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Visual Arts Theses and Dissertations

Theses/dissertations from 2014 2014.

A Maoli-Based Art Education: Ku'u Mau Kuamo'o 'Ōlelo , Raquel Malia Andrus

Accumulation of Divine Service , Blaine Lee Atwood

Caroline Murat: Powerful Patron of Napoleonic France and Italy , Brittany Dahlin

.(In|Out)sider$ , Jarel M. Harwood

Mariko Mori's Sartorial Transcendence: Fashioned Identities, Denied Bodies, and Healing, 1993-2001 , Jacqueline Rose Hibner

Parallel and Allegory , Kody Keller

Fallen Womanhood and Modernity in Ivan Kramskoi's Unknown Woman (1883) , Trenton B. Olsen

Conscience and Context in Eastman Johnson's The Lord Is My Shepherd , Amanda Melanie Slater

The War That Does Not Leave Us: Memory of the American Civil War and the Photographs of Alexander Gardner , Katie Janae White

Theses/Dissertations from 2013 2013

Women and the Wiener Werkstätte: The Centrality of Women and the Applied Arts in Early Twentieth-Century Vienna , Caitlin J. Perkins Bahr

Cutting Into Relief , Matthew L. Bass

Mask, Mannequin, and the Modern Woman: Surrealism and the Fashion Photographs of George Hoyningen-Huene , Hillary Anne Carman

The End of All Learning , Maddison Carole Colvin

Civitas: A Game-Based Approach to AP Art History , Anna Davis

What Crawls Beneath , Brent L. Gneiting

Blame Me for Your Bad Grade: Autonomy in the Basic Digital Photography Classroom as a Means to Combat Poor Student Performance , Erin Collette Johnson

Evolving Art in Junior High , Randal Charles Marsh

All Animals Will Get Along in Heaven , Camila Nagata

It Will Always Be My Tree: An A/r/tographic Study of Place and Identity in an Elementary School Classroom , Molly Robertson Neves

Zofia Stryjeńska: Women in the Warsaw Town Square. Our Lady, Peasant Mother, Pagan Goddess , Katelyn McKenzie Sheffield

Using Contemporary Art to Guide Curriculum Design:A Contemporary Jewelry Workshop , Kathryn C. Smurthwaite

Documenting the Dissin's Guest House: Esther Bubley's Exploration of Jewish-American Identity, 1942-43 , Vriean Diether Taggart

Blooming Vines, Pregnant Mothers, Religious Jewelry: Gendered Rosary Devotion in Early Modern Europe , Rachel Anne Wise

Theses/Dissertations from 2012 2012

Rembrandt van Rijn's Jewish Bride : Depicting Female Power in the Dutch Republic Through the Notion of Nation Building , Nan T. Atwood

Portraits , Nicholas J. Bontorno

Where There Is Design , Elizabeth A. Crowe

George Dibble and the Struggle for Modern Art in Utah , Sarah Dibble

Mapping Creativity: An A/r/tographic Look at the Artistic Process of High School Students , Bart Andrus Francis

Joseph as Father in Guido Reni's St. Joseph Images , Alec Teresa Gardner

Student Autonomy: A Case Study of Intrinsic Motivation in the Art Classroom , Downi Griner

Aha'aina , Tali Alisa Hafoka

Fashionable Art , Lacey Kay

Effluvia and Aporia , Emily Ann Melander

Interactive Web Technology in the Art Classroom: Problems and Possibilities , Marie Lynne Aitken Oxborrow

Visual Storybooks: Connecting the Lives of Students to Core Knowledge , Keven Dell Proud

German Nationalism and the Allegorical Female in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's The Hall of Stars , Allison Slingting

The Influence of the Roman Atrium-House's Architecture and Use of Space in Engendering the Power and Independence of the Materfamilias , Anne Elizabeth Stott

The Narrative Inquiry Museum:An Exploration of the Relationship between Narrative and Art Museum Education , Angela Ames West

Theses/Dissertations from 2011 2011

The Portable Art Gallery: Facilitating Student Autonomy and Ownership through Exhibiting Artwork , Jethro D. Gillespie

The Movement Of An Object Through A Field Creates A Complex Situation , Jared Scott Greenleaf

Alice Brill's Sao Paulo Photographs: A Cross-Cultural Reading , Danielle Jean Hurd

A Comparative Case Study: Investigation of a Certified Elementary Art Specialist Teaching Elementary Art vs. a Non-Art Certified Teacher Teaching Elementary Art , Jordan Jensen

A Core Knowledge Based Curriculum Designed to Help Seventh and Eighth Graders Maintain Artistic Confidence , Debbie Ann Labrum

Traces of Existence , Jayna Brown Quinn

Female Spectators in the July Monarchy and Henry Scheffer's Entrée de Jeanne d’Arc à Orléans , Kalisha Roberts

Without End , Amy M. Royer

Classroom Community: Questions of Apathy and Autonomy in a High School Jewelry Class , Samuel E. Steadman

Preparing Young Children to Respond to Art in the Museum , Nancy L. Stewart

DAY JAW BOO, a re-collection , Rachel VanWagoner

The Tornado Tree: Drawing on Stories and Storybooks , Toni A. Wood

Theses/Dissertations from 2010 2010

IGolf: Contemporary Sculptures Exhibition 2009 , King Lun Kisslan Chan

24 Hour Portraits , Lee R. Cowan

Fabricating Womanhood , Emily Fox

Earth Forms , Janelle Marie Tullis Mock

Peregrinations , Sallie Clinton Poet

Leland F. Prince's Earth Divers , Leland Fred Prince

Theses/Dissertations from 2009 2009

Ascents and Descents: Personal Pilgrimage in Hieronymus Bosch's The Haywain , Alison Daines

Beyond the Walls: The Easter Processional on the Exterior Frescos of Moldavian Monastery Churches , Mollie Elizabeth McVey

Beauty, Ugliness, and Meaning: A Study of Difficult Beauty , Christine Anne Palmer

Lantern's Diary , Wei Zhong Tan

Text and Tapestry: "The Lady and the Unicorn," Christine de Pizan and the le Vistes , Shelley Williams

Theses/Dissertations from 2008 2008

A Call for Liberation: Aleijadinho's 'Prophets' as Capoeiristas , Monica Jayne Bowen

Secondhand Chinoiserie and the Confucian Revolutionary: Colonial America's Decorative Arts "After the Chinese Taste" , Kiersten Claire Davis

Dairy Culture: Industry, Nature and Liminality in the Eighteenth-Century English Ornamental Dairy , Ashlee Whitaker

Theses/Dissertations from 2007 2007

Navajo Baskets and the American Indian Voice: Searching for the Contemporary Native American in the Trading Post, the Natural History Museum, and the Fine Art Museum , Laura Paulsen Howe

And there were green tiles on the ceiling , Jean Catherine Richardson

Four Greco-Roman Era Temples of Near Eastern Fertility Goddesses: An Analysis of Architectural Tradition , K. Michelle Wimber

Theses/Dissertations from 2006 2006

The Portrait of Citizen Jean-Baptiste Belley, Ex-Representative of the Colonies by Anne-Louis Girodet Trioson: Hybridity, History Painting, and the Grand Tour , Megan Marie Collins

Fix , Kathryn Williams

Theses/Dissertations from 2005 2005

Ideals and Realities , Pamela Bowman

Accountability for the Implementation of Secondary Visual Arts Standards in Utah and Queensland , John K. Derby

The Artistic and Architectural Patronage of Countess Urraca of Santa María de Cañas: A Powerful Aristocrat, Abbess, and Advocate , Julia Alice Jardine McMullin

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Home > ETD > DISSERTATIONS > AAI10181550

What is contemporary art?

