Natural Disasters Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on natural disasters.

A Natural disaster is an unforeseen occurrence of an event that causes harm to society. There are many Natural disasters that damage the environment and the people living in it. Some of them are earthquakes , cyclones, floods, Tsunami , landslides, volcanic eruption, and avalanches. Spatial extent measures the degree or severity of the disaster.

Essay on natural disaster

Levels of Disaster

The severity or degree of damage can be further divided into three categories:

Small Scale Disasters: Small scale disasters are those that extend from 50 Kms. to 100 Kms. So this kind of disasters does not cause much damage.

Medium-scale disasters: Medium Scale disasters extend from 100 Kms to 500 Kms. These cause more damage than a small scale disaster. Moreover, they can cause greater damage if they occur in colonial states.

Large Scale Disasters: These disasters cover an area of more than 1000 Kms. These cause the most severe damage to the environment. Furthermore, these disasters can even take over a country if the degree is high. For instance, the wiping out of the dinosaurs was because of a large scale natural disaster.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Types of Disasters

essay about natural disaster

Causes: These can cause of releasing of the energy. This release is from the core of the earth. Furthermore, the release of energy causes seismic waves. Rupturing of geological faults causes earthquakes. But other events like volcanic eruptions, landslides mine blasts can also cause it.

Landslides: Landslides is the moving of big boulders of rocks or debris down a slope. As a result, landslides occur on mountains and hilly areas. Moreover, landslides can cause destruction to man-made things in many ways.

Causes: Gravitational pull, volcanic eruptions , earthquakes can cause landslides. Moreover, soil erosion due to deforestation is also a cause of landslides.

Avalanches: Avalanches are like landslides. But instead of rocks thousand tons of snow falls down the slope. Moreover, this causes extreme damage to anything that comes in its way. People who live in snowy mountains always have fear of it.

Causes: Avalanches takes places when there is a large accumulation of snow on the mountains. Moreover, they can also occur from earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the chances of surviving an avalanche are very less. This is because people die of hypothermia in it.

Tsunami: Tsunami is the production of very high waves in oceans and seas. Moreover, the displacement of the ground causes these high waves. A tsunami can cause floods if it occurs near shores. A Tsunami can consist of multiple waves. Moreover, these waves have a high current. Therefore it can reach coastlines within minutes. The main threat of a tsunami is if a person sees a Tsunami he cannot outrun it.

Causes: Tsunami is unlike normal eaves that occur due to the wind. But Tsunami is waves that occur by ground displacement. Thus earthquakes are the main causes of Tsunamis.

FAQs on Essay on natural disaster

Q1.What are natural disasters?

A1. Natural Disasters are unforeseen events that cause damage to the environment and the people.

Q2.Name some Natural disasters.

A2. Some Natural Disasters are earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, Landslides, floods, Tsunami, avalanches. Natural disasters can cause great damage to human society. But preventive measures can be taken to reduce the damage from these disasters.

Customize your course in 30 seconds

Which class are you in.


  • Travelling Essay
  • Picnic Essay
  • Our Country Essay
  • My Parents Essay
  • Essay on Favourite Personality
  • Essay on Memorable Day of My Life
  • Essay on Knowledge is Power
  • Essay on Gurpurab
  • Essay on My Favourite Season
  • Essay on Types of Sports

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Download the App

Google Play


Natural Disasters Essay

Madhuri Thakur

Natural Disasters Essay – Introduction

Natural disasters are powerful and dangerous events that are caused by nature. Disasters happen suddenly with little or no warning and cause severe damage to people, property, and the entire environment. It can be earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. This essay will further elaborate in detail on natural disasters.

Today, natural disasters are becoming increasingly common. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the number of disasters in the United States has tripled since the 1960s. It can be because of climate change, population growth, and urbanization. And as the Earth’s climate becomes warmer, such natural disasters will become more common.

Watch our Demo Courses and Videos

Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.

There are three levels of natural disasters: small, medium, and large-scale. The events that do not cause too much harm in the world are small-scale, like lightning, storms, etc. Medium Scale disasters are riskier and more harmful than small-scale disasters, like blizzards or landslides. Meanwhile, professionals who  write papers for money often analyze the impact of large-scale disasters, which cause significant environmental damage, including tsunamis, wildfires, etc.  The disasters that cause too much environmental damage, such as tsunamis, wildfires, etc., are large-scale disasters.

This natural disasters essay will talk about the types of natural disasters as well their causes and impacts.

List of Natural Disasters

Some common natural disasters, along with their nature of impact and consequences, are provided in the table below:

Shakes the ground and can collapse buildings Injuries, loss of life
Big storms with strong winds and heavy rain Flooding, destruction of homes
Too much water causes damage to homes and roads Property damage, displacement
Spreads quickly and destroys everything in its path Destruction of vegetation, property
Giant waves that flood coastal areas Flooding, destruction of infrastructure
Releases lava, ash, and gasses damaging surrounding areas Property damage, respiratory problems

Types of Natural Disasters

There are different ways that natural disasters can happen. Some of the types are as follows,

Internal: It includes all the disasters that happen when there are some changes under the earth’s surface. These include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, etc. We cannot easily predict these events.

External: It is when there is a disturbance above the earth’s surface. It is generally because of us humans who change the environment. These are usually landslides, floods, etc.

Temperature: When the temperature of the air or ocean changes, it can cause disasters like tornadoes and hurricanes. Even drought and glacier melt occurs because of the change in temperature of the environment.

Biological: These disasters occur because of viruses and bacteria that cause harmful diseases that can kill people. For instance, COVID-19, Ebola virus, etc., are some examples.

Causes of Natural Disasters

There are different causes for each natural disaster.

  • Too much rain can overfill the dams and flood a large area near the dam. It can cause damage to nearby buildings and homes.
  • When a storm forms over the ocean due to warm water, it is known as a Hurricane. There are also strong winds that can push the ocean water to the seashore and cause floods.
  • Tornadoes form when two different air temperatures clash, i.e., damp air from the ground collides with dry air from above. It creates a spiral of air that can be very powerful.
  • When two pieces of the Earth’s crust move against each other, it creates vibrations that we can feel on the ground. As these vibrations are too strong, they can cause buildings to fall and cause damage.
  • Volcanoes are mountains that release hot gasses, ash, and lava from below the earth’s surface to the above ground.

Natural Disasters Effects

Natural disasters can have long-term impacts, including economic and social disruption, displacement, and health problems. The severity of the disaster depends on factors such as the event’s intensity, location, and effectiveness of the disaster management system.

Material and financial loss, social unrest, and political instability are common impacts of natural disasters. Homelessness and a lack of access to basic necessities can occur after a natural disaster, leading to social disruption and decreased economic activity.

Emotional and psychological damage, as well as long-term health problems, can result from natural disasters. Air pollution can cause respiratory problems, and trauma and stress can lead to mental health issues.

Natural disasters can also impact the environment, causing soil erosion, water pollution, and a decrease in biodiversity. These impacts can have long-term consequences and require efforts for recovery and rebuilding.

Natural Disaster Management

It’s really important to be ready for natural disasters and keep ourselves safe. Countries that are ready to face natural disasters have to suffer less damage. So, governments should have disaster management policies for prevention, response, and recovery. Here are a few precautions we can take for some common natural disasters:

Earthquake Preparedness

  • Building strong structures so they don’t break during earthquakes.
  • Creating early warning systems that can alert people before an earthquake happens.
  • Educating people about the dangers of earthquakes and what to do when they happen.

Hurricane Preparedness

  • Developing evacuation plans and identifying safe locations to stay during a hurricane.
  • Establishing systems to provide early warnings and updates on approaching hurricanes.
  • Ensuring proper drainage systems to mitigate flooding caused by heavy rain during hurricanes.

Flood Preparedness

  • Implementing measures to manage water flow and prevent flooding.
  • Educating individuals on flood risks and providing guidance on evacuation procedures.
  • Creating emergency response plans to provide immediate assistance during and after a flood.

Wildfire Preparedness

  • Promoting fire safety practices and educating individuals on the prevention of wildfires.
  • Clearing dry leaves and vegetation around homes to reduce fire risks.
  • Cooperating with firefighting agencies and having evacuation plans in place during wildfire emergencies.

Tsunami Preparedness

  • Raising awareness about tsunamis and educating coastal communities on evacuation routes.
  • Establishing warning systems near coastal areas to provide early alerts for tsunamis.
  • Conducting drills and exercises to ensure that individuals know how to respond to a tsunami.

Volcano Preparedness

  • Monitoring volcanic activities and studying eruption patterns to predict volcanic eruptions.
  • Establishing communication systems to disseminate timely warnings about volcanic eruptions.
  • Collaborating with scientists and experts to develop evacuation plans and safe zones during volcanic emergencies.

Overall Disaster Management

Individuals should develop personal emergency plans and be aware of the risks of different types of disasters. Governments and individuals can be better prepared to respond to natural disasters by having emergency plans. Thus, taking these precautions can lower the risk of disasters and protect ourselves and our communities.

Conclusion – Natural Disasters Essay

Natural disasters can cause immense destruction, pain, and loss of life. So, to lessen the impacts of these disasters, taking disaster management measures is necessary.

Recommended Articles

  • Essay on Save Earth
  • Essay on Nature
  • Artificial Intelligence Essay
  • Essay on Environmental Pollution


*Please provide your correct email id. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you

By signing up, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .

Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Web Development & many more.

Forgot Password?

This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy


Explore 1000+ varieties of Mock tests View more

Submit Next Question

🚀 Limited Time Offer! - 🎁 ENROLL NOW

  • CBSE Class 10th
  • CBSE Class 12th
  • UP Board 10th
  • UP Board 12th
  • Bihar Board 10th
  • Bihar Board 12th

Top Schools

  • Top Schools in India
  • Top Schools in Delhi
  • Top Schools in Mumbai
  • Top Schools in Chennai
  • Top Schools in Hyderabad
  • Top Schools in Kolkata
  • Top Schools in Pune
  • Top Schools in Bangalore

Products & Resources

  • JEE Main Knockout April
  • Free Sample Papers
  • Free Ebooks
  • NCERT Notes
  • NCERT Syllabus
  • NCERT Books
  • RD Sharma Solutions
  • Navodaya Vidyalaya Admission 2024-25
  • NCERT Solutions
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 12
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11
  • NCERT solutions for Class 10
  • NCERT solutions for Class 9
  • NCERT solutions for Class 8
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 7
  • JEE Main 2024
  • MHT CET 2024
  • JEE Advanced 2024
  • BITSAT 2024
  • View All Engineering Exams
  • Colleges Accepting B.Tech Applications
  • Top Engineering Colleges in India
  • Engineering Colleges in India
  • Engineering Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • Engineering Colleges Accepting JEE Main
  • Top IITs in India
  • Top NITs in India
  • Top IIITs in India
  • JEE Main College Predictor
  • JEE Main Rank Predictor
  • MHT CET College Predictor
  • AP EAMCET College Predictor
  • GATE College Predictor
  • KCET College Predictor
  • JEE Advanced College Predictor
  • View All College Predictors
  • JEE Advanced Cutoff
  • JEE Main Cutoff
  • MHT CET Result 2024
  • JEE Advanced Result
  • Download E-Books and Sample Papers
  • Compare Colleges
  • B.Tech College Applications
  • AP EAMCET Result 2024
  • MAH MBA CET Exam
  • View All Management Exams

Colleges & Courses

  • MBA College Admissions
  • MBA Colleges in India
  • Top IIMs Colleges in India
  • Top Online MBA Colleges in India
  • MBA Colleges Accepting XAT Score
  • BBA Colleges in India
  • XAT College Predictor 2024
  • SNAP College Predictor
  • NMAT College Predictor
  • MAT College Predictor 2024
  • CMAT College Predictor 2024
  • CAT Percentile Predictor 2024
  • CAT 2024 College Predictor
  • Top MBA Entrance Exams 2024
  • AP ICET Counselling 2024
  • GD Topics for MBA
  • CAT Exam Date 2024
  • Download Helpful Ebooks
  • List of Popular Branches
  • QnA - Get answers to your doubts
  • IIM Fees Structure
  • AIIMS Nursing
  • Top Medical Colleges in India
  • Top Medical Colleges in India accepting NEET Score
  • Medical Colleges accepting NEET
  • List of Medical Colleges in India
  • List of AIIMS Colleges In India
  • Medical Colleges in Maharashtra
  • Medical Colleges in India Accepting NEET PG
  • NEET College Predictor
  • NEET PG College Predictor
  • NEET MDS College Predictor
  • NEET Rank Predictor
  • DNB PDCET College Predictor
  • NEET Result 2024
  • NEET Asnwer Key 2024
  • NEET Cut off
  • NEET Online Preparation
  • Download Helpful E-books
  • Colleges Accepting Admissions
  • Top Law Colleges in India
  • Law College Accepting CLAT Score
  • List of Law Colleges in India
  • Top Law Colleges in Delhi
  • Top NLUs Colleges in India
  • Top Law Colleges in Chandigarh
  • Top Law Collages in Lucknow

Predictors & E-Books

  • CLAT College Predictor
  • MHCET Law ( 5 Year L.L.B) College Predictor
  • AILET College Predictor
  • Sample Papers
  • Compare Law Collages
  • Careers360 Youtube Channel
  • CLAT Syllabus 2025
  • CLAT Previous Year Question Paper
  • NID DAT Exam
  • Pearl Academy Exam

Predictors & Articles

  • NIFT College Predictor
  • UCEED College Predictor
  • NID DAT College Predictor
  • NID DAT Syllabus 2025
  • NID DAT 2025
  • Design Colleges in India
  • Top NIFT Colleges in India
  • Fashion Design Colleges in India
  • Top Interior Design Colleges in India
  • Top Graphic Designing Colleges in India
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Delhi
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top Interior Design Colleges in Bangalore
  • NIFT Result 2024
  • NIFT Fees Structure
  • NIFT Syllabus 2025
  • Free Design E-books
  • List of Branches
  • Careers360 Youtube channel
  • JMI Mass Communication Entrance Exam
  • IIMC Entrance Exam
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Delhi
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Bangalore
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Mumbai
  • List of Media & Journalism Colleges in India
  • CA Intermediate
  • CA Foundation
  • CS Executive
  • CS Professional
  • Difference between CA and CS
  • Difference between CA and CMA
  • CA Full form
  • CMA Full form
  • CS Full form
  • CA Salary In India

Top Courses & Careers

  • Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com)
  • Master of Commerce (M.Com)
  • Company Secretary
  • Cost Accountant
  • Charted Accountant
  • Credit Manager
  • Financial Advisor
  • Top Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top Government Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top Private Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top M.Com Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top B.Com Colleges in India
  • IT Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • IT Colleges in Uttar Pradesh
  • MCA Colleges in India
  • BCA Colleges in India

Quick Links

  • Information Technology Courses
  • Programming Courses
  • Web Development Courses
  • Data Analytics Courses
  • Big Data Analytics Courses
  • RUHS Pharmacy Admission Test
  • Top Pharmacy Colleges in India
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Pune
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Mumbai
  • Colleges Accepting GPAT Score
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Lucknow
  • List of Pharmacy Colleges in Nagpur
  • GPAT Result
  • GPAT 2024 Admit Card
  • GPAT Question Papers
  • NCHMCT JEE 2024
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Delhi
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Hyderabad
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Maharashtra
  • B.Sc Hotel Management
  • Hotel Management
  • Diploma in Hotel Management and Catering Technology

Diploma Colleges

  • Top Diploma Colleges in Maharashtra
  • UPSC IAS 2024
  • SSC CGL 2024
  • IBPS RRB 2024
  • Previous Year Sample Papers
  • Free Competition E-books
  • Sarkari Result
  • QnA- Get your doubts answered
  • UPSC Previous Year Sample Papers
  • CTET Previous Year Sample Papers
  • SBI Clerk Previous Year Sample Papers
  • NDA Previous Year Sample Papers

Upcoming Events

  • NDA Application Form 2024
  • UPSC IAS Application Form 2024
  • CDS Application Form 2024
  • CTET Admit card 2024
  • HP TET Result 2023
  • SSC GD Constable Admit Card 2024
  • UPTET Notification 2024
  • SBI Clerk Result 2024

Other Exams

  • SSC CHSL 2024
  • UP PCS 2024
  • UGC NET 2024
  • RRB NTPC 2024
  • IBPS PO 2024
  • IBPS Clerk 2024
  • IBPS SO 2024
  • Top University in USA
  • Top University in Canada
  • Top University in Ireland
  • Top Universities in UK
  • Top Universities in Australia
  • Best MBA Colleges in Abroad
  • Business Management Studies Colleges

Top Countries

  • Study in USA
  • Study in UK
  • Study in Canada
  • Study in Australia
  • Study in Ireland
  • Study in Germany
  • Study in China
  • Study in Europe

