeline (0.03 for the research pipeline versus 0.01 for the clinical pipeline), but otherwise uses identical thresholds. The list of specific QC processes, passing criteria, error modes addressed and an overview of the results can be found in Supplementary Table 3 .

Joint call set QC

During joint calling, we carry out additional QC steps using information that is available across samples including hard thresholds, population outliers, allele-specific filters, and sensitivity and precision evaluation. Supplementary Table 4 summarizes both the steps that we took and the results obtained for the WGS data. More detailed information about the methods and specific parameters can be found in the All of Us Genomic Research Data Quality Report 36 .

Batch effect analysis

We analysed cross-sequencing centre batch effects in the joint call set. To quantify the batch effect, we calculated Cohen’s d (ref.  43 ) for four metrics (insertion/deletion ratio, single-nucleotide polymorphism count, indel count and single-nucleotide polymorphism transition/transversion ratio) across the three genome sequencing centres (Baylor College of Medicine, Broad Institute and University of Washington), stratified by computed ancestry and seven regions of the genome (whole genome, high-confidence calling, repetitive, GC content of >0.85, GC content of <0.15, low mappability, the ACMG59 genes and regions of large duplications (>1 kb)). Using random batches as a control set, all comparisons had a Cohen’s d of <0.35. Here we report any Cohen’s d results >0.5, which we chose before this analysis and is conventionally the threshold of a medium effect size 44 .

We found that there was an effect size in indel counts (Cohen’s d of 0.53) in the entire genome, between Broad Institute and University of Washington, but this was being driven by repetitive and low-mappability regions. We found no batch effects with Cohen’s d of >0.5 in the ratio metrics or in any metrics in the high-confidence calling, low or high GC content, or ACMG59 regions. A complete list of the batch effects with Cohen’s d of >0.5 are found in Supplementary Table 8 .

Sensitivity and precision evaluation

To determine sensitivity and precision, we included four well-characterized control samples (four National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle samples (HG-001, HG-003, HG-004 and HG-005). The samples were sequenced with the same protocol as All of Us. Of note, these samples were not included in data released to researchers. We used the corresponding published set of variant calls for each sample as the ground truth in our sensitivity and precision calculations. We use the high-confidence calling region, defined by Genome in a Bottle v4.2.1, as the source of ground truth. To be called a true positive, a variant must match the chromosome, position, reference allele, alternate allele and zygosity. In cases of sites with multiple alternative alleles, each alternative allele is considered separately. Sensitivity and precision results are reported in Supplementary Table 5 .

Genetic ancestry inference

We computed categorical ancestry for all WGS samples in All of Us and made these available to researchers. These predictions are also the basis for population allele frequency calculations in the Genomic Variants section of the public Data Browser. We used the high-quality set of sites to determine an ancestry label for each sample. The ancestry categories are based on the same labels used in gnomAD 18 , the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) 45 and 1000 Genomes 1 : African (AFR); Latino/admixed American (AMR); East Asian (EAS); Middle Eastern (MID); European (EUR), composed of Finnish (FIN) and Non-Finnish European (NFE); Other (OTH), not belonging to one of the other ancestries or is an admixture; South Asian (SAS).

We trained a random forest classifier 46 on a training set of the HGDP and 1000 Genomes samples variants on the autosome, obtained from gnomAD 11 . We generated the first 16 principal components (PCs) of the training sample genotypes (using the hwe_normalized_pca in Hail) at the high-quality variant sites for use as the feature vector for each training sample. We used the truth labels from the sample metadata, which can be found alongside the VCFs. Note that we do not train the classifier on the samples labelled as Other. We use the label probabilities (‘confidence’) of the classifier on the other ancestries to determine ancestry of Other.

To determine the ancestry of All of Us samples, we project the All of Us samples into the PCA space of the training data and apply the classifier. As a proxy for the accuracy of our All of Us predictions, we look at the concordance between the survey results and the predicted ancestry. The concordance between self-reported ethnicity and the ancestry predictions was 87.7%.