Irina A Hinkel , Purdue University

The topic of the thesis is “What is contemporary art?”. While exploring contemporary art, its conceptions, characteristics and remarkable events related to it, I concentrate mainly on research of contemporary art as universal, particularly on such phenomena as multicultural art, postdramatic theater, audience interaction, as well as challenged aesthetics. This thesis also considers postmodern art, since contemporary art in its current form departed from postmodern art. I rely on and address the German language prose and drama, as well as visual arts. The work of Elfriede Jelinek, John von Düffel, Peter Handke, Kristof Magnusson, and multicultural artists Vladimir Kaminer, Feridun Zaimoglu are considered. This paper renders art as a blend of different arts, as well as synthesis of arts and different human activities. The thesis consists of five chapters. I rely in chapter I on the artwork of Rebecca Horn, Edith Meusnier, Andrea Polli as a sample of heterogeneity, appearing in unusual forms and places, blending together and erasing borders between different types of arts. Multicultural art as one of the forms of universal art is researched on samples of work by Vladimir Kaminer and Feridun Zaimoglu in chapter II. Chapter III concentrates on universal notions of postdramatic theater, supported by theoretical work of Hans-Thies Lehmann. In chapter IV, which is “Questioning Aesthetics”, I write about body fluids art, and include the work of Julia Kristeva, Rina Arya. Digital universality, one of the main characteristics of contemporary art, is a topic of chapter V. I render contemporary art as the pick of art evolution and cover such characteristics, events or occurrences in contemporary art as the inevitability of development, emergence of different mediums as a result of it, as well as more challenged aesthetics.

William, Purdue University.

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Germanic literature|Art history

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Medicine and modernity: fifty years of nhs hospital building in scotland, 1948-1998 , farc musicians' musical identities and political identities through their music: analysis of their narratives, musical practices and songs in the colombian peace post-agreement , drawing-with eye-tracking technology: an exploratory art-based research investigating the adaptation of eye-tracking methodology as a contemporary artistic drawing practice , staging the carnivalesque: seditious strategies in print and performance from simplicissimus to berlin dada, 1896-1920 , differential space in underused town centres: community appropriation of space through creative practices of arts-led urban regeneration , spatial narratives of happiness in everyday environments , humour in fifteenth-century france: a study of visual evidence , policing as material form: public works and local government in the transition from colony to nation in chile, 1786-1833 , diversity on display: a study on gentry-class women and their painting practice in the jiangnan region of high qing china , untangling collaboration: a critical study on the relationship between natural fibres artisans and designers in chile , incorporation of polyphony into russian sacred music , transmuting values in artificial intelligence: investigating the motivations and contextual constraints shaping the ethics of artificial intelligence practitioners , archive of gestures , architecture of error: matter, measure and the misadventures of precision , beyond the binary body: reconstructing subjectivity and identity in chinese expanded media art, 1988 to the present , philip morton shand and british-european exchanges in architecture, 1925-39 , influence of public transport'on the growth of edinburgh , ‘brought alight and alive’: community reuse of church of scotland churches , critical appraisal of the practice of urban conservation , queer art of autofabulation: giving a radical account of oneself after hiv/aids .

dissertation on contemporary art

Home > FACULTIES > Visual Arts > VISUALARTS-ETD

Visual Arts Department

Visual Arts Theses and Dissertations

This collection contains theses and dissertations from the Department of Visual Arts, collected from the Scholarship@Western Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Theses/Dissertations from 2023 2023

sweeping the forest floor of frequencies , Maria A. Kouznetsova

Achy Awfulness , Rylee J. Rumble

Nonstop Digital Flickerings; , Sam Wagter

Theses/Dissertations from 2022 2022

Credulous Escapism , Brianne C. Casey

At Dusk , Michelle Paterok

Theses/Dissertations from 2021 2021

Marvelous Monsters , Thomas Bourque

On Ground , Matthew Brown

Pharmakon: From Body to Being , Jérôme Y. C. Conquy

The Other Neighbour of El Otro Lado , Anahi Gonzalez Teran

Neoliberalism, Institutionalism, and Art , Declan Hoy

Strings of Sound and Sense: Towards a Feminine Sonic , Ellen N. Moffat

Cyber Souls and Second Selves , Yas Nikpour Khoshgrudi

The No No-Exit Closet: An Alternative to No-Exit Pathways , Faith I. Patrick

Fleet: Nuances of Time and Ephemera , Rebecca Sutherland

Theses/Dissertations from 2020 2020

The Hell of a Boiling Red , George Kubresli

still, unfolding , Ramolen Mencero Laruan

Theses/Dissertations from 2019 2019

Spanning , Mary Katherine Carder-Thompson

The Medieval Genesis of a Mythology of Painting , Colin Dorward

Philosophical Archeology in Theoretical and Artistic Practice , Ido Govrin

Bone Meal , Johnathan Onyschuk

Inventory , Lydia Elvira Santia

Collaborative Listening and Cultural Difference in Contemporary Art , Santiago Ulises Unda Lara

Absence and Proximity , Zhizi Wang

Theses/Dissertations from 2018 2018

Then Again, Maybe I Won't , Claire Bartleman

and where is the body? , Tyler Durbano

Next to a River: Mobility, Mapping, and Hand Embroidery , Sharmistha Kar

Interfaces of Nearness: Documentary Photography and the Representation of Technology , Mark Kasumovic

Buffer , Graham Macaulay

The English Landscapes in the Seventeenth Century , Helen Parkinson

SuperNova: Performing Race, Hybridity and Expanding the Geographical Imagination , Raheleh Saneie

Slower Than Time Itself , Matthew S. Trueman

Skim , Joy Wong

Theses/Dissertations from 2017 2017

Gardening at Arm's Length , Paul Chartrand

Lesser Than Greater Than Equal To: The Art Design Paradox , Charles Lee Franklin Harris