Student Visas

  • Student Visa Canada
  • Student Visa UK
  • Student Visa USA
  • Student Visa Australia
  • Student Visa Germany
  • Student Visa New Zealand
  • Student Visa Ireland
  • CUET PG 2024
  • IGNOU B.Ed Admission 2024
  • DU Admission 2024
  • UP B.Ed JEE 2024
  • LPU NEST 2024
  • IIT JAM 2024
  • IGNOU Online Admission 2024
  • Universities in India
  • Top Universities in India 2024
  • Top Colleges in India
  • Top Universities in Uttar Pradesh 2024
  • Top Universities in Bihar
  • Top Universities in Madhya Pradesh 2024
  • Top Universities in Tamil Nadu 2024
  • Central Universities in India
  • CUET DU Cut off 2024
  • IGNOU Date Sheet 2024
  • CUET DU CSAS Portal 2024
  • CUET Response Sheet 2024
  • CUET Result 2024
  • CUET Participating Universities 2024
  • CUET Previous Year Question Paper
  • CUET Syllabus 2024 for Science Students
  • E-Books and Sample Papers
  • CUET College Predictor 2024
  • CUET Exam Date 2024
  • CUET Cut Off 2024
  • NIRF Ranking 2024
  • IGNOU Exam Form 2024
  • CUET PG Counselling 2024
  • CUET Answer Key 2024

Engineering Preparation

  • Knockout JEE Main 2024
  • Test Series JEE Main 2024
  • JEE Main 2024 Rank Booster

Medical Preparation

  • Knockout NEET 2024
  • Test Series NEET 2024
  • Rank Booster NEET 2024

Online Courses

  • JEE Main One Month Course
  • NEET One Month Course
  • IBSAT Free Mock Tests
  • IIT JEE Foundation Course
  • Knockout BITSAT 2024
  • Career Guidance Tool

Top Streams

  • IT & Software Certification Courses
  • Engineering and Architecture Certification Courses
  • Programming And Development Certification Courses
  • Business and Management Certification Courses
  • Marketing Certification Courses
  • Health and Fitness Certification Courses
  • Design Certification Courses


  • Digital Marketing Certification Courses
  • Cyber Security Certification Courses
  • Artificial Intelligence Certification Courses
  • Business Analytics Certification Courses
  • Data Science Certification Courses
  • Cloud Computing Certification Courses
  • Machine Learning Certification Courses
  • View All Certification Courses
  • UG Degree Courses
  • PG Degree Courses
  • Short Term Courses
  • Free Courses
  • Online Degrees and Diplomas
  • Compare Courses

Top Providers

  • Coursera Courses
  • Udemy Courses
  • Edx Courses
  • Swayam Courses
  • upGrad Courses
  • Simplilearn Courses
  • Great Learning Courses

Natural Disasters Essay

Natural disasters are not in the control of human beings. Like many other countries, India is also plagued with many natural disasters because of its geographical location and environment. In the past few decades, the temperature in the Indian subcontinent has risen. A natural calamity is called a disaster when it affects people or property on a large scale. Here are a few sample essays on the topic ‘Natural Disasters’.

Natural Disasters Essay

100 Words Essay On Natural Disasters

Humans have been subjected to the impact of natural disasters for as long as they have been on Earth. Disasters, unfortunately, are happening all the time. Most of the Natural Disasters we see are caused by natural forces. Therefore, they are almost impossible to prevent from happening. Natural disasters like floods, drought, landslides, earthquakes, and cyclones frequently occur all throughout the world. Often, natural disasters leave mass effects and it can take years to control the damage. However, the negative effects and damages caused by these natural disasters can be reduced significantly if proper warning systems or policies are used.

200 Words Essay On Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are mostly naturally occurring events that greatly damage human lives and assets. Every year, many lives are lost due to natural disasters across the globe. Many people are left with no home or property. They suffer endlessly. Some natural disasters are floods, landslides, cyclones, hurricanes, drought, wildfires. This problem becomes far more severe when a natural disaster occurs in a densely populated place. Unfortunately, most natural disasters are unpreventable from happening. We can only forecast these events and take necessary measures to mitigate the loss.

India is one of the most vulnerable countries to natural disasters because of its unique geological position. Every year India witnesses nearly five cyclones of various intensities. Droughts in summer and mild to strong earthquakes are frequently experienced in many northern parts of India near the Himalayas. In India, wildfires are caused in the forest area during the autumn and summer seasons. Our country is also witnessing dramatic climate changes and massive global warming due to pollution and greenhouse gases. Due to this, natural disasters are becoming more frequent than before.

Coping Up With Natural Disasters

Most natural disasters are out of our control and can occur randomly. All we can do, however, is take necessary precautions as soon as we are able to predict when the disaster is going to take place. Global Warming is an important reason for all these things. Therefore, we must protect and preserve our natural environment. It is essential to warn people of upcoming disasters. A mandatory evacuation should be carried out if necessary. After the disaster, people should be provided financial help to recover from damages and losses from the disaster.

500 Words Essay On Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are events that occur due to either biological activity or human-made activity. Human lives and property are affected for a long time after it occurs. The number of cases is increasing worldwide every day. It is because of the over-exploitation of natural resources by mankind. India suffers significantly from natural disasters due to its vulnerable geographical location. Due to this, our country still needs a proper disaster management unit.

Types Of Natural Disasters

Different kinds of Natural Disasters in India occur very often and have major effects on people’s lives.

Earthquake | An earthquake is a natural event when the Earth's tectonic plates suddenly shift and cause the ground to shake. This shaking can damage buildings and other structures, as well as loss of life. Earthquakes can happen at any time and can strike without warning, making them a frightening and unpredictable phenomenon.

Cyclone | A cyclone is a type of storm characterised by a low-pressure centre and strong winds that spiral inward and upward. Cyclones are also typhoons or hurricanes, depending on the region in which they occur. Cyclones form over warm ocean waters and typically move toward land, where they can cause widespread damage and destruction. They are often accompanied by heavy rainfall and can spawn tornadoes. The destructive power of a cyclone comes from its strong winds, which can reach speeds of over 150 miles per hour. These winds can uproot trees, damage buildings, and create storm surges, large waves that can flood coastal areas.

Wildfire | A wildfire is a large, uncontrolled fire that occurs in a natural habitat, such as a forest, grassland, or prairie. Wildfires can happen due to various factors, including lightning, human activity, and extreme weather conditions. When a wildfire occurs, it can spread quickly, consuming everything in its path. Wildfires can have many adverse effects on the environment and people. For example, they can destroy homes and other buildings and critical infrastructures, such as roads and bridges. They can also cause air pollution and respiratory issues for people living in the area.

Human Activities And Natural Disasters

Human activities can contribute to the occurrence and severity of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires. For example, activities like deforestation, urbanisation, and climate change can increase the likelihood and impact of these events.

Deforestation, which removes vegetation from an area, can increase the risk of natural disasters. Trees and other vegetation hold the upper layer of soil in place, which prevents erosion and landslides. When these plants are removed, the ground becomes more vulnerable to being swept away by heavy rainfall or other natural forces.

Urbanisation, or the growth of cities and towns, can also contribute to natural disasters. As more and more people move into urban areas, the risk of earthquakes, wildfires, and other natural disasters increases. For example, the construction of buildings and other structures can alter the natural landscape, making it more susceptible to damage from earthquakes and other events.

Climate change, the long-term warming of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, can also increase the likelihood and severity of natural disasters. Higher temperatures can lead to more often intense heat waves, droughts, and wildfires. Rising sea levels can cause more severe flooding, particularly in coastal areas.

Applications for Admissions are open.

Aakash iACST Scholarship Test 2024

Aakash iACST Scholarship Test 2024

Get up to 90% scholarship on NEET, JEE & Foundation courses

JEE Main Important Physics formulas

JEE Main Important Physics formulas

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Physics formulas, equations, & laws of class 11 & 12th chapters

JEE Main Important Chemistry formulas

JEE Main Important Chemistry formulas

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Chemistry formulas, equations, & laws of class 11 & 12th chapters

TOEFL ® Registrations 2024

TOEFL ® Registrations 2024

Accepted by more than 11,000 universities in over 150 countries worldwide

PTE Exam 2024 Registrations

PTE Exam 2024 Registrations

Register now for PTE & Save 5% on English Proficiency Tests with ApplyShop Gift Cards

JEE Main high scoring chapters and topics

JEE Main high scoring chapters and topics

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Study 40% syllabus and score upto 100% marks in JEE

Download Careers360 App's

Regular exam updates, QnA, Predictors, College Applications & E-books now on your Mobile




We Appeared in

Economic Times

Become a Writer Today

Essays About Natural Disasters: 5 Examples and Prompts

Essays about natural disasters teach us many things; read on to see examples and prompts you can use for your piece.

Natural disasters are the sudden occurrence of natural and severe hazards threatening human welfare and survival. These events can cause injuries, destroy assets such as homes and businesses, and even death. Some examples of natural disasters are tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, wildfires, and storms.

Although emergency protocols are in place to alleviate and prevent natural disasters’ impact on both humanity and the economy, there is still no guarantee that these will be able to protect and save everyone from these misfortunes. Therefore, writing essays about natural disasters helps spread awareness on how to act when one faces these mishaps properly.

Below are five examples you should read to create essays about natural disasters effectively:


1. Planning For a Safer Tomorrow by Jyotsana B

2. natural disasters are often not natural by sandra valdez, 3. natural disasters essay by pradeep, 4. equity during natural disasters by writer kip, 5. natural disasters: nature’s revenge by anonymous on, 1. my experience with natural disasters, 2. natural disasters: a history, 3. natural disasters and the economy, 4. types of natural disasters, 5. my take on natural disaster management, 6. causes of natural disasters, 7. after effects of natural disasters, 8. recovery from a natural disaster.

“Natural disasters have a severe impact on the society, therefore it is important to plan and develop a safety programme and devise means to efficiently deal with natural disaster. Development programme that go into promoting development at the local level have been left to the general exercise of planning.”

The author shares tips on how to prevent calamities and be prepared in case these natural disasters occur. These steps include proper analysis and risk assessment, adequate information database, modern infrastructure, and networks of knowledge-based institutions. The essay further expounds on each point and gives specific directions on successfully implementing these precautions.

“The word ‘natural’ indicates that humans have not triggered the catastrophe. However, human activity can definitely interfere with nature, which in turn may either cause a natural disaster or make its impacts much worse.”

Although Valdez agrees that “natural disasters” means humans do not directly create them, she also considers human’s significant contributions to these tragedies. She offers an example of earthquakes and the fluid injection incident in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in Denver, Colorado. She further lists more human activities that trigger earthquakes, blaming human engineering that stresses the Earth’s faults. Finally, she acknowledges human speeds up disasters and human elements are innate in these equations.

“There is no doubt that extending help to someone during tough times is paramount. Rich countries should support poverty-stricken nations with altruistic aid while calamities take place… Being rich, similar nations are in a position to support countries that suffer economically and emotionally during nature havoc. The result of this is, not only induces good relations between countries but also paves the way to commercial transactions with minimized taxes in the future.”

Pradeep supports that countries with more resources should aid those with lesser assets. It’s not only because of altruistic reasons but because it can also be the foundation for good relationships between governments. These relationships can result in successful transactions and give comfort and security to grief-stricken countries.

“Should we allow prices to increase during natural disasters or should we protect against price gouging?… No policy is best for everyone… In the grand scheme of things, the market will return to normal the quickest whenever the market prices are allowed to fluctuate.”

Kip criticizes the way businesses increase the goods’ prices when there is a natural disaster. He questions if it’s the right thing to do to consumers who are only trying to purchase what they need to be ready for catastrophes. 

He also includes business reviews that rationalize high prices by arguing increasing prices prevents product hoarding. He challenges this statement by asking the readers to consider those who don’t have the money to buy these overpriced essentials. The writer also mentions other terms to explain the economy during a natural disaster and even involves the government’s processes to mitigate its harmful effects.

“Our environment is our responsibility… Exactly who polluted our planet so much? There is only one answer: man. It is man’s actions that have caused the problem… Humanity must realize that if the current trends are allowed to continue unchecked, the future of life on Earth is at risk. it must be conserved.”

Is nature retaliating because of humans’ disregard for it? The author offers reports to present the unpredictability of these disasters brought by climate change. To further prove their points, the author lays down facts like the quick rising of the sea and changing rain patterns. 

At the end of the essay, the writer urges man to be an environmentalist because he depends on his surroundings for food and shelter. Therefore, to survive, humans must treat nature well.

A tip: Run your essay through essay writing apps to organize and help you with style and grammar.

8 Prompts on Essays About Natural Disasters

There are many aspects of natural disasters you can zero in on. Here are easy but compelling prompts to tackle:

Essays About Natural Disasters: My experience with natural disasters

Share your experience with a calamity, and narrate what happened before, during, and after. Are there certain things you wish you did or didn’t do? Include how it affected your life and how you understand things work, such as the importance of first responders and following authorities in times of panic and chaos.

Then, focus on your personal experience. For example, your family might have to move places because you lost your home. Or that today, you always have an emergency bag packed and ready. You might also be interested in these essays about nature .

List down notable natural disasters that changed the course of the world. This could include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and hurricanes. Then, explain why they happened, how the government or country dealt with it, and discuss the precautions executed in case the disaster occurs again. Finally, include the lessons you learned from these tragedies.

Explain how natural disasters affect the economy. Then, to make it more relatable, you can relay the impact of these tragedies on your life. For example, did any of your relatives lose their job because of a natural disaster? Was your family forced to close down your business? Include personal anecdotes to create an engaging essay.

List the many natural disasters and discuss them in detail. In this essay, you can delve into the causes of each type of natural disaster and how it impacts nearby civilizations. What do you fear the most in these disasters? To make it easier, you can pick two natural disasters to compare and contrast.

Choose an incident where natural disaster management was applied and give your thoughts about it. Research a recent natural disaster and study how the local and national government managed it. If any failed initiatives or points could be improved upon, make sure to write your thoughts about this in your essay. Then, you can discuss what you believe will aid natural disaster management in the future.

For this prompt, you can split your essay into two sections. One section can discuss environmental causes, while the other delves into human activities that cause natural disasters. Topics can include pollution, climate change, and overpopulation of small areas. To create an emotive essay, write about your thoughts on what we can do as a society to mitigate these harmful activities.

Consider the short and long-term effects of these natural disasters. You can concentrate on a specific tragedy that the general public knows so your reader can easily imagine what you describe in your essay. To make your piece more interesting, you can list natural disasters’ negative and positive effects.

If you want your essay to focus on something positive, choose to discuss new beginnings. For example, you can center on a community and how its people helped each other recover. You can also include the assistance they received from different places and how it aided them in restarting their lives after the disaster.

If you are interested in learning more, check out our essay writing tips !

  • Essay Topic Generator
  • Summary Generator
  • Thesis Maker Academic
  • Sentence Rephraser
  • Read My Paper
  • Hypothesis Generator
  • Cover Page Generator
  • Text Compactor
  • Essay Scrambler
  • Essay Plagiarism Checker
  • Hook Generator
  • AI Writing Checker
  • Notes Maker
  • Overnight Essay Writing
  • Topic Ideas
  • Writing Tips
  • Essay Writing (by Genre)
  • Essay Writing (by Topic)

Natural Disaster Essay: How to Write, Topics, & Examples

What would you do if someone told you that a tsunami would wipe out your house tomorrow afternoon? You won’t believe them. It always seems that natural disasters happen in someone else’s life. But every year, millions of people worldwide suffer from various natural calamities. This article attempts to systemize the chaos of nature for you to write an impressive natural disaster essay. You will get acquainted with the seven types of disasters, get a long list of topics and examples of natural disaster essay in 200 words and 300 words.

  • 🌪️ Natural Disaster: The Basics
  • 💡 114 Essay Topics
  • 📑 Outlining Your Essay
  • 🌊 Essay Sample (200 Words)
  • 🏜️ Essay Sample (300 Words)

🌪️ Natural Disaster Essay: What Is It About?

A natural disaster is a large-scale meteorological or geological event that can to cause loss of life or massive damage to people’s property. Floods and severe storms are the most reported acts of nature in the US, but other incidents also happen from time to time. That is why you can dedicate your essay on natural disasters to earthquakes, droughts, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, or tornadoes.

The picture lists the 7 main types of natural disasters.