PC data from All of Us samples and the HGDP and 1000 Genomes samples were used to compute individual participant genetic ancestry fractions for All of Us samples using the Rye program. Rye uses PC data to carry out rapid and accurate genetic ancestry inference on biobank-scale datasets 47 . HGDP and 1000 Genomes reference samples were used to define a set of six distinct and coherent ancestry groups—African, East Asian, European, Middle Eastern, Latino/admixed American and South Asian—corresponding to participant self-identified race and ethnicity groups. Rye was run on the first 16 PCs, using the defined reference ancestry groups to assign ancestry group fractions to individual All of Us participant samples.


We calculated the kinship score using the Hail pc_relate function and reported any pairs with a kinship score above 0.1. The kinship score is half of the fraction of the genetic material shared (ranges from 0.0 to 0.5). We determined the maximal independent set 41 for related samples. We identified a maximally unrelated set of 231,442 samples (94%) for kinship scored greater than 0.1.

LDL-C common variant GWAS

The phenotypic data were extracted from the Curated Data Repository (CDR, Control Tier Dataset v7) in the All of Us Researcher Workbench. The All of Us Cohort Builder and Dataset Builder were used to extract all LDL cholesterol measurements from the Lab and Measurements criteria in EHR data for all participants who have WGS data. The most recent measurements were selected as the phenotype and adjusted for statin use 19 , age and sex. A rank-based inverse normal transformation was applied for this continuous trait to increase power and deflate type I error. Analysis was carried out on the Hail MatrixTable representation of the All of Us WGS joint-called data including removing monomorphic variants, variants with a call rate of <95% and variants with extreme Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium values ( P  < 10 −15 ). A linear regression was carried out with REGENIE 48 on variants with a minor allele frequency >5%, further adjusting for relatedness to the first five ancestry PCs. The final analysis included 34,924 participants and 8,589,520 variants.

Genotype-by-phenotype replication

We tested replication rates of known phenotype–genotype associations in three of the four largest populations: EUR, AFR and EAS. The AMR population was not included because they have no registered GWAS. This method is a conceptual extension of the original GWAS × phenome-wide association study, which replicated 66% of powered associations in a single EHR-linked biobank 49 . The PGRM is an expansion of this work by Bastarache et al., based on associations in the GWAS catalogue 50 in June 2020 (ref.  51 ). After directly matching the Experimental Factor Ontology terms to phecodes, the authors identified 8,085 unique loci and 170 unique phecodes that compose the PGRM. They showed replication rates in several EHR-linked biobanks ranging from 76% to 85%. For this analysis, we used the EUR-, and AFR-based maps, considering only catalogue associations that were P  < 5 × 10 −8 significant.

The main tools used were the Python package Hail for data extraction, plink for genomic associations, and the R packages PheWAS and pgrm for further analysis and visualization. The phenotypes, participant-reported sex at birth, and year of birth were extracted from the All of Us CDR (Controlled Tier Dataset v7). These phenotypes were then loaded into a plink-compatible format using the PheWAS package, and related samples were removed by sub-setting to the maximally unrelated dataset ( n  = 231,442). Only samples with EHR data were kept, filtered by selected loci, annotated with demographic and phenotypic information extracted from the CDR and ancestry prediction information provided by All of Us, ultimately resulting in 181,345 participants for downstream analysis. The variants in the PGRM were filtered by a minimum population-specific allele frequency of >1% or population-specific allele count of >100, leaving 4,986 variants. Results for which there were at least 20 cases in the ancestry group were included. Then, a series of Firth logistic regression tests with phecodes as the outcome and variants as the predictor were carried out, adjusting for age, sex (for non-sex-specific phenotypes) and the first three genomic PC features as covariates. The PGRM was annotated with power calculations based on the case counts and reported allele frequencies. Power of 80% or greater was considered powered for this analysis.