Skin Portraiture: Embodied Representations in Contemporary Art , Heidi Kellett

Midheaven , Samantha R. Noseworthy

Drum Voice , Quinn J. Smallboy

Theses/Dissertations from 2016 2016

Beyond the Look of Representation: Defamiliarization, Décor, and the Latin Feel , Juanita Lee Garcia

Emphatic Tension , Mina Moosavipour

Symbiotic: The Human Body and Constructs of Nature , Simone Sciascetti

Thin Skin , Jason Stovall

On Coming and Going , Quintin Teszeri

Theses/Dissertations from 2015 2015

Crowdsourcing , Sherry A. Czekus

From Dust to Dust , Lynette M. de Montreuil

Hand-Eye , Michael S. Pszczonak

Abstraction And Libidinal Nationalism In The Works Of John Boyle And Diana Thorneycroft , Matthew Purvis

Tangled Hair: Uncertain Fluid Identity , Niloufar Salimi

Liminal Space: Representations Of Modern Urbanity , Matthew Tarini

Theses/Dissertations from 2014 2014

Creative Interventions and Urban Revitalization , Nicole C. Borland

What Lies Behind: Speculations on the Real and the Willful , Barbara Hobot

Turning to see otherwise , Jennifer L. Martin

Come Together: An Exploration of Contemporary Participatory Art Practices , Karly A. McIntosh

A Photographic Ontology: Being Haunted Within The Blue Hour And Expanding Field , Colin E. Miner

Matters of Airing , Tegan Moore

Liquidation , Amanda A. Oppedisano

Just As It Should Be: Painting and the Discipline of Everyday Life , Jared R. Peters

Clyfford Still in the 1930s: The Formative Years of a Leading Abstract Expressionist , Emma Richan

From 'Means to Ends': Labour As Art Practice , Gabriella Solti

Across Boundaries , Diana A. Yoo

Theses/Dissertations from 2013 2013

Following the Turn: Mapping as Material Art Practice , Kyla Christine Brown

Queer(ing) Politics and Practices: Contemporary Art in Homonationalist Times , Cierra A. Webster

Some Theoretical Models for a Critical Art Practice , Giles Whitaker

Lines of Necessity , Thea A. Yabut

Theses/Dissertations from 2012 2012

Out of Order: Thinking Through Robin Collyer, Discontent and Affirmation (1973-1985) , Kevin A. Rodgers

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dissertation on contemporary art

Department of the History of Art

You are here, dissertations, completed dissertations.

1942-present

DISSERTATIONS IN PROGRESS

As of July 2023

Bartunkova, Barbora , “Sites of Resistance: Antifascism and the Czechoslovak Avant-garde” (C. Armstrong)

Betik, Blair Katherine , “Alternate Experiences: Evaluating Lived Religious Life in the Roman Provinces in the 1st Through 4th Centuries CE” (M. Gaifman)

Boyd, Nicole , “Science, Craft, Art, Theater: Four ‘Perspectives’ on the Painted Architecture of Angelo Michele Colonna and Agostino Mitelli” (N. Suthor). 

Brown, Justin , “Afro-Surinamese Calabash Art in the Era of Slavery and Emancipation” (C. Fromont)

Burke, Harry , “The Islands Between: Art, Animism, and Anticolonial Worldmaking in Archipelagic Southeast Asia” (P. Lee)

Chakravorty, Swagato , “Displaced Cinema: Moving Images and the Politics of Location in Contemporary Art” (C. Buckley, F. Casetti)

Chau, Tung , “Strange New Worlds: Interfaces in the Work of Cao Fei” (P. Lee)

Cox, Emily , “Perverse Modernism, 1884-1990” (C. Armstrong, T. Barringer)

Coyle, Alexander , “Frame and Format between Byzantium and Central Italy, 1200-1300” (R. Nelson)

Datta, Yagnaseni , “Materialising Illusions: Visual Translation in the Mughal Jug Basisht, c. 1602.” (K. Rizvi)

de Luca, Theo , “Nicolas Poussin’s Chronotopes” (N. Suthor)

Dechant, D. Lyle . ” ‘daz wir ein ander vinden fro’: Readers and Performers of the Codex Manesse” (J. Jung)

Del Bonis-O’Donnell, Asia, “Trees and the Visualization of kosmos in Archaic and Classical Athenian Art” (M. Gaifman)

Demby, Nicole, “The Diplomatic Image: Framing Art and Internationalism, 1945-1960” (K. Mercer)

Donnelly, Michelle , “Spatialized Impressions: American Printmaking Outside the Workshop, 1935–1975” (J. Raab)

Epifano, Angie , “Building the Samorian State: Material Culture, Architecture, and Cities across West Africa” (C. Fromont)

Fialho, Alex , “Apertures onto AIDS: African American Photography and the Art History of the Storage Unit” (P. Lee, T Nyong’o)

Foo, Adela , “Crafting the Aq Qoyuniu Court (1475-1490) (E. Cooke, Jr.)

Franciosi, Caterina , “Latent Light: Energy and Nineteenth-Century British Art” (T. Barringer)

Frier, Sara , “Unbearable Witness: The Disfigured Body in the Northern European Brief (1500-1620)” (N. Suthor)

Gambert-Jouan, Anabelle , “Sculpture in Place: Medieval Wood Depositions and Their Environments” (J. Jung)

Gass, Izabel, “Painted Thanatologies: Théodore Géricault Against the Aesthetics of Life” (C. Armstrong)

Gaudet, Manon , “Property and the Contested Ground of North American Visual Culture, 1900-1945” (E. Cooke, Jr.)  

Haffner, Michaela , “Nature Cure: ”White Wellness” and the Visual Culture of Natural Health, 1870-1930” (J. Raab)

Hepburn, Victoria , “William Bell Scott’s Progress” (T. Barringer)

Herrmann, Mitchell, “The Art of the Living: Biological Life and Aesthetic Experience in the 21st Century” (P. Lee)

Higgins, Lily , “Reading into Things: Articulate Objects in Colonial North America, 1650-1783” (E. Cooke, Jr.)