It is a powerful funnel-shaped cloud that rotates and demolishes buildings, hurls cars, and uproots trees. Tornadoes appear from cumulonimbus clouds, pending with their smaller part to the ground. This column of air has a wind speed of up to 300 mph. In your disaster management essay, you can suggest reasonable precautions to save as many people and property as possible in a tornado area.
It is a tropical cyclone that affects the coastal population of the southern Atlantic Ocean, eastern , Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. These acts of nature may include heavy winds, floods, and tornadoes. For this reason, you can describe natural disasters’ impact on human life in the essay.
Floods are the most common natural disaster in the US. They usually occur when the volume of water in a stream is larger than the channel’s capacity. Then, the land that is typically dry gets submerged. Streamflow depends on numerous factors making floods hard to predict.
This Japanese word (‘tsu’ for harbor and ‘nami’ for wave) denominates powerful waves caused by an underwater earthquake, land slumping, landslides on the seafloor, meteorite impact, or volcanic eruption in the ocean. In a tsunami disaster essay, you could describe a historical tragedy and analyze its causes.
This type of disaster starts when lightning hits a tree in the wood or due to man-made causes. It is an unplanned and uncontrolled spread of fire in natural areas with combustible vegetation.
It is an extended lack of water in a given region. A drought can happen due to the below-normal precipitation. It causes crop damage and water shortage in the area. It can last for years or end in weeks.
It is the result of seismic waves in the Earth’s crust. Tectonic plates shake or move, damaging everything that stands or lives on them. Some of them may be caused by anthropogenic factors.

💡 114 Natural Disasters Essay Topics

What could you write in a natural disaster essay? You can invent your own topic about various types of natural disasters, their causes, and aftermath, or their impact on human life and the economy. Depending on the discipline, you can also describe historic calamities that changed the direction of human civilization. Alternatively, choose one from our comprehensive list below.

  • Why are the Great Plains of the central US ideal for tornado formation?
  • Global Warming and Climate Change Legislation.
  • Research the atmospheric parameters inside a tornado.
  • Energy, Technology and Climate Change.
  • Why are the boundaries of Tornado Alley in the US so debatable?
  • The global climate change as a manmade disaster.
  • Which actions should you never do when a tornado is nearby?
  • Volunteers’ Role During Disasters.
  • Suggest your opinion on the best action strategy in a hurricane.
  • The Columbia Disaster and safety violations.
  • What were the causes and effects of a flood?
  • Analysis on Climate Change and Global Impact.
  • Describe the most devastating wildfires in the US and find their common features.
  • Earthquake Engineering Considerations and Methods.
  • Brainstorm ideas to prevent wildfires.
  • Global warming and the greenhouse effect.
  • How can building dams cause earthquakes?
  • Climate Change and Its Impact on Freshwater.
  • Analyze the impact of droughts on tourism.
  • Climate Change Effect on Coral Reef Communities.
  • Describe the most extended droughts in human history.
  • Marine and Coastal Climate Change in Australia.
  • Write an essay on natural disasters and earthquakes in particular.
  • Air pollution and mortality rates
  • What are the distinctive features of droughts in third-world countries?
  • Global Warming, Climate Change, and Society’s Impact on the Environment.
  • Study the relationship between global warming and droughts.
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After a Hurricane.
  • Evaluate the damage caused by Hurricane Maria in 2017.
  • Social Media’s Role in Disaster Response.
  • Classify the effects of natural disasters in an essay.
  • Sustainability and Climate Change.
  • Describe the 1815 volcanic eruption of Mt. Tambora, Indonesia.
  • Hurricane Katrina: Overview, Impact, Response.
  • Each new leap of civilization causes new responses of nature.
  • Animal Exploitation. Animal Agriculture and Climate Change.
  • Think of any positive effects a volcanic eruption may have.
  • In Arizona, Collaboration Averts Water Disaster.
  • Children are the poorest victims of any disaster.
  • A Solution to Remedy Climate Change.
  • Which ways of disaster risk reduction do you know?
  • An Emergency Operations Center During Hurricane Harvey.
  • Research the current problems in disaster management.
  • Disaster Recovery Plan for Information Technology Organizations.
  • Analyze ineffective disaster management in an essay about hurricane Katrina.
  • Nurse Competencies and Scope of Practice in Disaster.
  • What should a household have at home in the case of a disaster?
  • Hurricane Katrina: The Powerful Natural Disaster.
  • Describe the humanitarian disaster during the drought in Somalia.
  • Technology in Disaster Preparedness.
  • Can man-made disasters entail natural calamities?
  • Disaster Management in Philadelphia.
  • Review the criteria for disaster classification.
  • Jeddah Floods and Adaptation Strategies in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
  • Search for real examples of hybrid disasters.
  • Natural Disasters Prevention: A Tabletop Exercise.
  • Who is responsible for casualties after a natural disaster?
  • The Sand Storms: Remote Sensing and Meteorological Variables.
  • List the lessons we could learn from our past disaster experience.
  • Fire Development, Growth, and Spreads.
  • The ice storm and silver thaw: A gentle disaster.
  • Fire Crisis Management in the UAE.
  • Rockslides: A pressing issue for rural areas.
  • 1d – 2d Flood Modeling Using PCSWMM.
  • What are the psychological benefits of disaster preparedness?
  • Structural Control and Origin of Volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone.
  • When does a blizzard become a disaster?
  • Extreme Weather Events + Geographies of Globalization.
  • Research the causes of dust storms and name the affected areas.
  • Strategies for Sustainable Integrated Oil Disaster Management in West Africa.
  • Why did the San Francisco earthquake (1906) cause devastating fires?
  • Causes of Climate Change.
  • What could be done to help people who lost their homes in an earthquake?
  • Book Review: Energy and Global Climate Change.
  • Analyze the role of World Vision in humanitarian aid after disasters.
  • Tangshan earthquake of 1976 showed that high population density is disastrous.
  • The Role of Carbon Dioxide in Climate Change.
  • Rock avalanche: Why water is the most powerful geological agent.
  • Aspects of Climate Change.
  • When do extreme weather conditions turn into a disaster?
  • Climate Change: Reasons, Kyoto Protocol.
  • Write an article on shelter-providing organizations for disaster victims.
  • Establishing an IT Disaster Recovery Plan.
  • Describe earthquake cycles in Haiti.
  • Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture and Food.
  • How can nature damage ecology in natural disasters?
  • Climate Change. Problems. Effects.
  • Disaster management should include psychological help to the survivors.
  • Climate Change Causes: Position and Strategies.
  • Suggest ways to prevent damage caused by debris flow.
  • HAT 4: Disaster in Franklin Country.
  • How did the lack of evacuation after the Bhola cyclone (1970) result in the massive death toll?
  • The Effects of Climate Change.
  • The most significant Yellow River flood: 2 million deaths in 1887.
  • Resilience Building Against Natural Disasters in the Caribbean Islands.
  • Sinkholes: A natural disaster or attraction for cavers and water-divers?
  • Global Climate Change and Health.
  • Describe the dynamics of landslides in California.
  • Which early-warning systems to detect avalanches do you know?
  • Los Angeles Regional Collaborative for Climate Action.
  • Pyroclastic flow: The deadliest volcanic hazard.
  • Communication During Disaster Response.
  • Describe the volcano eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed the Herculaneum and Pompeii.
  • Disaster Planning for Families.
  • Disaster prevention measures: Investments that save millions of lives.
  • Natural Disaster Management and Historical Prospective Study in the UAE.
  • Research the PTSD in survivors of natural disasters.
  • Are the latest disasters the nature’s fightback to humanity?
  • Estimate the human impact on natural disasters.
  • List the countries with the largest number of disasters and find their standard features.
  • Everyday Communication on Climate Change.
  • Insurance coverage against disasters: Our inevitable future.
  • Emergency Planning Before and After Hurricane Katrina.
  • One natural disaster could bring the world to its end.

Haven’t found a suitable topic in the list above? Use our essay topic generator to get more ideas.

📑 Natural Disaster Essay Outline

Outlines differ, depending on the assigned length and essay type. It is a reference sample. Feel free to modify it, extending some points and narrowing the others. Still, the overall structure should remain the same. We have chosen the “Causes of Earthquakes” essay topic for demonstrative purposes.

  • Hook . There are millions of possible ways to start your essay, from a rhetorical question to any imaginable scenario. The point is to grab the reader’s attention, showing them that your writing is unique and creative. For example: We are always concerned with the consequences of a natural disaster. But what brought us into such a calamity in the first place?
  • Concepts. Natural disasters can be studied in the framework of various disciplines. But in all cases, they are linked with geology, biology, chemistry, geography, and some other subjects with broad and complicated terminology. Explain the terms that could be elusive for your readers here. For example: For the purposes of this essay, an earthquake is a sudden displacement of the land surface.
  • Background. How did you come to think of this problem? Why is it topical? The causes of earthquakes are numerous and often unrelated. To understand them as a system, we need a strict classification.
  • Thesis statement . Clearly state the aim of your essay. This essay attempts to group the causes of earthquakes to determine which factors can be tackled by human forces.
  • Transition sentence. It comes in the previous sentence (for paragraphs 2 and 3) and ensures smooth reading. E.g.: Tectonic movements are the most powerful causes of earthquakes, and we cannot influence them. But still, there is something we could do.
  • Topic sentence . What will you explain in this paragraph? Human interference with nature can also cause earthquakes.
  • Evidence. How can you confirm the topic sentence? Heavy clubbing of dam water can disturbance the crustal balance. Nuclear bombing causes shockwaves that penetrate the surface, changing the tectonic plates and their natural alignment. Mining can also cause earthquakes by removing extensive volumes of stone from under the ground.
  • Warrant. Why does the reader need this information, and how does it relate to the thesis statement? Knowing these facts can help us change the old-fashioned approaches and lessen the ecological damage to our planet.
  • Summary. Collect and summarize all your arguments here. Tectonic movements, volcano eruptions, and geological faults cause a significant part of earthquakes worldwide. But various man-made causes bring us to the same result.
  • Rephrased thesis. We cannot stop the tectonic movements or hinder volcanic eruptions, but we can use natural resources with more care.

🌊 Natural Disaster Essay 200 Words

Below you will find a short natural disaster essay for 200 words. It explores the causes and effects of the tsunami in Japan in 2011.

Tsunami in Japan: Causes and Effects The proximity of the deadliest disasters is often unpredictable. As a result, the consequences of a tsunami can exceed any possible expectations. This essay looks for the decisive factors that caused the tsunami in Japan in 2011 and its results for the local population and other countries. The causes were out of human control and could not be predicted. The Pacific plate moved in the horizontal and vertical plane, advancing beneath the Eurasian Plate. It displaced the seawater above and entailed several destructive waves. The disaster had enormous consequences for the Japanese people and their economy. It killed almost 16,000 people, although the country had a sophisticated alarming system. Besides, the earthquake caused fires and explosions at oil factories. The cooling system of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant went out of service. Two people were lost, and many were injured. Nissan, like many other large corporations, had to suspend the operation of its four factories. The economic losses due to the catastrophe amounted to 300 billion dollars. But the disaster moved to other places. On 24 March 2011, the earthquake in the east of Myanmar claimed the lives of 60 people and destroyed 300 buildings. As we can see, everything is linked on our planet. Movements of the earth’ crust in any part of the world bring about earthquakes and tsunami in other countries. The series of waves in Japan was caused by the underwater earthquake and had horrible consequences.

🏜️ Natural Disaster Essay 300 Words

If your assignment is longer, you will have to provide your opinion in the essay. Or, you can make your argumentation more detailed. Below you can check our 300-word sample of a disaster essay.

The Economic Effects of the Dust Bowl Drought When someone says “a natural disaster,” we usually imagine an earthquake or a tsunami. Buildings are destroyed, and property is lost. But imagine a scenario of a devastating drought, which happened in the US in the 1930s. Its effect is less visible because it lies in the domain of the national economy. This essay reveals the economic consequences of the Dust Bowl drought. During the third decade of the XX century, strong winds raised choking dust in the southern states, from Texas to Nebraska. People and animals died as the crops failed in the area for several years in a row. The Dust Bowl lasted for almost a decade and was also called “the Dirty Thirties.” This drought intensified the impact of the Great Depression. Local farmers had to migrate to urban areas in search of better conditions and other sources of living. About 2.5 million people moved West from the worst-hit states, namely New Mexico, Texas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Kansas. But they found only discrimination, meager salaries, and inhuman working conditions. Many had to live in tents near irrigation ditches. They were called “Okies,” a disdainful name for migrants of any state. Regular rains returned to the southern states by the end of 1939, closing the drought. However, the economic aftermath persisted. The counties that suffered the most failed to recover the agricultural value of their land till the 1950s. Thus, the local population kept decreasing for twenty years. Although a drought does not ruin property, it can tangibly lower human life levels. The Dust Bowl threw people into a lose-lose situation. Their farms were unfit for gaining any profit, and the new places of living gave them no better opportunities. It took two decades to restore public wellbeing in the Southern States.

Researching the worst acts of nature can teach you to value what you have. We hope that this article has made your creative writing more manageable and pleasurable. You can write an essay of any length by simply following our outline. All you will need to do after that is make a cover page for it.

Please share your natural disaster essay ideas in the comments below.

❓ Natural Disaster Essay FAQ

How to write an essay about natural disaster.

Your approach should depend on the discipline. But in any case, you can discuss the types of disasters, their consequences, characteristics, and preconditions. The excellent idea is to select a past disastrous event and analyze it from the economic, social, or individual point of view.

What Is a Disaster Essay?

A disaster essay explores the stages of a natural or man-made calamity and seeks the possible ways to prevent similar emergencies in the future. An article on disaster management studies the correct and efficient activities to lower the casualties and property loss after a disaster.

What Is Disaster Preparedness Essay?

This type of writing analyzes the level of readiness of a region or municipality to an unexpected natural disaster. You can highlight the vulnerable groups of the population that will suffer the most. Or, you may invent measures that could reduce the disaster response and coping time. Such assignments teach you strategic thinking and a systematic approach to problem-solving.

How to Describe a Natural Disaster for an Essay?

You should specify that the event was unexpected and led to many deaths and property loss. The most critical things include the causes of the disaster, its progress and duration, and the negative consequences for the locals. You can also specify the negative effect on the economy and humanitarian condition of the area.

🔗 References

  • Natural Disasters and Severe Weather | CDC
  • Types of Disasters | SAMHSA
  • Natural Disaster – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
  • Natural Disasters – National Geographic
  • What Is Disaster Management: Prevention and Mitigation

Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Natural Disasters — Natural Disasters: Causes and Impacts


Natural Disasters: Causes and Impacts

  • Categories: Natural Disasters

About this sample


Words: 682 |

Published: Jan 31, 2024

Words: 682 | Page: 1 | 4 min read

Table of contents

Introduction, definition of natural disasters, causes of natural disasters, environmental effects of natural disasters, economic effects of natural disasters, social effects of natural disasters, mitigation and preparedness measures.

  • Callaghan, K., & Alexander, M. (2018). Hurricane Harvey on the Gulf Coast: A Comprehensive Analysis of Impacts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School.
  • IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press.
  • McMahon, J., & Keefer, J. (2016). Social Vulnerability and Tropical Cyclones in Sint Maarten. Journal of Water and Climate Change , 7(2), 396-408.
  • UNDRR. (2017). Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. United Nations.
  • Vos, F., Dykes, J., & Pierce, L. (2017). Flood Preparedness and Early-warning System Effectiveness in the Philippines. Disasters, 41(S1), S16-S37.

Image of Alex Wood

Cite this Essay

Let us write you an essay from scratch

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Get high-quality help


Dr. Karlyna PhD

Verified writer

  • Expert in: Environment


+ 120 experts online

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!

Related Essays

2 pages / 927 words

3 pages / 1325 words

2 pages / 1116 words

1 pages / 397 words

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

121 writers online

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled

Related Essays on Natural Disasters

Flash flooding is a common and dangerous natural disaster that can have devastating impacts on communities and ecosystems. Duck Creek, located in the southwestern United States, is no stranger to flash flooding, with its dry [...]

Doswell III, C. A., & Burgess, D. W. (1988). On Some Issues of United States Tornado Climatology. Monthly Weather Review, 116(3), 495–501.Brooks, H. E., & Doswell III, C. A. (2002). Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado [...]

Climate change is an urgent global concern, with far-reaching consequences for our planet. One of the most visible manifestations of climate change is its impact on global weather patterns. In this essay, we will utilize recent [...]

The sinking of the RMS Lusitania on May 7, 1915, stands as one of the most significant maritime disasters in history, not only due to the tragic loss of life but also because of its profound geopolitical ramifications. As a [...]

What is a disaster? According to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies a disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, [...]

Blake, E. S., Landsea, C. W., & Gibney, E. J. (2011). The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Hurricanes from 1851 to 2010 (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6.

Related Topics

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

Where do you want us to send this sample?

By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

Be careful. This essay is not unique

This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

Download this Sample

Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

Please check your inbox.

We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

Get Your Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

essay about natural disaster

Effects of Natural Disasters Essay

  • To find inspiration for your paper and overcome writer’s block
  • As a source of information (ensure proper referencing)
  • As a template for you assignment


Effects of natural disasters on natural resources, effects of natural disasters on physical infrastructure, impacts of natural disasters on population, economic effects of natural disasters, effects of natural disasters on human labor and technology, effects of hurricane katrina to the u.s economy, reference list.