Reporting summary

Further information on research design is available in the  Nature Portfolio Reporting Summary linked to this article.

Data availability

The All of Us Research Hub has a tiered data access data passport model with three data access tiers. The Public Tier dataset contains only aggregate data with identifiers removed. These data are available to the public through Data Snapshots ( https://www.researchallofus.org/data-tools/data-snapshots/ ) and the public Data Browser ( https://databrowser.researchallofus.org/ ). The Registered Tier curated dataset contains individual-level data, available only to approved researchers on the Researcher Workbench. At present, the Registered Tier includes data from EHRs, wearables and surveys, as well as physical measurements taken at the time of participant enrolment. The Controlled Tier dataset contains all data in the Registered Tier and additionally genomic data in the form of WGS and genotyping arrays, previously suppressed demographic data fields from EHRs and surveys, and unshifted dates of events. At present, Registered Tier and Controlled Tier data are available to researchers at academic institutions, non-profit institutions, and both non-profit and for-profit health care institutions. Work is underway to begin extending access to additional audiences, including industry-affiliated researchers. Researchers have the option to register for Registered Tier and/or Controlled Tier access by completing the All of Us Researcher Workbench access process, which includes identity verification and All of Us-specific training in research involving human participants ( https://www.researchallofus.org/register/ ). Researchers may create a new workspace at any time to conduct any research study, provided that they comply with all Data Use Policies and self-declare their research purpose. This information is made accessible publicly on the All of Us Research Projects Directory at https://allofus.nih.gov/protecting-data-and-privacy/research-projects-all-us-data .

Code availability

The GVS code is available at https://github.com/broadinstitute/gatk/tree/ah_var_store/scripts/variantstore . The LDL GWAS pipeline is available as a demonstration project in the Featured Workspace Library on the Researcher Workbench ( https://workbench.researchallofus.org/workspaces/aou-rw-5981f9dc/aouldlgwasregeniedsubctv6duplicate/notebooks ).

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The All of Us Research Program is supported by the National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director: Regional Medical Centers (OT2 OD026549; OT2 OD026554; OT2 OD026557; OT2 OD026556; OT2 OD026550; OT2 OD 026552; OT2 OD026553; OT2 OD026548; OT2 OD026551; OT2 OD026555); Inter agency agreement AOD 16037; Federally Qualified Health Centers HHSN 263201600085U; Data and Research Center: U2C OD023196; Genome Centers (OT2 OD002748; OT2 OD002750; OT2 OD002751); Biobank: U24 OD023121; The Participant Center: U24 OD023176; Participant Technology Systems Center: U24 OD023163; Communications and Engagement: OT2 OD023205; OT2 OD023206; and Community Partners (OT2 OD025277; OT2 OD025315; OT2 OD025337; OT2 OD025276). In addition, the All of Us Research Program would not be possible without the partnership of its participants. All of Us and the All of Us logo are service marks of the US Department of Health and Human Services. E.E.E. is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. We acknowledge the foundational contributions of our friend and colleague, the late Deborah A. Nickerson. Debbie’s years of insightful contributions throughout the formation of the All of Us genomics programme are permanently imprinted, and she shares credit for all of the successes of this programme.

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA

Alexander G. Bick & Henry R. Condon

Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Ginger A. Metcalf, Eric Boerwinkle, Richard A. Gibbs, Donna M. Muzny, Eric Venner, Kimberly Walker, Jianhong Hu, Harsha Doddapaneni, Christie L. Kovar, Mullai Murugan, Shannon Dugan, Ziad Khan & Eric Boerwinkle

Vanderbilt Institute of Clinical and Translational Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA

Kelsey R. Mayo, Jodell E. Linder, Melissa Basford, Ashley Able, Ashley E. Green, Robert J. Carroll, Jennifer Zhang & Yuanyuan Wang