Hodson, Josie , “Something in Common: Black Art under Austerity in New York City, 1975-1990” (Yale University, P. Lee)

Hong, Kevin , “Plasticity, Fungibility, Toxicity: Photography’s Ecological Entanglements in the Mid-Twentieth-Century United States” (C. Armstrong, J Raab)

Kang, Mia , “Art, Race, Representation: The Rise of Multiculturalism in the Visual Arts” (K. Mercer)

Keto, Elizabeth , “Remaking the World: United States Art in the Reconstruction Era, 1861-1900.” (J. Raab)

Kim, Adela , “Beyond Institutional Critique: Tearing Up in the Work of Andrea Fraser” (P. Lee)

Koposova, Ekaterina , “Triumph and Terror in the Arts of the Franco-Dutch War” (M. Bass)

Lee, Key Jo , “Melancholic Materiality: History and the Unhealable Wound in African American Photographic Portraits, 1850-1877” (K. Mercer)

Levy Haskell, Gavriella , “The Imaginative Painter”: Visual Narrative and the Interactive Painting in Britain, 1851-1914” (T. Barringer, E. Cooke Jr)

Marquardt, Savannah, “Becoming a Body: Lucanian Painted Vases and Grave Assemblages in Southern Italy” (M. Gaifman)

Miraval, Nathalie , “The Art of Magic: Afro-Catholic Visual Culture in the Early Modern Spanish Empire” (C. Fromont)

Mizbani, Sharon , Water and Memory: Fountains, Heritage, and Infrastructure in Istanbul and Tehran (1839-1950) (K. Rizvi)

Molarsky-Beck, Marina, “Seeing the Unseen: Queer Artistic Subjectivity in Interwar Photography” (C. Armstrong)

Nagy, Renata , “Bookish Art: Natural Historical Learning Across Media in Seventeenth-century Northern Europe” (Bass, M)

Olson, Christine , “Owen Jones and the Epistemologies of Nineteenth-Century Design” (T. Barringer)

Petrilli-Jones, Sara , “Drafting the Canon: Legal Histories of Art in Florence and Rome, 1600-1800” (N. Suthor)

Phillips, Kate , “American Ephemera” (J. Raab)

Potuckova, Kristina , “The Arts of Women’s Monastic Liturgy, Holy Roman Empire, 1000-1200” (J. Jung)

Quack, Gregor , “The Social Fabric: Franz Erhard Walther’s Art in Postwar Germany” (P. Lee)

Rahimi-Golkhandan, Shabnam , “The Photograph’s Shabih-Kashi (Verisimilitude) – The Liminal Visualities of Late Qajar Art (1853-1911)” (K. Rizvi)

Rapoport, Sarah , “James Jacques Joseph Tissot in the Interstices of Modernity” (T. Barringer, C. Armstrong)

Riordan, Lindsay , “Beuys, Terror, Value: 1967-1979” (S. Zeidler)

Robbins, Isabella , “Relationality and Being: Indigeneity, Space and Transit in Global Contemporary Art” (P. Lee, N. Blackhawk)

Sen, Pooja , “The World Builders ” (J. Peters)

Sellati, Lillian , “When is Herakles Not Himself? Mediating Cultural Plurality in Greater Central Asia, 330 BCE – 365 CE” (M. Gaifman)

Tang, Jenny , “Genealogies of Confinement: Carceral Logics of Visuality in Atlantic Modernism 1930 – 1945” (K. Mercer)

Thomas, Alexandra , “Afrekete’s Touch: Black Queer Feminist Errantry and Global African Art”  (P. Lee)

Valladares, Carlos , “Jacques Demy” (P. Lee)

Verrot, Trevor , “Sculpted Lamentation Groups in the Late Medieval Veneto” (J. Jung)

Von-Ow, Pierre , Visual Tactics: Histories of Perspective in Britain and its Empire, 1670-1768.”  (T. Barringer)

Wang, Xueli , “Performing Disappearance: Maggie Cheung and the Off-Screen” (Q. Ngan)

Webley, John , “Ink, Paint, and Blood: India and the Great Game in Russian Culture” (T. Barringer, M. Brunson)

Werwie, Katherine , “Visions Across the Gates: Materiality, Symbolism, and Communication in the Historiated Wooden Doors of Medieval European Churches” (J. Jung)

Wisowaty, Stephanie , “Painted Processional Crosses in Central Italy, 1250-1400: Movement, Mediation and Multisensory Effects” (J. Jung)

Young, Colin , “Desert Places: The Visual Culture of the Prairies and the Pampas across the Nineteenth Century” (J. Raab)

Zhou, Joyce Yusi, “Objects by Her Hand: Art and Material Culture of Women in Early Modern Batavia (1619-1799) (M. Bass, E. Cooke, Jr.)

What Is Art?

Reading: defining art from modernity to globalization, modernity to globalization.

This section addresses art and architecture from around 1850 up to the present.

During this period, art changed beyond recognition. The various academies still held sway in Europe. It is true that the hierarchy of the genres was breaking down and the classical ideal was becoming less convincing.

What counted as art in much of the nineteenth century remained pretty stable. Whether in sculpture, painting, drawing or printmaking, artworks represented recognizable subjects in a credible human-centered space. To be sure, subjects became less high-flown, compositional effects often deliberately jarring and surface handling more explicit. There were plenty of academicians and commentators who believed these changes amounted to the end of civilization, but from today’s perspective they seem like small shifts of emphasis.

In contrast, art in the first part of the twentieth century underwent a rapid gear change. Art historians agree that during this time artists began to radically revise picture making and sculpture. With the invention of photography and it being employed as the dominant conveyor of realism, painting undergoes a period of experimentation. Painters flattened out pictorial space, broke with conventional viewpoints and discarded local color. (‘Local color’ is the term used for the color things appear in the world. From the early twentieth century, painters began to experiment with non-local color.) Sculptors began to leave the surface of their works in a rough, seemingly unfinished state; they increasingly created partial figures and abandoned plinths or, alternatively, inflated the scale of their bases. Architects abandoned revivalist styles and rich ornamentation. To take one often cited example from painting, while the art of Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) is based on a recognizable motif, say a landscape, when looking at these paintings we get the distinct impression that the overall organization of the colors and structural elements matters as much or more than the scene depicted. To retain fidelity to his sense impressions, Cézanne is compelled to find a new order and coherence internal to the canvas. Frequently this turns into incoherence as he tries to manage the tension between putting marks on a flat surface and his external observation of space.

In fifteen years some artists would take this problem – the recognition that making art involved attention to its own formal conditions that are not reducible to representing external things – through Cubism to a fully abstract art. Conventionally, this story is told as a heroic progression of ‘movements’ and ‘styles’, each giving way to the next in the sequence: Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Dada, Constructivism, Surrealism… Each changing of the guard is perceived as an advance and almost a necessary next step on the road to some preset goal. This rapid turnover of small groups and personal idioms can seem bewildering and, in fact, this is a minimal version of this story. Whether they sought new expressive resources, novel ways of conveying experience or innovative techniques for representing the modern world, modern artists turned their backs on the tried and tested forms of mimetic resemblance. But what counted as art changed too. Bits of the everyday world began to be incorporated into artworks – as collage or montage in two-dimensional art forms; in construction and assemblage in three-dimensional ones. The inclusion of found materials played a fundamental role in modern art. The use of modern materials and technologies – steel, concrete, photography – did something similar. Some artists abandoned easel painting or sculpture to make direct interventions in the world through the production of usable things, whether chairs or illustrated news magazines. Not all artists elected to work with these new techniques and materials, and many carried on in the traditional ways or attempted to adapt them to new circumstances.