Natural disasters range from climatic cataclysms such as droughts, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes to geological catastrophes like earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Their consequences are both short-term and long-term and lead to either negative or positive consequences on the economy of a country. This effects of natural disasters essay will examine each outcome of such tragedies.

Generally, natural disasters affect the physical infrastructural facilities and lead to a lack of agricultural productivity. They tend to cause the loss of life and damage to property. Various factors influence the effects of natural disasters on a country. Among them are the magnitude of the disaster, the geography of the area affected and recovery efforts directed towards reducing the immediate consequences. Failure to mitigate the short-term economic issues impacts the long-term economic growth of a country.

It can be crucial to understand both causes and effects of natural disasters. This essay, however, will focus on the negative consequences that follow such tragedies.

The effects of natural disasters on natural resources can be both negative and positive. Natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes dislodge trees causing a reduction in forest cover. Hurricanes and floods also wash away the fertile top soil reducing soil fertility that negatively affects agricultural productivity (Popp 2003, 63). Disasters also lead to the destruction of agricultural resources notably crops and livestock.

Natural disasters such as droughts and floods affect crop and livestock farming thus reducing agricultural production (Bradford & Carmichael, 2006: 56). This phenomenon results to “high food prices products, which in turn affect the economic stability of a region or country” (Maharatna, 1999: 54). Natural disasters also lead to the destruction of wildlife and natural phenomena thus affecting tourism; for instance, storms such as the Tenerife storm in 2005 destroyed ‘El Dedo de Dios’ an important tourist attraction thus affecting tourism

Natural disasters can also cause beneficial effects to a country’s economy. Rich fertile alluvial soils deposited on flood plains are ideal for faming of crops. Additionally, Abbott posits that “Disasters such as volcanic eruptions emit volcanic ash that forms fertile volcanic soils ideal for agriculture” (2004: 342). Volcanic eruptions also lead to the formation of craters that are important tourist attraction.

Natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods destroy infrastructural facilities such as roads and airports affecting transportation and economic growth. As Temple says, physical infrastructural facilities are important in stimulation of economic growth of any country (1999: 139).

However, natural disasters destroy these structures and thus negatively affect economic growth of a country. Critical infrastructure such as transportation and communication, health systems and energy supply are affected by natural infrastructure (Parfomak, 2005:14). However, efforts geared towards reconstruction and rebuilding of physical infrastructural facilities can help promote return to normalcy.

Natural disasters have negative effects on population growth of a country. Many lives are lost during natural catastrophes such as tsunamis and floods which reduces the population of a region or a country; a good example is the Japan tragedy which saw thousands of lives lost.

Additionally, Cain laments that the prospects of “a natural disaster occurring causes fear which leads to a decline in birth rate of f the population” (1983: 698). Destruction of natural resources affects the economy leading to low per capita income among the citizens, which in turn influences the fertility rate of a population (Lee, 1985: 635). Low fertility rate contributes to a decline in population growth.

Natural disasters negatively affect important sectors of a country’s economy. Natural disasters affect a country’s energy production stations including oil refineries and nuclear plants leads energy crisis, which results to high oil prices (Noy, 2009: 13).

According to the Congressional Research Service report, “Hurricane Katrina affected oil refineries and pipelines in the U.S. Gulf coast leading to higher oil prices nationally and internationally” (Cashell & Labonte, 2005: 16 ). This led to slower economic growth of the regions hit by the hurricane. Japan is still battling to prevent a nuclear disaster following the recent earthquake and tsunami that rocked the country recently.

Natural disasters also lead to reduced domestic and international trade, which negatively affect the economy. Moreover, natural disasters affect ports and transportation, which lead to reduction of the amount of imports and exports thus affecting trade. Additionally, natural disasters can bring beneficial effects to the economy of a region.

Skidmore and Toya highlight that, natural disasters precede “intensive construction and building activities to bring about recovery” (2002, 148). The locals and the businesses operating in a region affected by the natural disaster are employed in these recovery activities. However, the destruction of property and infrastructure by natural disasters often result to massive unemployment rates.

Skilled human labor is an important element in achieving economic development in any country. Natural disasters like floods and volcanoes cause death and loss of life thereby reducing the human capital of a region and as Skoufas notes, natural disasters also affect training of human capital through the disruption of schools and damage to training facilities (2003: 99).

Damage to property and unemployment lead to reduced family income, which affect education of especially the young people leading to majority of students to drop out of school. Natural disasters adversely affect technological developments of a country. However, natural disasters can stimulate technological innovations to withstand future disasters such as earthquakes. Technological innovations promote economic growth of a country.

Hurricane Katrina caused damage to many residential property and affected “physical infrastructure like roads and bridges in many states especially Louisiana and Mississippi” (Black & Veatch, 2006: 4). Wastewater disposal systems were affected especially in New Orleans due to damage caused on pipes.

It also affected water supply, electricity and essential healthcare delivery to the affected regions. Transportation of oil products and gas back and forth these regions were affected (Rahman, 2005: 114). The hurricane Katrina affected economy of the states hit by the disaster and the national economy. The U.S. national economic growth declined up to 1.0% because of the effects of the hurricane in these states. However, rebuilding activities will enhance economic growth.

The hurricane disaster affected the energy production centers including the oil refineries in Louisiana. The daily output of these refineries reduced because of the effects of the hurricane leading to a rise in oil and gas prices in the country.

The effects to the ports and oil pipes also contributed to energy crisis experienced during the same period. Due to the destruction of property and industrial facilities by the hurricane, high unemployment rates occurred in these states (Liu, Matt, & Mabanta, 2006: 123). Recovery efforts involve rebuilding the industrial and physical infrastructure and facilities such as schools.

The effects of natural disasters are both short-term including loss of life and damage to property and long-term affecting the economic stability of a region or a country. Damage to infrastructure and energy production centers lead to adverse effects on a country’s economic development. Recovery efforts involving construction and rebuilding of facilities help reverse the effects of disasters and provide employment to the affected people. Other natural disasters such as floods bring beneficial products as sectors such as agriculture improve.

Abbott, P, Natural Disasters . McGraw, New York, 2004.

Black, R & S Veatch, ‘Assessment of Reconstruction Costs and Debt Management for Wastewater Utilities Affected by Hurricane Katrina’, Water Environment Federation , 2006.

Bradford, M & R Carmichael, Natural disasters. Salem Press, Pasadena, 2001.

Cain, M, ‘Fertility as an adjustment to risk’, Population and Development Review , vol. 9, No. 4, 1983, pp. 680- 689.

Cashell, B & M Labonte, ‘The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina’, CRS Report for Congress , 2005.

Lee, R, ‘Population homeostasis and English demographic history’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History , vol.15, no. 4, 1985, pp. 635-660.

Liu, A, et al, ‘Special Edition of the Katrina Index: A One Year Review of Key Indicators Of Recovery in Post Storm New Orleans’, The Brookings Institution , 2006.

Maharatna, A, The demography of famines . Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.

Noy, I, ‘The macroeconomic consequences of disasters’, Journal of Development Economics , vol. 88, no. 2, 2009, pp. 10-21.

Parfomak, W, ‘Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: Background And Policy Options’, CRS Report for Congress , 2005.

Popp, A, The effects of natural disasters on long run growth , 2003. Web.

Rahman, S, ‘Impact of Natural Disasters on Critical Infrastructures’ The 1st Bangladesh Earthquake Symposium , 2005

Skidmore, M & H Toya, ‘Do Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?’ Economic Inquiry , vol. 40, no. 16, 2002, pp.142.

Skoufas, E, ‘Economic Crises and Natural Disasters: Coping Strategies and Policy Implications’, World Development , vol.31, no. 4, 2003, pp. 78-103.

Temple, J, ‘The New Growth Evidence’, Journal of Economic Literature , vol. 37, no. 9, 1999, pp. 112-156.

  • Public Health Lapses in Dealing With Hurricane Katrina
  • Hurricane Katrina: Genesis and Impact
  • Natural Disasters: Earthquakes, Floods and Volcanic Eruption
  • “Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything“ by S.levitt and S.dubner
  • The Recession of 2007-2009
  • The Causes of Poverty Concentration in the Modern World
  • Economic Issues Simulation Paper
  • Trade Unions Network History and Structure
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2018, December 27). Effects of Natural Disasters Essay.

"Effects of Natural Disasters Essay." IvyPanda , 27 Dec. 2018,

IvyPanda . (2018) 'Effects of Natural Disasters Essay'. 27 December.

IvyPanda . 2018. "Effects of Natural Disasters Essay." December 27, 2018.

1. IvyPanda . "Effects of Natural Disasters Essay." December 27, 2018.


IvyPanda . "Effects of Natural Disasters Essay." December 27, 2018.

  • Essay Samples
  • College Essay
  • Writing Tools
  • Writing guide


Creative samples from the experts

↑ Return to Essay Samples

Descriptive Essay: Natural Disasters

With climate change causing increasingly chaotic weather patterns, natural disasters are becoming more common across the world. To properly set up plans to protect against natural disasters, it’s important to understand exactly what effects they have on society by looking at past disasters.

A natural disaster is anything ranging from a volcanic eruption to a tropical storm. This is regardless of whether the natural disaster was indirectly caused by mankind, like those caused as a result of global warming.

The distance is a major factor in the effects of a natural disaster. A major forest fire in the wilds of California, as has happened frequently in the late 2000s, impacts a minimal number of people because there are few people who live here. In this case, it’s an example of the devastation it can have on plants and animals.

During these fires, large swathes of forest were wiped out. It reduces the chance of another natural disaster in future, but it also sends large numbers of animals away from the area. This leaves California less naturally diverse and might deter some nature tourists, which impacts the economy.

The human cost is the main effect of a natural disaster when it occurs closer to densely populated areas. Mount Vesuvius is the most dangerous volcano in Europe and is the only European mainland volcano to erupt in the last 100 years. In 79 AD, it buried the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Today, it’s still active and 3 million people live in the immediate area.

The number of deaths impacts society because it wipes part of the population away. This leaves survivors traumatised and family members impacted emotionally. It’s also an economic problem as it could deprive businesses of valuable employees, or even destroy them completely.

In the context of a nation, a natural disaster in a populated area could easily cause an economic slump. The loss of business and the reduction in tourists to the surrounding areas can shut down companies and cause increasing levels of unemployment. It also encourages emigration, which promotes long-term negative economic effects.

Politically, there are two things which usually happen. The governing party of a country acts to aid the affected victims and it changes the ideologies and views of the citizenry. It also distracts them from any other pressing issues which the government has been dealing with. To some in politics, they take the cynical view of a natural disaster being a welcome relief for a government under fire.

Alternatively, the political effects become damaging. If the government doesn’t evacuate people quickly enough or hasn’t been seen to do enough to stave off a disaster, it could turn people against them.

Overall, a natural disaster goes further than just to change the lives of people directly impacted. It goes on to change the way a country does business, acts, and even the way it thinks.

Get 20% off

Follow Us on Social Media


Get more free essays

More Assays

Send via email

Most useful resources for students:.

  • Free Essays Download
  • Writing Tools List
  • Proofreading Services
  • Universities Rating

Contributors Bio

Contributor photo

Find more useful services for students

Free plagiarism check, professional editing, online tutoring, free grammar check.

Talk to our experts


  • Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English


Read Natural Disaster Essay on Vedantu

The planet earth has gone through many changes over these centuries. These changes are majorly due to natural disasters happening throughout time. When we talk about natural disasters, pollution, ozone depletion and global warming are the most common scenarios we witnessed.

Growing industrialisation and exploitation of natural resources have changed the echo system bringing on the verge of imbalance. However, over these decades, humans have also introduced many disaster warning systems helping to predict natural occurrence in advance. You can read more about Natural Disasters on Vedantu.

Different Faces of Natural Disasters

Nature possesses the character of a special balance in which all living beings live together in harmony with their environment. But whenever this balance is disturbed, we see the disastrous form of nature which wreaks havoc upon this world. Natural disasters come in various forms like earthquakes, Tsunami, Storms, Cyclones, droughts etc. These disasters have always occurred throughout history but the current threat of climate change has severely increased its risks. Man has to learn that he cannot control nature and his life should revolve around the conditions present in the environment and not the other way around.

We have tried to change the basic character of the Human-Nature relationship with every metric of development being centred on financial interest and the rise of global consumerism.  This way of life promotes greed and has fundamentally made human beings disoriented towards nature. Our festivals celebrate the intrinsic relationship between humans and the environment where we celebrate Mountains, Rivers, and Animals etc. Natural disasters are a reminder that humans must never take the gift of nature for granted and always reciprocate for the resources that we have received from the environment. Clean Air, Clean Water and harmony in the ecosystem is a prerequisite for Human well being.  

How to Deal with Natural Disasters?

India, due to its unique geographical character, faces natural disasters every year which cause massive harm to lives and property. Whether it be the floods of Uttarakhand in 2013 or the landslides in Western Ghats of Kerala. The cost of our blind exploitation of natural resources without showing reverence for the delicate balance of Nature has severely harmed us and we must learn lessons from these incidents.

One of the greatest stories of the Indian government in dealing with disaster readiness has been the story of the Indian state of Odisha. Odisha is a coastal state in eastern India that regularly faces cyclones that have caused great harm to the state. To deal with the menace of these cyclones the Odisha Government made an elaborate plan by taking the local communities in confidence and have successfully reduced the number of deaths in Odisha to a very small number which used to be in thousands earlier. Other Indian states should also learn from the experience of Odisha on how to improve disaster preparedness.

Keeping our environment safe and following the right process will help in bringing down the natural disasters. It is vital to learn about them.


FAQs on Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English

1.  What are natural disasters increasing?

Over the years, natural disasters have increased. Regular earthquakes, massive flooding, cyclones, etc. have increased. According to the office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) which maintains an emergency disaster database, if a natural disaster kills 10 people, then it leaves 100 people injured. Increase in hydro-meteorological disasters, the combination of natural and man-made factors is leading to an increase in natural disasters.

2. What are the natural disasters that happened in 2020?

From wildfires in the US to locusts attack in India and back-to-back cyclones in India, there are many natural disasters in 2020. According to the Global Catastrophe Recap’s First Half of 2020 report, there were more than 207 natural disasters in just the first six months of 2020, causing \[$\]75 billion loss globally.

3. What natural disaster is the worst?

Every natural disaster causing the loss of both property and human lives is the worst. Be it the earthquake, wildfire or cyclone; each disaster can be the worst in its sense.

4. What are the causes of natural disasters?

Natural disasters are caused by a number of reasons which may or may not be linked to Human interference. Floods, for example, occur generally because of a sudden increase in water level which cannot be supported by the natural geography of the river, however, it has been observed that floods have also occurred due to human interference like encroachment of river banks, illegal sand mining and obstructions in the natural flow of the river. 

5. What are the agencies that deal with natural disasters?

On the National level, Natural disasters are dealt with by the National Disaster Relief Force or the NDRF. The NDRF has its own commissioned force which is highly experienced and trained to deal with situations when a disaster has occurred. Apart from the NDRF, there is also the SDRF which is present in every state. The central and state governments work in coordination during Natural disasters and saving lives along with restoration of normalcy is the primary concern of the relief operations.

6. What are the ways to deal with floods and droughts?

It may sound surprising to some people but India is a unique country where due to its vast geography, we have seen conditions where some parts of the country are facing floods while other parts suffer from drought in the same year. These are especially tough to deal with as the volume of water in floods just cannot be stored and once a region is facing drought, access to water becomes a question of survival. Linking rivers is a very grand scheme which can solve some of our problems but this also needs to be dealt with caution.

7. What can I do to contribute to disaster relief programmes?

The central and state governments carry out various programmes which are directly related to disaster relief work, coordinating with the agencies and donating to these relief operations are some things that we can do as citizens. There are various NGOs that provide relief material to people who are suffering from natural disasters. Creating awareness about such an important issue is also an essential activity. You can learn more about it on Vedantu website and download it in PDF format.

8. Which regions are the most affected by natural disasters in India?

Every part of the country has a unique geographical character and in some way or the other, they face the threat of natural disasters. Bihar and Assam are two such states which face floods on an annual basis, The Himalayan states have a very delicate ecology and save the menace of flash floods and landslides. Maharashtra has a problem of flooding in the Western Ghats while Vidarbha faces drought. Innovative ways must be discovered by states to deal with natural disasters.

  • Essay On Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters Essay

500+ words essay on natural disasters.