Data Sciences Platform, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA

Lee Lichtenstein, Anthony Philippakis, Sophie Schwartz, M. Morgan T. Aster, Kristian Cibulskis, Andrea Haessly, Rebecca Asch, Aurora Cremer, Kylee Degatano, Akum Shergill, Laura D. Gauthier, Samuel K. Lee, Aaron Hatcher, George B. Grant, Genevieve R. Brandt, Miguel Covarrubias, Eric Banks & Wail Baalawi

Verily, South San Francisco, CA, USA

Shimon Rura, David Glazer, Moira K. Dillon & C. H. Albach

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA

Robert J. Carroll, Paul A. Harris & Dan M. Roden

All of Us Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

Anjene Musick, Andrea H. Ramirez, Sokny Lim, Siddhartha Nambiar, Bradley Ozenberger, Anastasia L. Wise, Chris Lunt, Geoffrey S. Ginsburg & Joshua C. Denny

School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA

I. King Jordan, Shashwat Deepali Nagar & Shivam Sharma

Neuroscience Institute, Institute of Translational Genomic Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

Robert Meller

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Mine S. Cicek, Stephen N. Thibodeau & Mine S. Cicek

Department of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Kimberly F. Doheny, Michelle Z. Mawhinney, Sean M. L. Griffith, Elvin Hsu, Hua Ling & Marcia K. Adams

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA

Evan E. Eichler, Joshua D. Smith, Christian D. Frazar, Colleen P. Davis, Karynne E. Patterson, Marsha M. Wheeler, Sean McGee, Mitzi L. Murray, Valeria Vasta, Dru Leistritz, Matthew A. Richardson, Aparna Radhakrishnan & Brenna W. Ehmen

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Evan E. Eichler

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA

Stacey Gabriel, Heidi L. Rehm, Niall J. Lennon, Christina Austin-Tse, Eric Banks, Michael Gatzen, Namrata Gupta, Katie Larsson, Sheli McDonough, Steven M. Harrison, Christopher Kachulis, Matthew S. Lebo, Seung Hoan Choi & Xin Wang

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA

Gail P. Jarvik & Elisabeth A. Rosenthal

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA

Dan M. Roden

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA

Center for Individualized Medicine, Biorepository Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Stephen N. Thibodeau, Ashley L. Blegen, Samantha J. Wirkus, Victoria A. Wagner, Jeffrey G. Meyer & Mine S. Cicek

Color Health, Burlingame, CA, USA

Scott Topper, Cynthia L. Neben, Marcie Steeves & Alicia Y. Zhou

School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA

Eric Boerwinkle

Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Massachusetts General Brigham Personalized Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA

Christina Austin-Tse, Emma Henricks & Matthew S. Lebo

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA

Christina M. Lockwood, Brian H. Shirts, Colin C. Pritchard, Jillian G. Buchan & Niklas Krumm

Manuscript Writing Group

  • Alexander G. Bick
  • , Ginger A. Metcalf
  • , Kelsey R. Mayo
  • , Lee Lichtenstein
  • , Shimon Rura
  • , Robert J. Carroll
  • , Anjene Musick
  • , Jodell E. Linder
  • , I. King Jordan
  • , Shashwat Deepali Nagar
  • , Shivam Sharma
  •  & Robert Meller

All of Us Research Program Genomics Principal Investigators

  • Melissa Basford
  • , Eric Boerwinkle
  • , Mine S. Cicek
  • , Kimberly F. Doheny
  • , Evan E. Eichler
  • , Stacey Gabriel
  • , Richard A. Gibbs
  • , David Glazer
  • , Paul A. Harris
  • , Gail P. Jarvik
  • , Anthony Philippakis
  • , Heidi L. Rehm
  • , Dan M. Roden
  • , Stephen N. Thibodeau
  •  & Scott Topper

Biobank, Mayo

  • Ashley L. Blegen
  • , Samantha J. Wirkus
  • , Victoria A. Wagner
  • , Jeffrey G. Meyer
  •  & Stephen N. Thibodeau