Autonomy and Modernity

Broadly speaking, there are two different ways of thinking about modern art, or two different versions of the story. One way is to view art as something that can be practiced (and thought of) as an activity radically separate from everyday life or worldly concerns. From this point of view, art is said to be ‘autonomous’ from society – that is, it is believed to be self-sustaining and self-referring. One particularly influential version of this story suggests that modern art should be viewed as a process by which features extraneous to a particular branch of art would be progressively eliminated, and painters or sculptors would come to concentrate on problems specific to their domain. Another way of thinking about modern art is to view it as responding to the modern world, and to see modern artists immersing themselves in the conflicts and challenges of society. That is to say, some modern artists sought ways of conveying the changing experiences generated in Europe by the twin processes of commercialization (the commodification of everyday life) and urbanization. From this point of view, modern art is a way of reflecting on the transformations that created what we call, in a sort of shorthand, ‘modernity’.

Greenberg and Autonomy

While it has its roots in the nineteenth century, the approach to modern art as an autonomous practice is particularly associated with the ideas of the English critics Roger Fry (1866–1934) and Clive Bell (1881–1964), the critic Clement Greenberg (1909–94) and the New York Museum of Modern Art’s director Alfred H. Barr (1902–81). For a period this view largely became the common sense of modern art (O’Brian, 1986–95, 4 vols; Barr, 1974 [1936]). This version of modernism is itself complex. The argument presumes that art is self-contained and artists are seen to grapple with technical problems of painting and sculpture, and the point of reference is to artworks that have gone before. This approach can be described as ‘formalist’ (paying exclusive attention to formal matters), or, perhaps more productively drawing on a term employed by the critic Meyer Schapiro (1904–96), as ‘internalist’ (a somewhat less pejorative way of saying the same thing) (Schapiro, 1978 [1937]).

Rather than cloaking artifice, modern art, such as that made by Wassily Kandinsky (1866–1944) drew attention to the conventions, procedures and techniques supposedly ‘inherent’ in a given form of art. Modern art set about ‘creating something valid solely on its own terms’ (Ibid., p. 8). For painting, this meant turning away from illusion and story-telling to concentrate on the features that were fundamental to the practice – producing aesthetic effects by placing marks on a flat, bounded surface. For sculpture, it entailed arranging or assembling forms in space.

Wassily Kandinsky, Landscape with Red Spots, 1913.

Wassily Kandinsky, Landscape with Red Spots, 1913. Work is in the public domain.

It important to understand that the account of autonomous art, however internalist it may seem, developed as a response to the social and political conditions of modern societies. In his 1939 essay ‘Avant-garde and kitsch’, Greenberg suggested that art was in danger from two linked challenges: the rise of the dictators (Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler and Franco) and the commercialized visual culture of modern times (the kitsch, or junk, of his title). Dictatorial regimes turned their backs on ambitious art and curried favor with the masses by promoting a debased form of realism that was easy to comprehend. Seemingly distinct from art made by dictatorial fiat, the visual culture of liberal capitalism pursued instant, canned entertainment that would appeal to the broadest number of paying customers. This pre-packaged emotional distraction was geared to easy, unchallenging consumption. Kitsch traded on sentimentality, common-sense values and flashy surface effects. The two sides of this pincer attack ghettoized the values associated with art. Advanced art, in this argument, like all human values, faced an imminent danger. Greenberg argued that, in response to the impoverished culture of both modern capitalist democracy and dictatorship, artists withdrew to create novel and challenging artworks that maintained the possibility for critical experience and attention. He claimed that this was the only way that art could be kept alive in modern society. In this essay, Greenberg put forward a left-wing sociological account of the origins of modernist autonomy; others came to similar conclusions from positions of cultural despair or haughty disdain for the masses.

The period from around 1850 onwards has been tumultuous: it has been regularly punctuated by revolutions, wars and civil wars, and has witnessed the rise of nation states, the growth and spread of capitalism, imperialism and colonialism, and decolonization. Sometimes artists tried to keep their distance from the historical whirlwind, at other moments they flung themselves into the eye of the storm. Even the most abstract developments and autonomous trends can be thought of as embedded in this historical process. Modern artists could be cast in opposition to repressive societies, or mass visual culture in the west, by focusing on themes of personal liberty and individual defiance. The New York School championed by Greenberg coincided with this political situation and with the high point of US mass cultural dominance – advertising, Hollywood cinema, popular music and the rest. In many ways, the work of this group of abstract painters presents the test case for assessing the claim that modern art offers a critical alternative to commercial visual culture. It could seem a plausible argument, but the increasing absorption of modern art into middle-class museum culture casts an increasing doubt over these claims. At the same time, the figurative art that was supposed to have been left in the hands of the dictators continued to be made in a wide variety of forms. If figurative art had been overlooked by critics during the high point of abstract art, it made a spectacular comeback with Pop Art.

The Emergence of Modern Art in Paris

Let’s take a step back to the middle of the nineteenth century and consider the emergence of modern art in Paris. The new art that developed with Gustave Courbet (1819–77), Manet and the Impressionists entailed a self-conscious break with the art of the past. These modern artists took seriously the representation of their own time. In place of allegorical figures in togas or scenes from the Bible, modern artists concerned themselves with the things around them. When asked to include angels in a painting for a church, Courbet is said to have replied ‘I have never seen angels. Show me an angel and I will paint one.’ But these artists were not just empirical recording devices. The formal or technical means employed in modern art are jarring and unsettling, and this has to be a fundamental part of the story. A tension between the means and the topics depicted, between surface and subject, is central to what this art was. Nevertheless, we miss something crucial if we do not attend to the artists’ choices of subjects. Principally, these artists sought the signs of change and novelty – multiple details and scenarios that made up contemporary life. This meant they paid a great deal of attention to the new visual culture associated with commercialized leisure.

Greenberg contrasted the mainstream of modern art, concerned with autonomous aesthetic experience and formal innovation, with what he called ‘dead ends’ – directions in art that he felt led nowhere. Even when restricted to the European tradition, this marginalized much of the most significant art made in interwar Europe – Dada, Constructivism and Surrealism (Greenberg, 1961). The groups of artists producing this art – usually referred to collectively as the ‘avant-garde’ or the ‘historical avant-garde’ – wanted to fuse art and life, and often based their practice on a socialist rejection of bourgeois culture (see, in particular, Bürger, 1984). From their position in western Europe, the Dadaists mounted an assault on the irrationalism and violence of militarism and the repressive character of capitalist culture; in collages, montages, assemblages and performances, they created visual juxtapositions aimed at shocking the middle-class audience and intended to reveal connections hidden behind everyday appearances. The material for this was drawn from mass-circulation magazines, newspapers and other printed ephemera. The Constructivists participated in the process of building a new society in the USSR, turning to the creation of utilitarian objects (or, at least, prototypes for them). The Surrealists combined ideas from psychoanalysis and Marxism in an attempt to unleash those forces repressed by mainstream society; the dream imagery is most familiar, but experiments with found objects and collage were also prominent. These avant-garde groups tried to produce more than refined aesthetic experiences for a restricted audience; they proffered their skills to help to change the world. In this work the cross-over to visual culture is evident; communication media and design played an important role. Avant-garde artists began to design book covers, posters, fabrics, clothing, interiors, monuments and other useful things. They also began to merge with journalism by producing photographs and undertaking layout work. In avant-garde circles, architects, photographers and artists mixed and exchanged ideas. For those committed to autonomy of art, this kind of activity constitutes a denial of the shaping conditions of art and betrayal of art for propaganda, but the avant-garde were attempting something else – they sought a new social role for art. One way to explore this debate is by switching from painting and sculpture to architecture and design.