A natural disaster is defined as an event of nature, which overwhelms local resources and threatens the function and safety of the community. Natural disasters are the consequence of natural phenomena unleashing processes that lead to physical damage and the loss of human lives and capital. Earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, windstorms, floods and droughts are some examples of natural disasters. These disasters disrupt the lives of communities and individuals and the economic activity of the affected area. Students must go through this essay on Natural Disaster and gather ideas to write effective essays on topics related to them. Practising essays on such topics will improve the writing skills of the students and help them score better in the English exam.

Classification of Natural Disasters

Natural disasters result from forces of climate and geology. These are perhaps the most “unexpected” and costly overall in terms of loss of human lives and resources.

Disasters are classified into four categories depending on how they arise:

(1) Internal Earth Processes: It covers geophysical phenomena arising from the internal processes of the earth. It includes earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc., which human beings cannot usually predict or prevent.

(2) External Earth Processes: These comprise phenomena such as landslides, collapses, flooding, mudslides etc. These hazards can be avoided and are often associated with man-made alterations in the environment, such as deforestation on hillsides or excavations and many more such activities.

(3) Hydrometeorological Hazards: It is associated with changes in air and ocean temperature. This hazard is responsible for the formation of weather phenomena such as hurricanes and tornadoes, and the precipitation and climate variations that sometimes cause extreme flooding, storm surges, droughts and other hydrological phenomena.

(4) Biological Hazards: Biological disasters result from the proliferation of agents such as bacteria, viruses and toxins that can kill or disable people, harm animals, and crops and damage the environment. Some examples of biological hazards are cholera, dengue, yellow fever, Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The current pandemic situation due to Coronavirus is also an example of biological hazards.

Disaster Management

Disasters have massive human and economic costs. They may cause many deaths, severe injuries, and food shortages. Most incidents of severe injuries and deaths occur during the time of impact, whereas disease outbreaks and food shortages often arise much later, depending on the nature and duration of the disaster. Anticipating the potential consequences of disasters can help determine the actions that need to be started before the disaster strikes to minimize its effects.

Disasters are the ultimate test of a community’s emergency response capability. There are 3 major steps that can be taken to manage disaster which include pre-disaster management, during-disaster management and post-disaster management. The pre-disaster management involves generating data and information about the disasters, preparing vulnerability zoning maps and spreading awareness among the people about these. Apart from these, disaster planning, preparedness and preventive measures are other steps that need to be taken in vulnerable areas.

During disasters, rescue and relief operations such as evacuation, construction of shelters and relief camps, supplying of water, food, clothing and medical aids etc. should be done on an emergency basis. Post-disaster operations involve rehabilitation and recovery of victims. It should concentrate on capacity building in order to cope with future disasters, if any. These measures have special significance to India as about two-thirds of its geographical area and an equal proportion of its population are vulnerable to disasters. The Government of India has also taken some steps for disaster management such as passing the disaster management bill and the establishment of the National Institute of Disaster Management.

Keep learning and stay tuned with BYJU’S for the latest updates on CBSE/ICSE/State Board/Competitive Exams. Also, download the BYJU’S App for interactive study videos.

Frequently Asked Questions on Natural disasters Essay

What are the types of natural disasters.

Floods/tsunamis, wildfires, drought, hurricane/storms and earthquakes are examples for common natural disasters.

How can we control the impact of a natural disaster?

Impact of natural disasters can be mitigated to an extent by creating awareness among the public about counter measures to be taken. Governments could use disaster prediction technology and install warning systems to alert people about impending disasters. Implementing and enforcing building codes is another measure to reduce the after-effects of disasters.

How do natural disasters affect the environment?

Wildfires, floods, and tornadoes cause structural changes to our ecosystem and also damage the natural inhabitation of that area.

CBSE Related Links

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Request OTP on Voice Call

Post My Comment

essay about natural disaster

Register with BYJU'S & Download Free PDFs

Register with byju's & watch live videos.

Geography Notes

Essay on natural disasters: top 12 essays | geography.


Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Natural Disasters’ for class 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Natural Disasters’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Natural Disasters

Essay Contents:

  • Essay on the Initiatives Taken by the Government

Essay on Natural Disaster # 1. Introduction:

The definition of natural disasters is any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth. The severity of a disaster is measured in lives lost, economic loss, and the ability of the population to rebuild. Events that occur in unpopulated areas are not considered disasters. So a flood on an uninhabited island would not count as a disaster, but a flood in a populated area is called a natural disaster.

All natural disasters cause loss in some way. Depending on the severity, lives can be lost in any number of disasters. Falling buildings or trees, freezing to death, being washed away, or heat stroke are just some of the deadly effects. Some disasters cause more loss of life than others, and population density affects the death count as well.

Hence, there is loss of property, which affects people’s living quarters, transportation, livelihood, and means to live. Fields saturated in salt water after tsunamis take years to grow crops again. Homes destroyed by floods, hurricanes, cyclones, landslides and avalanches, a volcanic eruption, or an earthquake are often beyond repair or take a lot of time to become livable again. Personal effects, memorabilia, vehicles, and documents also take a hit after many natural disasters.

The natural disasters that really affect people worldwide tend to become more intense as the years go on. Frequency of earthquakes, mega storms, and heat waves has gone up considerably in the last few decades. Heavy population in areas that get hit by floods, cyclones, and hurricanes has meant that more lives are lost.

In some areas, the population has gotten somewhat prepared for the eventuality of disasters and shelters are built for hurricanes and tornadoes. However, loss of property is still a problem, and predicting many natural disasters isn’t easy.

Scientists, geologists, and storm watchers work hard to predict major disasters and avert as much damage as possible. With all the technology available, it’s become easier to predict major storms, blizzards, cyclones, and other weather related natural disasters. But there arestill natural disasters that come up rather unexpectedly, such as earthquakes, wildfires, landslides, or even volcanic eruptions.

Sometimes, a time of warning is there, but it’s often very short with catastrophic results. Areas that are not used to disasters affected by flash floods or sudden hail storms can be affected in an extreme way. However, despite the many natural disasters the world over, mankind has shown amazing resilience.

When an area or country is badly affected by a natural disaster, the reaction is always one of solidarity and aid is quick to come. There are organizations set up with the primary goal of being prepared for natural disasters. These groups work on global and local scale rescue work. Aside from those who have chosen to make disaster relief their life-work, when disasters hit, it’s the individuals who step in who help to make a difference.

Many people talk about when a disaster has hit and their neighbours and countrymen have come to aid, often to their own loss. People will step in and donate items, time, and skills in order to help those affected by a natural disaster. Celebrities will often do what they can to raise money through concerts, phone marathons, and visiting affected areas with aid.

People have also shown that they can rebuild, lives can be remade or start over. Trauma is a big after effect of natural disasters and getting counseling has been the focus of aid-to heal emotionally as well as physically. It’s clear that natural disasters are a part of life as we know it. However, science is making it more possible to predict, aid is faster at coming, and people are learning how to rebuild in safer areas.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 2. Earthquake :

India is having a high risk towards earthquakes. More than 58 per cent of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard. During the last 20 years, India has experienced 10 major earthquakes that have resulted in more than 35,000 deaths. The most vulnerable areas, according to the present seismic zone map of India include the Himalayan and Sub-Himalayan regions, Kutch and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Depending on varying degrees of seismicity, the entire country can be divided into the following seismic regions: Of the earthquake-prone areas, 12% is proneto very severe earthquakes, 18% to severe earthquakes and 25% to damageable earthquakes.

Though the regions of the country away from the Himalayas and other inter-plate boundaries were considered to be relatively safe from damaging earthquakes, the presence of a large number of non-engineering structures and buildings with poor foundations in these areas make these regions also susceptible to earthquakes.

In the recent past, even these areas also have experienced earthquake, of lower magnitude than the Himalayan earthquakes. The North-eastern part of the country continues to experience moderate to strong earthquakes. On an average, this region experiences an earthquake with magnitude greater than 5.0 every year.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are situated on an inter-plate boundary and therefore are likely to experience damaging earthquakes frequently. The increase in earthquake risk in India in recent times is caused due to a spurt in developmental activities driven by urbanization, economic development and the globalization of India’s economy. The increase in the use of high-technology equipment and tools in manufacturing and service industries have also made them susceptible to disruption due to relatively moderate ground shaking.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 3. Flood and Drought :

The country receives an annual precipitation of 400 million hectare meters. Of the annual rainfall, 75% is received during four months of monsoon (June — September) and, as a result, almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period. The flood hazard is compounded by the problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronization of river floods with sea tides in the coastal plains.

The area vulnerable to floods is 40 million hectares and the average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares. About 30 million people are affected by flood every year. Floods in the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains are an annual feature. On an average, a few hundred lives are lost, millions are rendered homeless and several hectares of crops are damaged every year around 68% arable land of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees.

Drought prone areas comprise 108.11 million hectares out of a total land area of 329 million hectares. About 50 million people are affected annually by drought. Of approximately 90 million hectares of rain-fed areas, about 40 million hectares are prone to scanty or no rain.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 4. Cyclone :

India’s long coastline of 7,516 kilometer is exposed to nearly 10 per cent of the world’s tropical cyclones. Of these, the majority has their initial genesis over the Bay of Bengal and strike the east coast of India. On an average, five to six tropical cyclones form every year, of which two or three could be severe.

Cyclones occur frequently on both the Coasts (the West Coast —Arabian Sea; and the East Coast —Bay of Bengal). More Cyclones occur in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea and the ratio is approximately 4:1.

An analysis of the frequency of cyclones on the East and West Coasts of India between 1891 and 1990 shows that nearly 262 cyclones occurred (92 severe) in a 50 km wide strip on the East Coast. Less severe cyclonic activity has been noticed on the West Coast, with 33 cyclones occurring in the same period, out of which 19 of these were severe.

In India, Tropical cyclones occur in the months of May-June and October-November. The cyclones of severe intensity and frequency in the north Indian Ocean are bi-modal in character, with their primary peak in November and secondary peak in May. The disaster potential is particularly high at the time of landfall in the north Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) due to the accompanying destructive wind, storm surges and torrential rainfall.

Of these, storm surges are the greatest killers of a cyclone, by which sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal regions and causes heavy floods, erodes beaches and embankments, destroys vegetation and reduces soil fertility.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 5. Landslide :

In the hilly terrain of India including the Himalayas, landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disasters that often strike life and property and occupy a position of major concern. One of the worst tragedies took place at Malpa (Uttrakhand) on 11th and 17th August, 1998. When nearly 380 people were killed when massive landslides washed away the entire village. This included 60 pilgrims going to Lake.

Mansarovar in Tibet. In 2010 Cloud burst led flash mudslides and flash floods killed 196 people, including 6 foreigners and injured more than 400 and swept away number of houses, sweeping away buildings, bus stand and military installations in trans-Himalaya Leh town of Jammu and Kashmir.

Giving due consideration to the severity of the problem various land reform measures have been initiated as mitigation measures. Landslides occur in the hilly regions such as the Himalayas, North-East India, the Nilgiris, and Eastern and Western Ghats.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 6. Avalanche :

Avalanches are river like speedy flow of snow or ice descending from the mountain tops. Avalanches are very damaging and cause huge loss to life and property. In Himalayas, avalanches are common in Drass, Pir Panijat, Lahaul-Spiti and Badrinath areas.

As per Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), on an average around 30 people are killed every year due to this disaster in various zones of the Himalayas. Beside killing people, avalanches also damage the roads and others properties and settlements falling in its way.

Area Prone to Avalanches:

I. Avalanches are common in Himalayan region above 3500 m elevation.

II. Very frequent on slopes of 30-45°.

III. Convex slopes more prone to this disaster.

IV. North facing slope have avalanches in winter and south facing slopes during spring.

V. Slopes covered with grass more prone to this hazard.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 7. Tsunami:

Tsunami, or seismic sea waves, are large ocean waves generated by impulses from geophysical events occurring on the ocean floor or along the coastline, such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions.

Mostly occurring in the Pacific Ocean, tsunamis, although hardly noticeable at sea, can reach gigantic proportions as they reach shallow, coastal waters. In Hawaii and Japan, for example, tsunamis have been known to reach 30 m in height. At least 22 countries along the rim of the Pacific are estimated to beat risk from potential tsunami.

The fact that tsunamis can travel 10,000 km at velocities exceeding 900 km per hour with little loss of energy and are, therefore, capable of hitting areas not directly affected by the inducing event, has led to the establishment of a tsunami early warning service for the whole circum-Pacific area.

However, only a few of the 22 countries most at risk are considered to have standard operating procedures for immediate evacuation or reliable, rapid communication systems capable of receiving real-time warnings from the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre.

About 6,000-people have been killed by tsunami during 1977-1986 alone. Probably the best documented of these events is the occurrence at Noshiro, Japan, in 1983 which caused approximately 100 deaths and extensive property damage and flooding. The tsunami (Dec. 2004) in South East Asia lead to a death tool of over 2.5 lakhs peoples of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Sumatra and India.

Tsunamis have multiple origin—16.5 per cent resulted from tectonic earthquakes associated with the eruption, 20 per cent from pyroclastic (ash) flows or surges hitting the ocean, 14 per cent from submarine eruptions, 7 per cent resulted from the collapse of the volcano and subsequent caldera formation, 5 per cent from landslides or avalanches, 3 per cent from atmospheric shock waves and 25 per cent had no discernible origin, but probably were produced by submerged volcanic eruptions.

A partial geographical distribution of tsunamis is given in Table 30.2:

Over past two thousand years there have been 10, 00,000 deaths attributed to tsunami in the Pacific region alone. Earlier Pacific Tsunami warning system was established for forecasting the event. Now global network was established in all Oceans & Seas.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 8. Windstorms:

Judged by the frequency with which they cause damage and by the surface area of the regions they strike, windstorms can be said to be the most significant of all natural hazards. Windstorms influence precipitation systems floods and, most importantly, cause severe destruction to crops and properties.

Severe tropical cyclones (called “ hurricanes ” in the Atlantic, Caribbean and north-eastern Pacific; “ typhoons ” in the western Pacific; and “ cyclones ” in the Indian Ocean and in the sea around Australia), tornadoes, monsoons and thunderstorms between them affect every country in the world.

Today increasing attention is being paid to windstorms, particularly tropical cyclones as some scientists see their incidence as being a possible indicator of global climatic change and predict an increase in their frequency.

Have tropical cyclone frequencies or their intensities increased with global changes throughout the last century? At present, available evidence does not support this idea, perhaps because the warming is not yet large enough to make its impact felt (WMO/UNEP, 1990).

Global information on Kanor windstorms and their impact is collated by organisations such as UNDRO UNEP and AID/OFDA. However, global listings of disasters rarely include those which occur in small states such as island states, which in areas such as the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and South Pacific are particularly prone to tropical cyclones.

This is because listings often set a criteria based on magnitude of impact with which small states cannot compete against larger countries. However, the proportional impact upon small states is often far greater in terms of population, housing and economics.

The impact of cyclones goes far beyond just deaths and building damage. In developing countries destruction of infrastructure and primary agriculture can lead to a decrease in exports and gross national product, while increasing the likelihood of forfeiture of international loan repayments. Contamination of water supplies and destruction of crops can also lead to disease and starvation.

Many mid-latitude cyclonic depressions can give rise to exceptionally heavy rain and widespread flooding and snow fall too. Dust storms are windstorms accompanied by suspended clay, silt materials, usually but not always without precipitation. Average 130-800 million tonnes of dust are entrained by winds each year.

Severe windstorms with high level of flush rain often called thunderstorms associated with lightning, hail and tornadoes cause massive destruction of properties and also human lives through out the world. Early warning and emergency relief operation are the major management activity.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 9. Forest Fire :

Forest or bush fire, though not causing much loss to human life, is a major hazard for forest cover in the country. As per Forest Survey of India report, 50 per cent of the forest cover of the country is fire prone, out of which 6.17 per cent is prone to severe fire damage causing extensive loss to forest vegetation and environment. Average annual physical loss due to forest fire in the country is estimated to worth Rs.440 crores.

The major loss due to forest fire is caused to the environment which gets adversely affected by this calamity. The degradation of climate, soil and water quality, loss of wildlife and its habitat, deterioration of human health, depletion of ozone layer, etc., along with direct loss to timber are the major adverse impact of forest fires.

The coniferous forests in the Himalayan region are very susceptible to fire and every year there are one or more major fire incidences in these areas. The other parts of the country dominated by deciduous forest are also damaged by fire up to an extent. It is worth mentioning that in India 90 per cent of the forest fires are man-made (intentionally or unintentionally).

Essay on Natural Disaster # 10. Volcanoes:

Volcanoes are conduits in the earth’s crust through which gas enriched molten silicate rock magma reaches to the surface of earth crust.

An active volcano occurs where magma (molten rock) reaches the earth’s surface through a central vent or a long crack (fissure) Volcanic activity can release ejecta (debris), liquid lava and gases (H 2 O vapour C 2 , SO 2 , NO x , etc.) to the environment.