Genome Center: Baylor-Hopkins Clinical Genome Center

  • Donna M. Muzny
  • , Eric Venner
  • , Michelle Z. Mawhinney
  • , Sean M. L. Griffith
  • , Elvin Hsu
  • , Marcia K. Adams
  • , Kimberly Walker
  • , Jianhong Hu
  • , Harsha Doddapaneni
  • , Christie L. Kovar
  • , Mullai Murugan
  • , Shannon Dugan
  • , Ziad Khan
  •  & Richard A. Gibbs

Genome Center: Broad, Color, and Mass General Brigham Laboratory for Molecular Medicine

  • Niall J. Lennon
  • , Christina Austin-Tse
  • , Eric Banks
  • , Michael Gatzen
  • , Namrata Gupta
  • , Emma Henricks
  • , Katie Larsson
  • , Sheli McDonough
  • , Steven M. Harrison
  • , Christopher Kachulis
  • , Matthew S. Lebo
  • , Cynthia L. Neben
  • , Marcie Steeves
  • , Alicia Y. Zhou
  • , Scott Topper
  •  & Stacey Gabriel

Genome Center: University of Washington

  • Gail P. Jarvik
  • , Joshua D. Smith
  • , Christian D. Frazar
  • , Colleen P. Davis
  • , Karynne E. Patterson
  • , Marsha M. Wheeler
  • , Sean McGee
  • , Christina M. Lockwood
  • , Brian H. Shirts
  • , Colin C. Pritchard
  • , Mitzi L. Murray
  • , Valeria Vasta
  • , Dru Leistritz
  • , Matthew A. Richardson
  • , Jillian G. Buchan
  • , Aparna Radhakrishnan
  • , Niklas Krumm
  •  & Brenna W. Ehmen

Data and Research Center

  • Lee Lichtenstein
  • , Sophie Schwartz
  • , M. Morgan T. Aster
  • , Kristian Cibulskis
  • , Andrea Haessly
  • , Rebecca Asch
  • , Aurora Cremer
  • , Kylee Degatano
  • , Akum Shergill
  • , Laura D. Gauthier
  • , Samuel K. Lee
  • , Aaron Hatcher
  • , George B. Grant
  • , Genevieve R. Brandt
  • , Miguel Covarrubias
  • , Melissa Basford
  • , Alexander G. Bick
  • , Ashley Able
  • , Ashley E. Green
  • , Jennifer Zhang
  • , Henry R. Condon
  • , Yuanyuan Wang
  • , Moira K. Dillon
  • , C. H. Albach
  • , Wail Baalawi
  •  & Dan M. Roden

All of Us Research Demonstration Project Teams

  • Seung Hoan Choi
  • , Elisabeth A. Rosenthal

NIH All of Us Research Program Staff

  • Andrea H. Ramirez
  • , Sokny Lim
  • , Siddhartha Nambiar
  • , Bradley Ozenberger
  • , Anastasia L. Wise
  • , Chris Lunt
  • , Geoffrey S. Ginsburg
  •  & Joshua C. Denny


The All of Us Biobank (Mayo Clinic) collected, stored and plated participant biospecimens. The All of Us Genome Centers (Baylor-Hopkins Clinical Genome Center; Broad, Color, and Mass General Brigham Laboratory for Molecular Medicine; and University of Washington School of Medicine) generated and QCed the whole-genomic data. The All of Us Data and Research Center (Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Verily) generated the WGS joint call set, carried out quality assurance and QC analyses and developed the Researcher Workbench. All of Us Research Demonstration Project Teams contributed analyses. The other All of Us Genomics Investigators and NIH All of Us Research Program Staff provided crucial programmatic support. Members of the manuscript writing group (A.G.B., G.A.M., K.R.M., L.L., S.R., R.J.C. and A.M.) wrote the first draft of this manuscript, which was revised with contributions and feedback from all authors.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexander G. Bick .