Responses to the Modern World

Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968), who is now seen as one of the most important artists of the twentieth century, occupies an important place in destabilization of the art object. Duchamp started out as a Cubist, but broke with the idea of art as a matter of special visual experience and turned his attention to puns and perceptual or conceptual conundrums (Duchamp, 1975). These activities brought him into the orbit of Dada in Paris and New York, but this was probably nothing more than a convenient alliance. Duchamp played games with words and investigated the associations of ordinary objects. He also messed around with gender conventions, inventing a female alter ego called Rrose Sélavy – a pun on ‘Eros, c’est la vie’ or ‘Eros is life’. Critics and other artists have particularly focused on the strain of his work known as the ‘readymades’. From 1914, Duchamp began singling out ordinary objects, such as a bottle rack, for his own attention and amusement and that of a few friends. Sometimes he altered these things in some small way, adding words and a title or joining them with something else in a way that shifted their meaning; with Bicycle Wheel, he attached an inverted bike wheel to a wooden stool – he seems to have been particularly interested in the shadow play this object created. We can see this odd object among the clutter of Duchamp’s studio on West 67th Street in the photograph by Henri-Pierre Roche. He called these altered everyday things ‘assisted readymades’.

Duchamp was interested in interrogating the mass-produced objects created by his society and the common-sense definitions and values that such things accrued. Mischievously, he probed the definitions and values of his culture for a small group of like-minded friends. It isn’t at all clear that any of this was meant to be art; in fact, he explicitly posed the idea of making ‘works’ that could not be thought of as ‘art’ (Nesbit, 2000). Nevertheless, artists in the late 1950s and the 1960s became fascinated with this legacy and began to think of art as something the artist selected or posited, rather than something he or she composed or made. According to this idea, the artist could designate anything as art; what was important was the way that this decision allowed things to be perceived in a new light. This was to lead to a fundamentally different conception of art practice.

With the breakup of the hegemony of the New York School, artists began to look at those features of modern art that had been left out of the formalist story. During this period, Duchamp came to replace Picasso or Matisse as the touchstone for young artists, but he was just one tributary of what became a torrent. Perhaps most significantly, painting and anything we might straightforwardly recognize as sculpture began to take a back seat. A host of experimental forms and new media came to prominence: performance art, video, works made directly in or out of the landscape, installations, photography and a host of other forms and practices. These works often engaged with the representation of modernity and the shifting pattern of world power relations we call ‘globalization’.

National, International, Cosmopolitan

Whether holding itself apart from the visual culture of modernity or immersed in it, modern art developed not in the world’s most powerful economy (Britain), but in the places that were most marked by ‘uneven and combined development’: places where explosive tensions between traditional rural societies and the changes wrought by capitalism were most acute (Trotsky, 1962 [1928/1906]). In these locations, people only recently out of the fields encountered the shocks and pleasures of grand-metropolitan cities. As the sociologist of modernity Georg Simmel (1858–1918) suggested: ‘the city sets up a deep contrast with small-town and rural life with reference to the social foundations of psychic life’. In contrast to the over-stimulation of the senses in the city, Simmel thought that in the rural situation ‘the rhythm of life and sensory mental imagery flows more slowly, more habitually, and more evenly’ (Simmel, 1997 [1903], p. 175). This situation applies first of all to Paris (see Clark, 1984; Harvey, 2003; Prendergast, 1992). In Paris, the grand boulevards and new palaces of commercial entertainment went hand in hand with the ‘zone’, a vast shanty town ringing the city that was occupied by workers and those who eked out a precarious life. Whereas the Impressionists concentrated on the bourgeois city of bars, boulevards and boudoirs, the photographer Eugène Atget (1857–1927) represented the Paris that was disappearing – the medieval city with its winding alleys and old iron work – or those working-class quarters composed of cheap lodgings and traders recycling worn-out commodities (Nesbit, 1992; see also Benjamin, 1983). This clash of ways of life generated different ways of inhabiting and viewing the city with class and gender at their core. Access to the modern city and its representations was more readily available to middle-class men than to those with less social authority, whether they were working people, women or minority ethnic or religious groups (Wolff, 1985, pp. 37–46; Pollock, 1988, pp. 50–90).

Man on a Paris street pulling a two-wheeled handcart loaded with sacks of old rags

Eugène Atget, Chiffonier (Ragpicker), c. 1899–1901. Work is in the public domain.

Contradictions

Before the Second World War, the alternative centers of modernism were also key sites of uneven and combined development: Berlin, Budapest, Milan, Moscow and Prague. In these places, large-scale industry was created by traditional elites in order to develop the production capacities required to compete militarily with Britain. Factory production was plopped down into largely agrarian societies, generating massive shocks to social equilibrium. In many ways, Moscow is the archetypal version of this pattern of acute contradictions. Before the 1917 Revolution, Moscow was the site of enormous and up-to-date factories, including the world’s largest engineering plant, but was set in a sea of peasant backwardness. This is one reason that Vladimir Lenin described Russia as the weakest link in the international-capitalist chain.

This set of contradictions put a particular perception of time at the center of modern art. Opposition to the transformations of society that were underway could be articulated in one of two ways, and in an important sense both were fantasy projections: on the one hand, artists looked to societies that were seen as more ‘primitive’ as an antidote to the upheavals and shallow glamour of capitalism. On the other hand, they attempted a leap into the future. Both perspectives – Primitivism and Futurism – entailed a profound hostility to the world as it had actually developed, and both orientations were rooted in the conditions of an uneven and combined world system.

The vast urban centers – Paris, Berlin, and Moscow – attracted artists, chancers, intellectuals, poets and revolutionaries. The interchange between people from different nations bred a form of cultural internationalism. In interwar Paris, artists from Spain, Russia, Mexico, Japan and a host of other places rubbed shoulders. Modernist artists attempted to transcend parochial and local conditions and create a formal ‘language’ valid beyond time and place, and ‘the school of Paris’ or the ‘international modern movement’ signified a commitment to a culture more capacious and vibrant than anything the word ‘national’ could contain. The critic Harold Rosenberg (1906–78) stated this theme explicitly. Rejecting the idea that ‘national life’ could be a source of inspiration, he suggested that the modernist culture of Paris, was a ‘no-place’ and a ‘no-time’ and only Nazi tanks returned the city to France by wiping out modernist internationalism (Rosenberg, 1970 [1940]).