There are two types of magma ejected out of volcanoes —silica poor materials, and silica rich materials. The silica poor volcanoes called basaltic volcanoes, while the silica rich volcanoes are andesitic volcanoes.

There are many hazardous phenomena produced directly or as secondary effects, by volcanic eruptions.

The direct hazards of volcanic eruptions are:

a. Lava flow;

b. Ballistics and tephra clouds;

c. Pyroclastic flows and base surges;

d. Gases and acid rains;

e. Lahars (mud flows); and

f. Glacier bursts (Jokulhlamps).

In addition indirectly they are associated with earthquake and tsunami events. Volcanoes are visually one of the most spectacular natural hazardous to occur and probably most devastating in terms of loss of human life.

The volcano likes Mt. Vesurivs, Mt. St Helena, Krakatoa, and Mt, Pelee are significant because of either the enormity of the eruption or the resulting death tool. As per Gaius Pinius Caecilius secundus on 24 August, 79 AD the Nt. Vesuvius eruption causes 2,000 death and burying of the Pompeii city.

There is no doubt that the earth is experiencing on of the most intense periods of volcanism in the last 10,000 years. This period began at the beginning of the seventh century, concomitant with global cooling that peaked in the little ice age.

In contrast the volcanic events of the last century may be viewed as freak eruption of supposedly dormant volcanoes. In the present era, volcanic eruption are pervasive, unpredictable and deadly.

Land use planning better prediction of volcanic eruptions and development of effective evacuation plans reduce the loss of human life from volcanic eruption. The prediction systems related to volcanic activity has improved considerably during past few decades. The environmental consequence of volcanic eruption without or with anthropogenic emission is shown in Fig. 30.3.

Essay on Natural Disaster # 11. Planning For a Safer Tomorrow :

Natural disasters have a severe impact on the society, therefore it is important to plan and develop a safety programme and devise means to efficiently deal with natural disaster. Development programme that go into promoting development at the local level have been left to the general exercise of planning.

Measures need also to be taken to integrate disaster mitigation efforts at the local level with the general exercise of planning, and a more supportive environment created for initiatives towards managing of disasters at all levels: national, state, district and local.

The future blue-print for disaster management in India rests on the premise that in today’s society while hazards, both natural or otherwise, are inevitable, the disasters that follow need not be so and the society can be prepared to cope with them effectively whenever they occur.

The need of the hour is to chalk out a multi-pronged strategy for total risk management, comprising prevention, preparedness, response and recovery on the one hand, and initiate development efforts aimed towards risk reduction and mitigation, on the other. Only then can we look forward to “sustainable development”.

Prevention and Preparedness :

Disaster prevention is intrinsically linked to preventive planning.

Some of the important steps in this regard are:

1. Introduction of a comprehensive process of vulnerability analysis and objective risk assessment.

2. Building a Robust and Sound Information Database:

A comprehensive database of the landuse, demography, infrastructure developed at the national, state and local levels alongwith current information on climate, weather and man-made structures is crucial in planning, warning and assessment of disasters. In addition, resource inventories of governmental and non-governmental systems including personnel and equipment help inefficient mobilization and optimization of response measures.

3. Creating State-of-the-Art Infrastructure:

The entire disaster mitigation game plan must necessarily be anchored to front line research and development in a holistic mode. State-of-the art technologies available worldwide need to be made available in India for upgrading of the disaster management system; at the same time, dedicated research activities should be encouraged, in all frontier areas related to disasters like biological, space applications, information technology, nuclear radiation etc., for a continuous flow of high quality basic information for sound disaster management planning.

4. Establishing Linkages between all knowledge-based Institutions:

A National Disaster Knowledge Network, tuned to the felt needs of a multitude of users like disaster managers, decision-makers, community etc., must be developed as the network of networks to cover natural, man-made and biological disasters in all their varied dimensions.

Capacity Building :

Reconstruction and rebuilding is a long drawn process and those involved in this exercise have to draw upon knowledge of best practices and resources available to them. Information and training on ways to better respond to and mitigate disasters to the responders go a long way in building the capacity and resilience of the country to reduce and prevent disasters.

Training is an integral part of capacity building as trained personnel respond much better to different disaster sand appreciate the need for preventive measures. The multi-sectoral and multi-hazard prevention based approach to disaster management. Professional training in disaster management is essential and should be built into the existing pedagogic research and education.

Specialised courses should be treated as a distinct academic and professional discipline, the subject needs to be discussed and taught as a specific component in professional and specialised courses like medicine, nursing, engineering, environmental sciences, architecture, and town and country planning.

Secondly, there has to be a focus towards preventive disaster management and development of a national ethos of prevention calls for an awareness generation at all levels. An appropriate level of awareness at the school level will help increase awareness among children and, in many cases, parents and other family members through these children.

Curriculum development with a focus towards dissemination of disaster related information on a sustained basis, covering all school levels may be worked out by the different school boards in the country.

Training facilities for government personnel involved in disaster management are conducted at the national level by the National Centre for Disaster Management at the Indian Institute of Public Administration, in New Delhi which functions as the nodal institution in the country for training, research and documentation of disasters.

At the State level, disaster management cells operating within the State Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) provide the necessary training. Presently, 24 ATIs have dedicated faculties. There is a need for strengthening specialized training, including training of personnel in disaster response.

Finally, capacity building should not be limited to professionals and personnel involved in disaster management but should also focus on building the knowledge, attitude and skills of a community to cope with the effects of disasters. Identification and training of volunteers from the community towards first response measures as well as mitigation measures is an urgent imperative.

A programme of periodic drills should be introduced in vulnerable areas to enable prompt and appropriate community response in the event of a disaster which can help save valuable lives.

Communi ty Level:

Disaster management programme must strive to build a disaster resilient community equipped with safer living and sustainable livelihoods to serve its own development purposes. The community is also the first responder in any critical situation there by emphasizing the need for community level initiatives in managing disasters.

There is a need to create awareness through education training and information dissemination, community based approach followed by most NGOs and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) should be incorporated in the disaster management sector as an effective means of community participation.

Finally, within a vulnerable community, there exist groups that are more vulnerable like women and children, aged and in firm and physically challenged people who need special care and attention especially during crisis. Efforts are required for identifying such vulnerable groups and providing special assistance in terms of evacuation, relief, aid and medical attention.

Management of disasters should therefore be an interface between a community effort to mitigate and prevent disasters as also an effort from the government machinery to buttress and support popular initiatives.

Developing a St ronger Plan:

Given the damage caused by disaster, planned expenditure on disaster management and prevention measures in addition to the CRF is required. The Central Sector Scheme of Natural Disaster Management Programme has been implemented since 1993-94 by the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation with the objective to focus on disaster preparedness with emphasis on mitigation and preparedness measures for enhanced capability to reduce the adverse impact of disasters.

The major activities undertaken within this scheme include the setting up of the National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) at the Indian Institute of Public Administration, creation of 24 disaster management faculties in 23 states, research and consultancy services, documentation of major disaster events and forging regional cooperation.

The Eighth Plan allocation of Rs.6.30 crore for this scheme was increased to Rs.16.32 crore in the Ninth Plan. Within this scheme, NCDM has conducted over 50 training programme, training more than 1000 people, while 24 disaster management centers with dedicated faculty have been established in the states.

Over 4000 people have been trained at the State level. In addition, some important publications and audio-visual training modules have been prepared and documentation of disaster events has been done.

Though limited in scope and outlays, the Scheme has made an impact on the training and research activities in the country. Creation of faculties in disaster management in all 28 states is proposed to be taken up in the Tenth Plan in addition to community mobilisation, human resource development, establishment of Control Rooms and forging international cooperation in disaster management.

There is also an urgent need for strengthening the disaster management pedagogy by creating disaster management faculties in universities, rural development institutes and other organisations of premier research. Sustainability is the key word in the development process.

Development activities that do not consider the disaster loss perspective fail to be sustainable. The compounded costs of disasters relating to loss of life, loss of assets, economic activities, and cost of reconstruction of not only assets but of lives can scarcely be borne by any community or nation.

Therefore, all development schemes in vulnerable areas should include a disaster mitigation analysis, where by the feasibility of a project is assessed with respect to vulnerability of the area and the mitigation measures required for sustainability. Environmental protection, afforestation programme, pollution control, construction of earthquake resistant structures etc., should therefore have high priority within the plans Mitigation measures on individual structures can be achieved by design standards building codes and performance specifications.

Building codes, critical front-line defence for achieving stronger engineered structures, need to be drawn up in accordance with the vulnerability of the area and implemented through appropriate techno-legal measures. Mitigation measures need to be considered in land use and site planning activities.

Constructions in hazardous areas like flood plains or steep soft slopes are more vulnerable to disasters. Necessary mitigation measures need to be built into the design and costing of development projects. Insurance is a potentially important mitigation measure in disaster-prone areas as it brings quality in the infrastructure consciousness and a culture of safety by its insistence on following building codes, norms, guidelines, quality materials in construction etc.

Disaster insurance mostly works under the premise of ‘higher the risk higher the premium, lesser the risk lesser the premium’, thus creating awareness towards vulnerable areas and motivating people to settle in relatively safer areas?

Essay on Natural Disaster # 12. Major Initiatives taken by Government of India:

Natural disasters have become a recurring phenomenon in the recent past. In the last twenty years or so three million people have been killed as a result of such events. There is a need to focus and develop a plan that would focus on disaster management planning for prevention, reduction, mitigation, preparedness and response to reduce life and property due to natural disaster.

If we take it in the Indian context, the five year plans have never really taken into consideration the issues relating to the management and mitigation of natural disasters. The traditional perception has been limited to the idea of “calamity relief”, which is seen essentially as a non-plan item of expenditure. Disasters can have devastating impact on the economy and is a significant setback to the development in a given region.

Two recent disasters, the Orissa Cyclone and the Gujarat Earthquake, are cases in point. The development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention and mitigation aspects. There is thus a need to look at disasters from a development perspective as well.

Disaster management may not be directly associated with planned financing, but number of schemes are in operation, such as for drought proofing, afforestation, drinking water, etc., which deal with the prevention and mitigation of the impact of natural disasters. Extra assistance for post-disaster reconstruction and streamlining of management structures also is a major consideration of the plan.

A specific, centrally sponsored scheme on disaster management also exists. The plan thus already has a defined role in dealing with the subject. There have been an increasing number of natural disaster over the past years, and with it, increasing losses on account of urbanisation and population growth, as a result of which the impact of natural disasters is now felt to a larger extent.

According to the United Nations, in 2001 alone, natural disasters of medium to high range caused at least 25,000 deaths around the world, more than double the previous year, and economic losses of around US $ 36 billion. Devastations in the aftermath of powerful earthquakes that struck Gujarat, El Salvador and Peru; floods that ravaged many countries in Africa, Asia and elsewhere; droughts that plagued Central Asia including Afghanistan, Africa and Central America; the cyclone in Madagascar and Orissa; and floods in Bolivia are global events in recent memory.

However, what is disturbing is the knowledge that these trends of destruction and devastation are on the rise instead of being kept in check.

Natural disasters know no political boundaries and have no social or economic considerations. They are borderless as they affect both developing and developed countries. They are also merciless, and as such the vulnerable tend to suffer more at the impact of natural disasters.

For example, the developing countries are much more seriously affected in terms of the loss of lives, hardship borne by population and the percentage of their GNP lost. Since number of the most vulnerable regions is in India, natural disaster management has emerged as a high priority for the country.

Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the event, we now have to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation, in order that the periodic shocks to our development efforts are minimized.

Physical vulnerabilities have a direct impact on the population their proximity to the hazard zone and standards of safety maintained to counter the effects. For instance, some people are vulnerable to flood only because they live in a flood prone area. Physical vulnerability also relates to the technical capacity of buildings and structures to resist the forces acting upon them during a hazard event.

However, physical calamities is not the only criteria, there are prevailing social and economic conditions and its consequential effect on human activities within a given society. Parts of the Indian sub-continent are susceptible to different types of disasters owing to the unique topographic and climatic characteristics.

About 54 per cent of the sub-continent’s land mass is vulnerable to earthquakes while about 4 crore hectares is vulnerable to periodic floods. The decade 1990-2000, has been one of very high disaster losses within the country, losses in the Orissa Cyclone in 1999, and later, the Gujarat Earthquake in 2001 alone amount to several thousand crore of Rupees, while the total expenditure incurred on relief and reconstruction in Gujarat alone has been to the tune of Rs.11,500 crore. Disasters often result in enormous economic losses that are both immediate as well as long term in nature and demand additional revenues.

Also, as an immediate fall-out, disasters reduce revenues from the affected region due to lower levels of economic activity leading to loss of direct and indirect taxes. In addition, unplanned budgetary allocation to disaster recovery can hamper development interventions and lead to unmet developmental targets.

Disasters may also reduce availability of new investment, further constricting the growth of the region. Besides, additional pressures may be imposed on finances of the government through investments in relief and rehabilitation work.

Related Articles:

  • Essay on Natural Hazards in India | Geography
  • Essay on Tsunami: Top 8 Essays | Natural Disasters | Geography
  • Cyclones: Compilation of Essays on Cyclones | Natural Disasters | Geography
  • Tsunami: Compilation of Essays on Tsunami | Natural Disasters | Geography

Essay , Geography , Disasters , Natural Disasters , Essay on Natural Disasters

Privacy Overview

cookielawinfo-checkbox-analytics11 monthsThis cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics".
cookielawinfo-checkbox-functional11 monthsThe cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional".
cookielawinfo-checkbox-necessary11 monthsThis cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary".
cookielawinfo-checkbox-others11 monthsThis cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other.
cookielawinfo-checkbox-performance11 monthsThis cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Performance".
viewed_cookie_policy11 monthsThe cookie is set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin and is used to store whether or not user has consented to the use of cookies. It does not store any personal data.
  • School Guide
  • CBSE Notes for Class 8
  • CBSE Notes for Class 9
  • CBSE Notes for Class 10
  • CBSE Notes for Class 11
  • CBSE Notes for Class 12
  • NCERT Solutions
  • English Grammar
  • Basic Maths Formulas

500+ Words Essay on Natural Disasters For Students

From the towering walls of water that sweep across coastlines to the ground-shaking tremors that ripple through the earth’s surface, natural disasters are a stark reminder of the immense power of nature and the fragility of our existence. These catastrophic events strike without warning, leaving in their wake a trail of destruction, displacement, and heartbreak.

Table of Content

Types of Natural Disasters

Causes of natural disasters, effects of natural disasters, precautions and preparedness, 500 words essay on natural disasters.

Natural disasters can take many forms, each with its unique characteristics and consequences. Some of the most devastating types include:

1. Earthquakes: Triggered by the sudden release of energy within the Earth’s crust, earthquakes can cause massive structural damage, trigger tsunamis, and disrupt vital infrastructure.

2. Tsunamis: Towering waves generated by underwater earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, tsunamis can inundate coastal regions with incredible force, sweeping away everything in their path.

3. Hurricanes and Cyclones: These powerful rotating storm systems, fueled by warm ocean waters, bring destructive winds, torrential rain, and storm surges that can devastate entire communities.

4. Floods : Caused by excessive rainfall, melting snow, or dam failures, floods can submerge vast areas, disrupting lives and destroying property.

5. Wildfires: Driven by dry conditions, high winds, and human activities, wildfires can consume vast swaths of land, threatening lives, homes, and natural habitats.

6. Volcanic Eruptions: The explosive release of molten rock, ash, and gases from the Earth’s interior can bury entire regions in a blanket of destruction.

7 . Droughts : Prolonged periods of abnormally low rainfall can lead to water scarcity, crop failures, and even famine in some regions.

While some natural disasters are triggered by geological processes deep within the Earth, others are influenced by human activities and the changing climate. Factors such as deforestation, urbanization, and the burning of fossil fuels can increase the risk and intensity of certain disasters.

Climate change, in particular, is playing an increasingly significant role in the frequency and severity of many natural disasters. Rising global temperatures are contributing to more intense hurricanes, prolonged droughts, and the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, which can exacerbate coastal flooding.

The impact of natural disasters can be catastrophic, affecting every facet of human life and the environment. Some of the most significant effects include:

1. Loss of Life: Natural disasters can claim countless lives, leaving families and communities devastated by the loss of loved ones.

2. Destruction of Infrastructure: Roads, bridges, buildings, and critical infrastructure can be severely damaged or destroyed, hampering relief efforts and hindering recovery.

3. Economic Losses: The damage caused by natural disasters can result in staggering economic losses, affecting businesses, industries, and entire economies.

4. Displacement of Populations: Disasters often force people to abandon their homes and seek shelter elsewhere, leading to humanitarian crises and long-term displacement.

5. Environmental Degradation: Natural disasters can disrupt ecosystems, pollute water sources, and contribute to soil erosion and habitat loss, threatening biodiversity and natural resources.