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Competing interests.

D.M.M., G.A.M., E.V., K.W., J.H., H.D., C.L.K., M.M., S.D., Z.K., E. Boerwinkle and R.A.G. declare that Baylor Genetics is a Baylor College of Medicine affiliate that derives revenue from genetic testing. Eric Venner is affiliated with Codified Genomics, a provider of genetic interpretation. E.E.E. is a scientific advisory board member of Variant Bio, Inc. A.G.B. is a scientific advisory board member of TenSixteen Bio. The remaining authors declare no competing interests.

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Nature thanks Timothy Frayling and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Extended data figures and tables

Extended data fig. 1 historic availability of ehr records in all of us v7 controlled tier curated data repository (n = 413,457)..

For better visibility, the plot shows growth starting in 2010.

Extended Data Fig. 2 Overview of the Genomic Data Curation Pipeline for WGS samples.

The Data and Research Center (DRC) performs additional single sample quality control (QC) on the data as it arrives from the Genome Centers. The variants from samples that pass this QC are loaded into the Genomic Variant Store (GVS), where we jointly call the variants and apply additional QC. We apply a joint call set QC process, which is stored with the call set. The entire joint call set is rendered as a Hail Variant Dataset (VDS), which can be accessed from the analysis notebooks in the Researcher Workbench. Subsections of the genome are extracted from the VDS and rendered in different formats with all participants. Auxiliary data can also be accessed through the Researcher Workbench. This includes variant functional annotations, joint call set QC results, predicted ancestry, and relatedness. Auxiliary data are derived from GVS (arrow not shown) and the VDS. The Cohort Builder directly queries GVS when researchers request genomic data for subsets of samples. Aligned reads, as cram files, are available in the Researcher Workbench (not shown). The graphics of the dish, gene and computer and the All of Us logo are reproduced with permission of the National Institutes of Health’s All of Us Research Program.

Extended Data Fig. 3 Proportion of allelic frequencies (AF), stratified by computed ancestry with over 10,000 participants.

Bar counts are not cumulative (eg, “pop AF < 0.01” does not include “pop AF < 0.001”).

Extended Data Fig. 4 Distribution of pathogenic, and likely pathogenic ClinVar variants.

Stratified by ancestry filtered to only those variants that are found in allele count (AC) < 40 individuals for 245,388 short read WGS samples.

Extended Data Fig. 5 Ancestry specific HLA-DQB1 ( rs9273363 ) locus associations in 231,442 unrelated individuals.

Phenome-wide (PheWAS) associations highlight ancestry specific consequences across ancestries.

Extended Data Fig. 6 Ancestry specific TCF7L2 ( rs7903146 ) locus associations in 231,442 unrelated individuals.

Phenome-wide (PheWAS) associations highlight diabetic consequences across ancestries.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information.

Supplementary Figs. 1–7, Tables 1–8 and Note.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary dataset 1.

Associations of ACKR1, HLA-DQB1 and TCF7L2 loci with all Phecodes stratified by genetic ancestry.

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The All of Us Research Program Genomics Investigators. Genomic data in the All of Us Research Program. Nature (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06957-x

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Received : 22 July 2022

Accepted : 08 December 2023

Published : 19 February 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06957-x

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essay on the improvement of time


  1. Self Improvement Essay The Best Self Improvement Essay Samples And

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    An essay on the improvement of time by Foster, John, 1770-1843; Ryland, J. E. (Jonathan Edwards), 1798-1866. ed. Publication date 1864 Topics Conduct of life Publisher New York, R. Carter & brithers Collection michigan_books; americana Contributor University of Michigan Language English. Addeddate

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  3. An Essay on the Improvement of Time

    An Essay on the Improvement of Time. John Foster, J. E. (Jonathan Edwards) Ryland. Creative Media Partners, LLC, Sep 9, 2021 - Philosophy - 268 pages. This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it.