A Move to New York

‘No-place’ then shifted continent. Perhaps for the only time in its history, after the Second World War modernism was positioned at the heart of world power – when a host of exiles from European fascism and war relocated in New York. American abstract art was centered on New York and a powerful series of institutions: the Museum of Modern Art, Peggy Guggenheim’s gallery Art of This Century and a host of small independent galleries run by private dealers (including Betty Parsons, Samuel Koontz and Sidney Janis). In the main, these artists, such as Jackson Pollock (1912–56), Mark Rothko (1903–70), Arshile Gorky (1904–48), Robert Motherwell (1915–91) and Barnett Newman (1905–70), and associated critics (Greenberg and Rosenberg) were formed during the 1930s in the circles of the New York Left: they were modernist internationalists opposed to US parochialism in art and politics. After the war, they retained this commitment to an international modern art, while the politics drained away or was purged in the Cold War. The period of US hegemony in modern art coincided with the optimum interest in autonomous form and pure ‘optical’ experience. This was the time when artists working in the modernist idiom were least interested in articulating epochal changes and most focused on art as an act of individual realization and a singular encounter between the viewer and the artwork. At the same time, these artists continued to keep their distance from mainstream American values and mass culture. Some champions of autonomous art are inclined to think art came to a shuddering halt with the end of the New York School. Alternatively, we can see Conceptual Art as initiating or reinvigorating a new phase of modern art that continues in the global art of today.

It should be apparent from this brief sketch that the predominant ways of thinking about modern art have focused on a handful of international centers and national schools – even when artists and critics proclaim their allegiance to internationalism. The title of Irving Sandler’s book The Triumph of American Painting is one telling symptom (Sandler, 1970). There is a story about geopolitics – about the relationship between the west and the rest – embedded in the history of modern art. These powerful forms of modernism cannot be swept aside, but increasingly critics and art historians are paying attention to other stories; to the artworks made in other places and in other ways, and which were sidelined in the dominant accounts of art’s development. A focus on art in a globalized art world leads to revising the national stories told about modernism. This history is currently being recast as a process of global interconnections rather than an exclusively western-centered chronicle, and commentators are becoming more attentive to encounters and interchanges between westerners and people from what has helpfully been called the ‘majority world’, in art as in other matters. This term – majority world – was used by the Bangladeshi photographer Shahidul Alam, to describe what the term ‘third world’ had once designated. We use it here to characterize those people and places located outside centers of western affluence and power; they constitute the vast majority of the world’s inhabitants and this reminds us that western experience is a minority condition and not the norm.

The Local and the Global

The reality is not that the majority world will be transformed into a high-tech consumer paradise. In fact, inequality is increasing across the world. What is referred to as globalization is the most recent phase of uneven and combined development. The new clash of hypermodern and traditional forms of economic activity and social life are taking place side by side; megacities spring up alongside the ‘planet of slums’, and communication technologies play an important role in this clash of space and time. Recent debates on globalization and art involve a rejection of modernist internationalism; instead, artists and art historians are engaged with local conditions of artistic production and the way these mesh in an international system of global art making. Modern art is currently being remade and rethought as a series of much more varied responses to contemporaneity around the world. Artists now draw on particular local experiences, and also on forms of representation from popular traditions. Engagement with Japanese popular prints played an important role in Impressionism, but in recent years this sort of cultural crossing has undergone an explosion.

Drawing local image cultures into the international spaces of modern art has once more shifted the character of art. The paradox is that the cultural means that are being employed – video art, installation, large color photographs and so forth – seem genuinely international. Walk into many of the large exhibitions around the globe and you will see artworks referring to particular geopolitical conditions, but employing remarkably similar conventions and techniques. This cosmopolitanism risks underestimating the real forces shaping the world; connection and mobility for some international artists goes hand in hand with uprootedness and the destruction of habitat and ways of life for others.

This overview has provided examples of the shifting perceptions and definitions of art across time. The first part demonstrated the changing role of the artist and diverse types of art in the medieval and Renaissance periods. The second part outlined the evaluation of art in the academies, issues of style, and changes to patronage, where art and its consumption became increasingly part of the public sphere during the period 1600 to 1850. The last part addressed the way in which artists broke from all conventions and the influence of globalization on art production, in the period 1850 to the present.

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dissertation on contemporary art

Modern and Contemporary Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Hollein, Max (2019)

This title is in print.

Publication Details

Since its beginning nearly one hundred fifty years ago, The Metropolitan Museum of Art has been a vital center for the display and collection of the art of its time. As the repository of an encyclopedic collection spanning five thousand years and myriad regions, The Met presents modern and contemporary art in a richly suggestive context. This beautifully illustrated volume, like the Museum’s galleries, gathers paintings, sculptures, photographs, decorative arts, drawings, and works in other media by celebrated artists of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, juxtaposing them to suggest historical antecedents and evolving cultural practices. From acknowledged masterworks by Arbus, Brancusi, Demuth, Duchamp, Gris, Hepworth, Hopper, Léger, Nevelson, O’Keeffe, Picasso, Pollock, Rivera, Steichen, and Warhol to important newer works by El Anatsui, Mark Bradford, Vija Celmins, David Hammons, William Kentridge, Kerry James Marshall, Richard Serra, Cindy Sherman, Thomas Struth, and Kara Walker, this book delves into the magnificent modern holdings of a beloved museum.

A Museum of the World—and the Future

Acknowledgments

Index of Artists

Photograph Credits

Max Hollein is Director of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

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Geldzahler, Henry. "Numbers in Time: Two American Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 23, no. 8 (April, 1965). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1965. See more

Geldzahler, Henry. American Painting in the Twentieth Century . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1965. See more

Geldzahler, Henry. Francis Bacon: Recent Paintings, 1968–1974 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975.