6. Psychological Trauma: Survivors of natural disasters often grapple with the psychological toll, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety.

While it is impossible to prevent many natural disasters, proactive measures can be taken to mitigate their impact and enhance preparedness. Some of these measures include:

1. Effective Early Warning Systems: Developing and implementing robust early warning systems can provide valuable lead time for evacuation and emergency response efforts.

2. Disaster Risk Reduction: Identifying and addressing vulnerabilities through measures such as land-use planning, building codes, and infrastructure improvements can minimize potential damages.

3. Community Preparedness: Educating and empowering communities on disaster preparedness, including emergency plans, evacuation routes, and survival skills, can save lives and facilitate quicker recovery.

4. Resilient Infrastructure: Investing in resilient infrastructure, such as earthquake-resistant buildings and flood control systems, can reduce the impact of natural disasters.

5. Environmental Protection: Conserving and restoring natural ecosystems, such as wetlands and forests, can act as natural buffers against certain disasters and mitigate their effects.

6. International Cooperation: Fostering global partnerships and collaborations can facilitate knowledge-sharing, resource allocation, and coordinated response efforts during disasters.

Throughout human history, civilizations have grappled with the unpredictable and often merciless power of nature. Natural disasters, ranging from earthquakes and tsunamis to hurricanes and wildfires, have left indelible scars on communities worldwide, reminding us of our fragility in the face of nature’s might.

At their core, natural disasters are events triggered by the Earth’s natural processes, such as tectonic shifts, atmospheric disturbances, or geological phenomena. However, their consequences extend far beyond the physical realm, profoundly impacting lives, livelihoods, and the very fabric of societies.

The destructive force of these events is unparalleled. Earthquakes can reduce towering structures to rubble in mere seconds, while hurricanes and cyclones unleash winds of incredible ferocity, capable of obliterating entire coastlines. Wildfires, fueled by dry conditions and strong winds, consume everything in their path, leaving smoldering landscapes and displaced communities in their wake.

The human toll of natural disasters is staggering. Lives are tragically lost, families are torn apart, and survivors are left to grapple with the psychological trauma of witnessing such overwhelming devastation. Beyond the immediate loss of life, the aftermath often brings a cascade of challenges, including displacement, lack of access to essential resources, and the daunting task of rebuilding shattered communities.

The economic impact of natural disasters is equally profound. Infrastructure is crippled, businesses are disrupted, and entire industries can be brought to a standstill. The ripple effects of these events can reverberate throughout local and global economies, hampering recovery efforts and exacerbating existing vulnerabilities.

Moreover, the environmental consequences of natural disasters are far-reaching. Ecosystems are disrupted, delicate habitats are destroyed, and biodiversity is threatened as species struggle to adapt to the altered landscapes. The long-term effects on the natural world can be felt for generations, further compounding the challenges faced by impacted communities.

Addressing the threat posed by natural disasters requires a multifaceted approach that spans prevention, preparedness, and resilience-building efforts. Investing in robust early warning systems, fortifying infrastructure, and promoting disaster risk reduction strategies are crucial steps in minimizing the impact of these events.

Furthermore, addressing the underlying drivers of climate change is paramount, as many natural disasters are exacerbated by the effects of global warming. By transitioning towards more sustainable practices and reducing our carbon footprint, we can mitigate the intensity and frequency of certain disasters, safeguarding both human and environmental well-being.

Ultimately, natural disasters serve as a humbling reminder of the immense power of nature and the fragility of our existence. While we cannot control the forces that give rise to these events, we can cultivate resilience, foster global cooperation, and prioritize preparedness efforts to better withstand their fury.

As we navigate the unpredictable landscape of natural disasters, let us embrace our shared responsibility to protect lives, safeguard communities, and forge a more sustainable relationship with the natural world. By doing so, we can forge a path towards a future where the devastating impacts of these events are minimized, and humanity emerges stronger and more resilient in the face of nature’s challenges.

Also Read: My Aim in Life Essay For Students: 100, 200 & 500 Words Essay My Village Essay in English For Students 500+ Words Essay on Importance of Education in English

Natural disasters underscore our need for resilience and preparedness. By bolstering infrastructure, safeguarding the environment, and addressing climate change, we can lessen their impact. Emphasizing risk reduction and sustainable practices, we aim to protect lives, economies, and ecosystems. Together, through resilience and cooperation, we can build a future where communities coexist with nature’s forces.

Essay on Natural Disasters- FAQs

What is disaster 1 paragraph.

A disaster is a major disturbance in the operation of a community or society resulting in widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses and impacts that surpass the afflicted community’s or society’s ability to manage using its own resources.

What are the 2 main types of disasters?

Disasters are typically divided into two categories: natural and man-made. Natural catastrophes are typically related with weather and geological occurrences such as severe temperatures, floods, storms, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and drought.

What are 5 man-made disasters?

A. Man-made disasters involve human intent, neglect, or error in the breakdown of a man-made system, as opposed to natural disasters caused by natural hazards. Such man-made calamities include crime, arson, civil unrest, terrorism, war, biological/chemical threats, cyber-attacks, and so on.

Please Login to comment...

Similar reads.

  • School English
  • Essay Writing
  • school blogs

Improve your Coding Skills with Practice


What kind of Experience do you want to share?


Essay on Effects Of Natural Disasters On Human Life

Students are often asked to write an essay on Effects Of Natural Disasters On Human Life in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Effects Of Natural Disasters On Human Life


Natural disasters are sudden events caused by environmental factors. They include floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and others. These disasters have significant effects on human life.

Physical Harm

Natural disasters can cause physical harm. Earthquakes can collapse buildings, and floods can sweep people away. Many people get injured, and some may even lose their lives.

Loss of Property

Natural disasters also lead to loss of property. Homes, schools, and hospitals can be destroyed. This leaves people without shelter, disrupting their daily life.

Impact on Mental Health

The trauma caused by natural disasters can impact mental health. People may experience fear, anxiety, and stress, which can lead to mental health issues like depression.

Effect on Economy

Natural disasters also affect the economy. They destroy infrastructure and disrupt businesses, leading to financial loss.

Natural disasters have severe impacts on human life. They cause physical harm, property loss, mental health issues, and economic damage. Therefore, it’s essential to prepare for such events to reduce their effects.

250 Words Essay on Effects Of Natural Disasters On Human Life

Natural disasters are sudden events caused by environmental factors that harm people and damage property. Earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and wildfires are examples of natural disasters. These disasters have a big impact on human life.

Loss of Life and Health Issues

The most direct effect of natural disasters is the loss of human life. Many people die during these disasters, and others get hurt. After the disaster, there can be diseases and health problems. For example, floods can cause waterborne diseases like cholera.

Damage to Homes and Infrastructure

Natural disasters can destroy homes, schools, hospitals, and roads. This leaves people without shelter and makes it hard to travel or get medical help. After an earthquake or a hurricane, it can take a long time and a lot of money to rebuild.

Impact on Economy

When natural disasters happen, they can hurt a country’s economy. Businesses may be destroyed, and people may lose their jobs. The cost of rebuilding can be very high. This can lead to poverty and economic hardship.

Psychological Impact

In conclusion, natural disasters have a big impact on human life. They can cause death, injury, damage to homes and infrastructure, economic problems, and mental health issues. It’s important for us to understand these effects so we can try to reduce the harm caused by these disasters.

500 Words Essay on Effects Of Natural Disasters On Human Life

Natural disasters are unexpected events caused by environmental factors that harm humans and the environment. Earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and wildfires are all examples of natural disasters. These disasters can have a big impact on human life. They can change people’s lives in many ways.

Natural disasters can destroy homes and buildings. This can leave many people without a place to live. Roads, bridges, and other important structures can also be damaged. This can make it hard for people to travel or get the things they need.

Impact on Food and Water

Natural disasters can also harm the food and water supply. Floods and droughts can ruin crops. This can lead to food shortages. Similarly, disasters can contaminate water sources. This can make it hard for people to find safe drinking water.

Effect on Education

Economic impact.

Natural disasters can have a big effect on the economy. They can cause a lot of property damage. This can cost a lot of money to repair. Also, businesses may have to close. This can lead to job loss and economic problems.

Psychological Effects

Lastly, natural disasters can cause emotional stress. People may feel scared or sad because of what they have experienced. This can affect their mental health.

In short, natural disasters can have many harmful effects on human life. They can cause death, health problems, and damage to homes. They can also affect food and water supplies, education, the economy, and mental health. It is important for us to understand these effects so we can find ways to help people who are affected by natural disasters.

If you’re looking for more, here are essays on other interesting topics:

Apart from these, you can look at all the essays by clicking here .

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

essay about natural disaster

Encyclopedia Britannica

  • Games & Quizzes
  • History & Society
  • Science & Tech
  • Biographies
  • Animals & Nature
  • Geography & Travel
  • Arts & Culture
  • On This Day
  • One Good Fact
  • New Articles
  • Lifestyles & Social Issues
  • Philosophy & Religion
  • Politics, Law & Government
  • World History
  • Health & Medicine
  • Browse Biographies
  • Birds, Reptiles & Other Vertebrates
  • Bugs, Mollusks & Other Invertebrates
  • Environment
  • Fossils & Geologic Time
  • Entertainment & Pop Culture
  • Sports & Recreation
  • Visual Arts
  • Demystified
  • Image Galleries
  • Infographics
  • Top Questions
  • Britannica Kids
  • Saving Earth
  • Space Next 50
  • Student Center
  • Introduction

Frequency and disaster patterns

Damage and deaths, disaster warning systems.


  • Can people cause avalanches?
  • What causes a landslide?
  • How can the hazards of landslides to humans be mitigated?
  • What is a tsunami?
  • What have been some of the worst tsunamis in history?

composition demonstrating Drought. drought, dried crops, duststorm, dried ground.

natural disaster

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

  • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies - What is a disaster?
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security - Natural Disasters
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubMed Central - Natural Disasters
  • NeoK12 - Educational Videos and Games for School Kids - Natural Disaster
  • Table Of Contents


Recent News

natural disaster , any calamitous occurrence generated by the effects of natural, rather than human-driven, phenomena that produces great loss of human life or destruction of the natural environment , private property, or public infrastructure . A natural disaster may be caused by weather and climate events or by earthquakes , landslides , and other occurrences that originate at Earth ’s surface or within the planet itself. No spot on Earth is immune from a natural disaster; however, certain types of disasters are often limited to or occur more frequently in specific geographic regions.

Can we predict natural disasters?

Weather- and climate-driven natural disasters include flooding caused by heavy rains associated with hurricanes and typhoons ( tropical cyclones ) and other intense storms; drought , famine , and wildfires brought on by heat waves and shifts in precipitation patterns; wind -generated devastation caused by tropical cyclones, tornadoes , derechos , and other windstorms ; and damage and loss of life caused by blizzards and heavy snowfalls. Earth-driven natural disasters include large volcanic eruptions (which produce lava flows, explosions, toxic gas clouds, ash falls, and pyroclastic flows that damage populated areas) and strong earthquakes (which result from the sudden fracturing of Earth’s crust ) powerful enough to damage or destroy built-up areas near their origin points.

essay about natural disaster

Some phenomena that produce natural disasters may be caused by a combination of several different forces. For example, landslides (the movement of large masses of rock , debris, and soil downslope) may be caused by rains that saturate the soil on an unstable slope, or they may be triggered by earthquakes. In a similar manner, the buildup of snow on mountain slopes increases the risks of localized avalanches . Tsunamis , catastrophic ocean waves that can rise as high as 30 metres (about 100 feet) above normal sea level , are produced by submarine earthquakes, underwater or coastal landslides, volcanic eruptions, or meteor or comet impacts. The largest tsunamis are fast-moving waves that can travel across oceans to wreak havoc in coastal areas separated thousands of kilometres from one another.

essay about natural disaster

Certain types of natural disasters are more likely to occur in specific geographic regions, and in some places these events occur with seasonal regularity, as in the spring tornado season in the United States or the summer-and-fall hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean , Caribbean Sea , and the Gulf of Mexico . Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are most frequent near tectonic plate boundaries, and an especially active boundary exists between the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates.

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO)—a United Nations (UN) agency that monitors Earth’s land, water , and atmosphere —reported in 2021 that the number of natural disasters per decade showed a fivefold increase from 1979 to 2019, and data collected in the EM-DAT, an international disaster database maintained by the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Brussels, indicate that more than 300 disasters have been tallied each year since 1998. Though many natural disasters are neither preventable nor largely predictable, the WMO report notes that global warming —an increasingly human-driven phenomenon generated by the emission of greenhouse gases , specifically those released by the combustion of fossil fuels —is increasing the frequency of weather- and climate-related natural disasters, such as droughts, heat waves, increasingly intense hurricanes, and flooding due to sea-level rise. Warmer temperatures are causing more extreme weather events by delivering more precipitation to some areas—which may be unused to receiving heavy rains and snows, increasing flooding risk—while delivering less to other areas that rely on it, increasing drought risk. In addition, reliable sources of rainfall, such as the South Asian monsoon , on which agriculture of the Indian subcontinent has long depended, are becoming less predictable, and rain events have become more violent and dangerous, damaging crops and producing more intense flooding. This change has subjected some areas under the monsoon’s influence to extended drought conditions, whereas other areas receive too much rainfall, a pattern that scientists predict will worsen in the 21st century.

essay about natural disaster

The costs of individual natural disasters frequently reach the tens of billions of dollars. Such costs may be associated with damage to crops, buildings, and infrastructure that occurs annually in areas prone to tropical cyclone activity or heavy seasonal rains, with some events, such as the Pakistan floods of 2022 and Hurricane Katrina (which struck the southern United States in 2005), costing more than $30 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Similarly, costs associated with earthquakes, which occur less regularly, can be high (such as China ’s Sichuan earthquake of 2008 and Japan ’s Kōbe earthquake of 1995 , which incurred costs estimated at more than $86 billion and more than $100 billion, respectively).

The number of deaths from natural disasters also varies by location and the intensity of the event; however, the overall trend points to a decline from several hundreds of thousands of deaths annually during the first half of the 20th century to roughly 45,000 deaths globally each year. The number of deaths also varies widely from year to year, with smaller natural disasters (or natural disasters occurring in areas far from human settlement) killing few and shockingly large disasters producing truly massive losses of life. Some of the most notable catastrophic disasters in history include the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 (which killed more than 225,000 people), the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 (which resulted in more than 242,000 deaths), the 2010 Haiti earthquake (which by some estimates may have killed at least 300,000 people), and China’s Shaanxi province earthquake of 1556 (which killed more than 800,000 people).

Although deaths from natural disasters have decreased overall, people in lower-income countries often suffer disproportionately, because these locations have fewer resources and thus greater vulnerability to the elements and to food insecurity . In contrast, highly developed countries have better infrastructure (for communications, evacuation procedures, the movement of resources, and the delivery of medical services). In addition, high-income countries can implement policies that limit construction in flood-prone areas or mandate the construction of more earthquake-resistant homes, office buildings, and other structures, thereby reducing the risk of crushing injury and death stemming from building collapses. Consequently, relatively few people die from earthquakes in California , a location well-known for its strong building codes with respect to withstanding earthquakes, compared with places such as Iran and Pakistan, where building codes are either less stringent or whose codes frequently go unenforced.

essay about natural disaster

Advances in weather forecasting and advances in land-based seismic sensors and sensors placed aboard satellites , aircraft, and stationary buoys floating in the world’s oceans have led to the development of various kinds of early warning systems. In some cases, these systems are capable of predicting or accurately classifying the strength of the physical forces that generate natural disasters before they cause damage. The perhaps most widespread and best known of these systems are those used by national weather bureaus that classify, track, and predict various weather events and issue bulletins about storms and other weather and climate phenomena affecting their land areas and sea zones. National weather bureaus are often made up of a network of numerous local offices spread across a country that gauge local weather conditions several times per day. Data collected by these offices can be used to develop weather models that help to predict the strength of a storm , as well as its location, days in advance of its arrival in a local area.

In addition, specialized units within national governments—such as the China Earthquake Administration, the Japan Meteorological Agency, the United Kingdom’s Met Office, India’s National Center of Seismology, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , and the U.S. Geological Survey—monitor specific physical forces capable of causing the most damaging and deadly natural disasters (that is, earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts , flooding, and winds driven by tornadoes and tropical cyclones). Many of these organizations within specific countries cooperate with their counterparts in others or assist international organizations, such as the WMO and the International Tsunami Information Center, to issue warnings, develop international safety standards, and assess the risks associated with forces that affect several countries or the planet as a whole. Some early warning systems even look beyond Earth’s atmosphere; the near-Earth objects system operated by the European Space Agency and the Scout and Sentry impact hazard systems run by NASA in the United States are a few of several systems designed to detect, track, and predict the risk associated with asteroids , comets, and other extraterrestrial objects capable of striking Earth.