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    An Essay on the Improvement of Time John Foster , 1866 - Conduct of life Preview this book » Selected pages Title Page Table of Contents Contents EDITORS PREFACE 7 Introduction 29 Part the First...

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    An essay on the improvement of time by John Foster, 1886, G. Bell and sons edition, in English

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    English Publisher Wentworth Press Publication date February 23, 2019 Dimensions 6.14 x 0.55 x 9.21 inches

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    An essay on the improvement of time. By John Foster by Foster, John - ISBN 10: 1425592430 - ISBN 13: 9781425592431 - Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library - 2007 - Softcover

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    3. Time is Money by Supriya. "Knowing how precious time is, we should never waste time, but make good use of it.". Supriya's essay is straightforward. After claiming that someone's success depends on how they use their time, she gives an example of a student who studied well and passed an exam quickly.

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    All Editions of An Essay on the Improvement of Time . 2019, Trade paperback. ISBN-13: 9780469497719. 2019, Hardcover. ISBN-13: 9780469497726. 2009, Hardcover. ISBN-13: 9781103098705. 2009, Trade paperback. ISBN-13: 9781103098682. Books by John Foster. Dinosaur Rap W CD Starting at $1.36.

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    An edition of An essay on the improvement of time (1886) An essay on the improvement of time with notes of sermons, and other pieces by John Foster. 0 Ratings 0 Want to read; 0 Currently reading; 0 Have read; Share.

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    100 Words Essay on Value of Time. The most valuable resource in a person's life is time, which should never be wasted in any way. One will be more successful if one recognises the value of time. Time is often said to be more important than money. This is said because you can regain the money you spent but cannot regain time.

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    An Essay on the Improvement of Time. John Foster. HardPress, May 11, 2020 - 276 pages. 0 Reviews. Reviews aren't verified, but Google checks for and removes fake content when it's identified. This is a reproduction of the original artefact. Generally these books are created from careful scans of the original. This allows us to preserve the book ...

  19. Essay on Time Management for Students

    This is effectively a method of benchmarking progress. So, every time the activity is performed, one can measure themselves and improve upon various aspects of their tasks.The clear conclusion is that time management is a crucial skill for students and working professionals. Thus, everyone must practise time management to improve productivity ...

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    None of these case studies are perfectly transposable to the United States context in 2024 and 2025. Indeed, a common theme of many of the essays is the crucial role played by supportive timing. As Omarova shows, the US lost its Reconstruction Finance Corporation at just the time the model transposed to Germany.

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  22. [2402.09171] Automated Unit Test Improvement using Large Language

    Automated Unit Test Improvement using Large Language Models at Meta. This paper describes Meta's TestGen-LLM tool, which uses LLMs to automatically improve existing human-written tests. TestGen-LLM verifies that its generated test classes successfully clear a set of filters that assure measurable improvement over the original test suite ...

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    [email protected]. This panel will consider how neoliberalism shifts conceptions of time and temporality, especially in how they relate to aesthetics. We invite papers that engage critically with contemporary works of art and literature to ask how they represent time, and/or how shifting conceptions of time and temporality relate to aesthetic ...

  25. Money Was a Trap in My Marriage and Freedom After My Divorce

    This line of questioning was not unfamiliar. In the aftermath of my divorce, a lot of women asked me how I'd done it, and at this party, flushed from wine myself, I told her honestly that I was ...

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    This clue has a question mark at the end, though, so we can't take it at face value. Someone may act bullish if they SNORT like a bull. 56D. "Howard or Spelman: Abbr." solves to HBCU, which ...

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    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around ...

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    Adam Wagner orders us to enunciate. 42A. Of all the instances in which the name ADRIAN has appeared as an entry in the Times Crossword, this is the first time it has been associated with "ADRIAN ...

  29. Genomic data in the All of Us Research Program

    A study describes the release of clinical-grade whole-genome sequence data for 245,388 diverse participants by the All of Us Research Program and characterizes the properties of the dataset.