National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Impacts of Natural Disasters: A Framework for Loss Estimation (1999)

Chapter: 4 conclusions and recommendations, 4 conclusions and recommendations.

This report has explained the gaps in our knowledge of natural disaster losses and why these gaps should be filled. Poor knowledge of the resulting economic losses hinders implementation of effective disaster mitigation policies and emergency response programs. Better loss estimates would benefit federal, state, and local governments, insurers, scientists and researchers, and private citizens (both as taxpayers and insurance purchasers).

It is clear that data on economic losses of natural disasters to the nation are incomplete and spread widely across the public and private sectors. Information on both direct and indirect costs is lacking. If data on uninsured direct losses are limited, our understanding of indirect losses is even more incomplete. These indirect losses are clearly difficult to identify and measure. However, in large disasters they may be significant and, within the immediately affected regions, potentially greater than the direct losses due to physical destruction, especially in large disasters.

Losses Versus Costs

In generating a national indicator of disaster damage, the focus should be upon the losses resulting from disasters, rather than costs. Losses encompass a broader set of damages than costs. Losses include direct physical destruction to property, infrastructure, and crops, plus indirect losses that are the consequence of disasters, such as temporary unemployment and lost business. Costs typically refer only to cash payouts from insurers and governments. The term "losses," as defined above, better portrays the true economic impacts of disasters.

Direct Losses: Data Collection, Reporting, and Agency and Organizational Roles

One step toward producing more complete loss estimates would be to assign one agency of the federal government to compile a comprehensive data base identifying the direct costs of natural disasters, as well as the individuals and groups who bear these costs. These data should be collected according to the framework described in Chapter 2 , for each natural disaster exceeding a given dollar loss threshold. The U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis appears to have the capabilities to compile such a data base, with considerable input and assistance from FEMA and other relevant federal agencies. Whatever agency is selected should be given sufficient resources to accomplish this assignment.

The recommended loss estimate data base would be compiled from many sources, including organizations such as Property Claims Services and the Institute for Business and Home Safety (which compile data on paid insurance claims) and other federal, state, and local agencies. The assistance of relevant professional associations, such as the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, should be enlisted to obtain other relevant data. A synthesis report containing data on disaster losses should be published periodically, preferably annually. One way the federal government might make sure it receives at least the state and local data is by amending the Stafford Act, requiring the data to be submitted as a condition for future federal disaster aid.

A related recommendation is for the federal Office of Management and Budget, with advice from FEMA, to develop annual, comprehensive estimates of the payouts for the direct losses (due directly physical damage) made by federal agencies. These data should be divided into at least four categories:

  • compensation payments to individuals and businesses (including subsidies on loans to help cover disaster-related expenses);
  • response costs;
  • losses to government-owned infrastructure (including state and local costs that are reimbursed by the federal government); and,
  • payouts from federal disaster insurance programs (with annual premiums shown separately).

These data should be assembled for some historic period in order to provide information of trends of disaster losses and payouts. Such an effort is critical if the federal government and policymakers are to better plan for future disaster-related expenditures, including mitigation programs and activities.

The largest current gap in direct loss data involves uninsured losses borne by businesses and individuals. These data might be obtained through post-event sampling (in large disasters) and extrapolating these losses from other data

bases. Data from loan applicants to the SBA's disaster relief program or data from insurers like PCS would indicate the deductibles paid by insured businesses and individuals.

Indirect Losses: Modeling the Losses and Constructing a Loss Data Base

Indirect losses in natural disasters stem from the consequences of physical damage (direct losses). Physical damages in disasters typically initiate events that alter economic flows. Businesses may be disrupted after a disaster due to damaged infrastructure (power, water, transportation, communications), and many workers may be temporarily unemployed. These indirect losses have not been studied or measured as closely as direct losses, largely because they are notoriously difficult to identify and accurately measure.

Due to the limited sources of indirect loss data, statistical models are often used to compile indirect loss estimates. Though these models may help address problems due to a lack of available data, they must become more reliable if they are to be used as guides in setting mitigation and other hazard-related policies.

If this is to occur, however, accurate, firsthand (primary) data on indirect losses must be available for model calibration and validation. The recommended data collection and coordination program should thus also include surveys for the collection of detailed primary data on indirect economic losses from recent disasters (again, sufficient resources for this effort must be budgeted). Once a sufficiently reliable data base of these indirect losses has been generated, the agency should continue to collect indirect loss data on large disasters—those with model estimates of greater than $10 billion in losses. While the indirect loss data base is being constructed, efforts toward more effective uses of secondary data (data generated for purposes other than indirect loss estimation, such as unemployment insurance payouts) should be continued. We thus recommend that an assessment of methods for estimating indirect losses with secondary data be conducted.

It is important to understand the timing of economic disruptions that trigger indirect losses in order to plan for efficient emergency responses and to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternate mitigation strategies. The committee recommends that a microsimulation model be developed to create a timeline of regional commercial and industrial closures. Other models that should be devised include a formal restoration model and a comprehensive indirect loss model.

Moving Toward Better Knowledge of Disaster Losses

The lack of accurate information on these losses is a barrier to more effective hazard mitigation. As a step toward improving mitigation programs, efforts at centralizing these data and compiling better loss estimates must be strengthened. The federal government and private sector should combine their knowledge and data in providing better estimates of direct losses. The federal government must mount and back a significant data collection and research effort if better estimates of losses due to disasters are to be compiled, especially indirect losses. With a strong commitment, this could be accomplished within the next ten years. Until relatively accurate estimates are available, the true economic losses in natural disasters will remain poorly understood and the benefits of disaster mitigation activities only imprecisely evaluated.

We in the United States have almost come to accept natural disasters as part of our nation's social fabric. News of property damage, economic and social disruption, and injuries follow earthquakes, fires, floods and hurricanes. Surprisingly, however, the total losses that follow these natural disasters are not consistently calculated. We have no formal system in either the public or private sector for compiling this information. The National Academies recommends what types of data should be assembled and tracked.


Welcome to OpenBook!

You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.

...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter .

Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

View our suggested citation for this chapter.

Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

Get Email Updates

Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free ? Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released.

Climate Disasters and Analysts’ Earnings Forecasts: Evidence from the United States

European Accounting Review, Forthcoming

65 Pages Posted: 8 Jul 2024

Liverpool University

Kiridaran (Giri) Kanagaretnam

York University - Schulich School of Business

Date Written: May 29, 2024

We examine the relation between climate disasters and analysts’ earnings forecasts in the U.S. We find that climate disasters are associated with deteriorated analyst forecast properties proxied by forecast errors and forecast dispersion. We reason that the volatility of ROA, the volatility of cash flows, and lower financial statement comparability are three potential channels through which climate disasters influence analyst forecast properties. We also find that the relation between climate disasters and analyst forecast properties is more pronounced for firms in climate-vulnerable industries. Results from the market reaction tests further support our main findings by showing that the stock market responds less strongly to positive earnings surprises during periods of high climate disasters. Our results are robust to a battery of sensitivity tests, including two-stage least squares (2SLS) approach and a difference-in-differences specification. Overall, the results shed light on the association between climate disasters and analysts’ earnings forecasts, which has significant implications for academics, investors, and standard setters.

Keywords: Climate disasters, Analyst forecast errors, Analyst forecast dispersion JEL classification: G40

JEL Classification: G40, Q54, M21

Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation

Liverpool University ( email )

Kiridaran kanagaretnam, york university - schulich school of business ( email ).

4700 Keele Street Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 Canada

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics, related ejournals, financial accounting ejournal.

Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic

Corporate Finance: Valuation, Capital Budgeting & Investment Policy eJournal

Corporate governance & accounting ejournal, corporate governance: disclosure, internal control, & risk-management ejournal, behavioral & experimental economics ejournal.

  • Cette page n'est pas disponible en Français

Framework on management of emerging critical risks

  • Government innovation
  • AI risks and incidents
  • Climate risks and disasters
  • Social and economic risks

essay about natural disaster

Cite this content as:

The global risk landscape is rapidly evolving due to interconnected economies, societies, and technologies. To manage emerging critical risks, governments must anticipate, understand, and address these risks, which are transboundary, highly uncertain, and systemic. This Framework, supporting the OECD Recommendation on the Governance of Critical Risks, outlines a seven-step process for managing such risks. The steps include identifying and assessing risks, sharing information, evaluating management maturity, and developing strategic recommendations. Exercises are conducted to validate gaps and proposed solutions, while strategic plans ensure flexibility and adaptability in response to risks. Implementation integrates these emerging risks into traditional risk management processes, fostering resilience against current and future challenges. It provides a structured process for governments to validate identified gaps in knowledge, authorities and capabilities needed to manage emerging risks and to validate plans for building-in flexibility and adaptability to unforeseen or poorly understood risks.

In the same series

essay about natural disaster

Related publications

essay about natural disaster


  1. Natural Disasters Essay for Students & Children

    500+ Words Essay on Natural Disasters. A Natural disaster is an unforeseen occurrence of an event that causes harm to society. There are many Natural disasters that damage the environment and the people living in it. Some of them are earthquakes, cyclones, floods, Tsunami, landslides, volcanic eruption, and avalanches.Spatial extent measures the degree or severity of the disaster.

  2. Natural Disasters Essay (900 words)

    Natural Disasters Essay - Introduction. Natural disasters are powerful and dangerous events that are caused by nature. Disasters happen suddenly with little or no warning and cause severe damage to people, property, and the entire environment. It can be earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. This essay will further ...

  3. Natural Disasters Essay

    500 Words Essay On Natural Disasters. Natural disasters are events that occur due to either biological activity or human-made activity. Human lives and property are affected for a long time after it occurs. The number of cases is increasing worldwide every day. It is because of the over-exploitation of natural resources by mankind.

  4. Essays About Natural Disasters: 5 Examples and Prompts

    5. My Take on Natural Disaster Management. Choose an incident where natural disaster management was applied and give your thoughts about it. Research a recent natural disaster and study how the local and national government managed it. If any failed initiatives or points could be improved upon, make sure to write your thoughts about this in ...

  5. Natural Disaster Essay: How to Write, Topics, & Examples

    🌊 Natural Disaster Essay 200 Words. Below you will find a short natural disaster essay for 200 words. It explores the causes and effects of the tsunami in Japan in 2011. Tsunami in Japan: Causes and Effects. The proximity of the deadliest disasters is often unpredictable. As a result, the consequences of a tsunami can exceed any possible ...

  6. Free Natural Disasters Essay Examples & Topic Ideas

    Choosing your titles for natural disaster essay, you can think about the types to deal with as it will provide you with the keywords for your essay. Mention all the primary natural disasters and create a special map where you can talk about the earthquake tracking, as an example. Likewise, you can talk about tsunami in Thailand in 2004.

  7. Natural Disasters: Causes and Impacts: [Essay Example], 682 words

    The thesis statement for this essay is that natural disasters have wide-ranging effects on various aspects of human life, and it is crucial to understand and take measures to mitigate their impacts. Definition of Natural Disasters. Natural disasters are events caused by environmental factors and are outside of human control.

  8. Essay on Natural Disaster

    500 Words Essay on Natural Disaster Introduction. Natural disasters are extreme, sudden events caused by environmental factors that injure people and damage property. Earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires are examples of natural disasters, which nature's forces have been known to disrupt lives and cause significant damage ...

  9. 88 Natural Disaster Essay Topics & Samples

    Effects of Natural Disasters Essay. Various factors influence the effects that a disaster on a country among them the magnitude of the disaster, the geography of the area affected and recovery efforts directed towards reducing the immediate effects of a […] "Natural Disaster Management Planning" by Perry.

  10. Cause & Effect Essay: Natural Disasters and Their Causes

    One common natural disaster is flooding, which occurs when a river bursts its banks and the water spills out onto the floodplain. This is far more likely to happen when there is a great deal of heavy rain, so during very wet periods, flood warnings are often put in place. There are other risk factors for flooding too: steep-sided channels cause ...

  11. The Problem of Natural Disasters

    Introduction. Natural disasters can have devastating effects on an area and its inhabitants, and unfortunately, the frequency of such events has been increasing in the past few years. One such event is the California flooding of 2022. This event resulted from an extended period of heavy rainfall combined with abnormally high temperatures that ...

  12. Effects of Natural Disasters Essay

    The effects of natural disasters are both short-term including loss of life and damage to property and long-term affecting the economic stability of a region or a country. Damage to infrastructure and energy production centers lead to adverse effects on a country's economic development. Recovery efforts involving construction and rebuilding ...

  13. Descriptive Essay: Natural Disasters

    A natural disaster is anything ranging from a volcanic eruption to a tropical storm. This is regardless of whether the natural disaster was indirectly caused by mankind, like those caused as a result of global warming. The distance is a major factor in the effects of a natural disaster. A major forest fire in the wilds of California, as has ...

  14. Natural Disasters Essay for Students in English

    Every natural disaster causing the loss of both property and human lives is the worst. Be it the earthquake, wildfire or cyclone; each disaster can be the worst in its sense. Natural disasters are caused by a number of reasons which may or may not be linked to Human interference. Floods, for example, occur generally because of a sudden increase ...

  15. Natural Disaster Essay

    The Causes And Impacts Of A Natural Disaster. Background A natural disaster is a critical phenomenon of a natural process from the earth such as an earthquake, flood, drought or typhoon which impacts significantly on human life and human social activities (March, 2002; Hutton, 2008). These natural disasters suddenly disturb a population ...

  16. Natural Disasters Essay For Students In English

    500+ Words Essay on Natural Disasters. A natural disaster is defined as an event of nature, which overwhelms local resources and threatens the function and safety of the community. Natural disasters are the consequence of natural phenomena unleashing processes that lead to physical damage and the loss of human lives and capital.

  17. Essay on Natural Disasters: Top 12 Essays

    Essay on Natural Disaster # 12. Major Initiatives taken by Government of India: Natural disasters have become a recurring phenomenon in the recent past. In the last twenty years or so three million people have been killed as a result of such events. There is a need to focus and develop a plan that would focus on disaster management planning for ...

  18. 500+ Words Essay on Natural Disasters For Students

    1. Loss of Life: Natural disasters can claim countless lives, leaving families and communities devastated by the loss of loved ones. 2. Destruction of Infrastructure: Roads, bridges, buildings, and critical infrastructure can be severely damaged or destroyed, hampering relief efforts and hindering recovery. 3.

  19. Essay on Effects Of Natural Disasters On Human Life

    Conclusion. In short, natural disasters can have many harmful effects on human life. They can cause death, health problems, and damage to homes. They can also affect food and water supplies, education, the economy, and mental health. It is important for us to understand these effects so we can find ways to help people who are affected by ...

  20. Natural Disasters Essay in English: For Students & Teachers

    Writing an essay with the help of the pointers given becomes easy. Students can refer to the pointers given below to write a perfect essay. Check the 10 points given below to draft a perfect Natural Disasters Essay. The word disaster means tremendous damage. A natural disaster is nothing but terrible damage caused by natural forces.

  21. Natural disaster

    natural disaster, any calamitous occurrence generated by the effects of natural, rather than human-driven, phenomena that produces great loss of human life or destruction of the natural environment, private property, or public infrastructure. A natural disaster may be caused by weather and climate events or by earthquakes, landslides, and other ...

  22. 4 Conclusions and Recommendations

    In generating a national indicator of disaster damage, the focus should be upon the losses resulting from disasters, rather than costs. Losses encompass a broader set of damages than costs. Losses include direct physical destruction to property, infrastructure, and crops, plus indirect losses that are the consequence of disasters, such as temporary unemployment and lost business.

  23. Essay on Natural disasters

    500 Words Essay on Natural disasters . Introduction Natural disaster occurs when natural hazards adversely impact the life of an individual. Humans become vulnerable due to the absence of appropriate preparedness that negatively impacts finances, environment, and health of an individual. A natural disaster contributes to damage of property and ...

  24. IMF Working Papers

    The study provides forward-looking estimates for economic damages from floods and tropical cyclones (TC) for a wide range of countries using global datasets. Damages are estimated for three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios and aggregated at the country level, building them from geographically disaggregated estimates of hazard severity and economic exposures across 183 ...

  25. Climate Disasters and Analysts' Earnings Forecasts: Evidence ...

    Our results are robust to a battery of sensitivity tests, including two-stage least squares (2SLS) approach and a difference-in-differences specification. Overall, the results shed light on the association between climate disasters and analysts' earnings forecasts, which has significant implications for academics, investors, and standard setters.

  26. Framework on management of emerging critical risks

    The global risk landscape is rapidly evolving due to interconnected economies, societies, and technologies. To manage emerging critical risks, governments must anticipate, understand, and address these risks, which are transboundary, highly uncertain, and systemic.