Geldzahler, Henry. Hans Hartung: Paintings, 1971–1975 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975. See more

Geldzahler, Henry. Josef Albers at The Metropolitan Museum of Art: An Exhibition of His Paintings and Prints . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1971. See more

Giroud, Vincent. "Picasso and Gertrude Stein." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 64, no. 3 (Winter, 2007). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. See more

Goldberger, Paul. Frank Stella: Painting into Architecture . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. See more

Hadler, Mona. "Manet's Woman with a Parrot of 1866." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 7 (1973). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1973. See more

Hale, Robert Beverly. "A Report on American Painting Today—1950." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 9, no. 6 (February, 1951). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1951. See more

Hale, Robert Beverly. "The American Moderns." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 16, no. 1 (Summer, 1957). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1957. See more

Hambourg, Maria Morris, Françoise Heilbrun, and Philippe Néagu, with contributions by Sylvie Aubenas, André Jammes, Ulrich Keller, Sophie Rochard, and Andre Rouille. Nadar . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995. See more

Hambourg, Maria Morris, Jeff L. Rosenheim, Douglas Eklund, and Mia Fineman. Walker Evans . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. See more

Hambourg, Maria Morris, and Jeff L. Rosenheim, with contributions by Alexandra Dennett, Philippe Garner, Adam Kirsch, Harald E.L. Prins, Vasilios Zatse. Irving Penn: Centennial . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2017. See more

Hambourg, Maria Morris. "Photography Between the Wars: Selections from the Ford Motor Company Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 45, no. 4 (Spring, 1988). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. See more

Hambourg, Maria Morris. Earthly Bodies: Irving Penn's Nudes, 1949–50 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002.

Hambourg, Maria Morris. Paul Strand circa 1916 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. See more

Hamilton, George Heard. "The Alfred Stieglitz Collection." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 3 (1970). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. See more

Hearn, Maxwell K. "Modern Chinese Painting, 1860–1980: Selections from the Robert H. Ellsworth Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 58, no. 3 (Winter, 2000–01). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. See more

Hearn, Maxwell K., and Judith G. Smith, eds., with contributions by Julia F. Andrews, Qianshen Bai, Jonathan Hay, Lothar Ledderose, Richard Vinograd, Wan Qingli, David Der-wei Wang, and Eugene Y. Wang. Chinese Art: Modern Expressions . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. See more

Heckscher, Morrison H. "Outstanding Recent Accessions. 19th-Century Architecture for the American Wing: Sullivan and Wright." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 5 (June–July, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Heckscher, Morrison H., John K. Howat, Penelope Hunter-Stiebel, Jacques Lipchitz, Ben Vincent, and Roberta Wong. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 6 (June-July, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Herbert, Robert L., Françoise Cachin, Anne Distel, Susan Alyson Stein, and Gary Tinterow. Georges Seurat, 1859–1891 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991. See more

Holcomb, Melanie, ed., with contributions by Kim Benzel, Soyoung Lee, Diana Craig Patch, Joanne Pillsbury, and Beth Carver Wees. Jewelry: The Body Transformed . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018. See more

Hollein, Max. Gifts of Art: The Met's 150th Anniversary . The Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 2020 See more

Hollein, Max. Modern and Contemporary Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2019. See more

Howe, Ellen G. "Fon Silver Jewelry of the Twentieth Century." Met Objectives: Treatment and Research Notes Vol. 1, No. 2. (Spring 2000). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000.

Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope. "Art Déco: The Last Hurrah." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 6 (June–July, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope. "The Decorative Arts of the Twentieth Century." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 37, no. 3 (Winter, 1979–80). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979. See more

Ittner, Claire. "Jacob Lawrence’s Work Theme, 1945–46": Metropolitan Museum Journal , v. 57 (2022). University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 2022. See more

Ives, Colta Feller. "French Prints in the Era of Impressionism and Symbolism." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 46, no. 1 (Summer, 1988). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. See more

Ives, Colta Feller. The Great Wave: The Influence of Japanese Woodcuts on French Prints . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974. See more

Ives, Colta Feller. The Private Collection of Edgar Degas: A Summary Catalogue . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997. See more

Ives, Colta, Helen Gianbruni, and Sasha M. Newman. Pierre Bonnard: The Graphic Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1989. See more

Ives, Colta, Susan Alyson Stein, Sjraar van Heugten, and Marije Vellekoop, with Marjorie Shelley. Vincent van Gogh: The Drawings . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. See more

Ives, Colta, and Susan Alyson Stein, with Charlotte Hale and Marjorie Shelley. The Lure of the Exotic: Gauguin in New York Collections . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. See more

Ives, Colta. Toulouse-Lautrec in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. See more

Ivins, William Mills, Jr. "Photographs by Alfred Stieglitz." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 7 (March, 1969). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. See more

Jayne, Horace H. F. "Notes on Some Books Published in Exile." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 5, no. 1 (Summer, 1946). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946. See more

Jhaveri, Shanay, Jack Halberstam, and Sheena Wagstaff. The Roof Garden Commission: Alex Da Corte: As Long as the Sun Lasts . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2021.

Johnson, J. Stewart. Lucie Rie/Hans Coper: Masterworks by Two British Potters . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. See more

Julian, Philippe, and Diana Vreeland. La Belle Époque . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982. See more

Karpinski, Caroline. "Munch and Lautrec." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 23, no. 3 (November, 1964). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1964. See more

Kaufmann, Edgar, Jr. "Environment Is an Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 28, no. 8 (April, 1970). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. See more

Kaufmann, Edgar, Jr. "Frank Lloyd Wright at The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 40, no. 2 (Fall, 1982). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982. See more

Koda, Harold, and Andrew Bolton, with contributions by Mary E. Davis, Caroline Evans, Jared Goss, Heather Hess, Caroline Rennolds Milbank, and Kenneth E. Silver, and an introduction by Nancy J. Troy. Poiret . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. See more

Koda, Harold, and Andrew Bolton, with contributions by Rhonda Garelick, Karl Lagerfeld, Caroline Rennolds Milbank, Kenneth E. Silver, and Nancy J. Troy. Chanel . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. See more

Koda, Harold, and Kohle Yohannan. The Model as Muse: Embodying Fashion . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009. See more

Koda, Harold. Extreme Beauty: The Body Transformed . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. See more

Koda, Harold. Goddess: The Classical Mode . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003. See more

LaGamma, Alisa, and Christine Giuntini. The Essential Art of African Textiles: Design Without End . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008. See more

LaRocca, Donald J. "The Bashford Dean Memorial Tablet by Daniel Chester French." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 31 (1996). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. See more

Lavin, Irving. "Abstraction in Modern Painting: A Comparison." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 19, no. 6 (February, 1961). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1961. See more

Lieberman, William S. "Modern French Tapestries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 6, no. 5 (January, 1948). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1948. See more

Lieberman, William S. Painters in Paris, 1895–1950 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. See more

Lieberman, William S. Twentieth-Century Art: Selections from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, Painting, 1905–1945 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986. See more

Lieberman, William S., Lisa Mintz Messinger, Sabine Rewald, and Lowery S. Sims. Twentieth-Century Art: Selections from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 2, Painting, 1945–1985 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986. See more

Lieberman, William S., ed. An American Choice: The Muriel Kallis Steinberg Newman Collection . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981. See more

Lieberman, William S., ed. Modern Masters: European Paintings from The Museum of Modern Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. See more

Lieberman, William S., ed., and Sabine Rewald, with contributions by Dawn Ades, John Ashbery, Jacques Dupin, John Golding, Lawrence Gowing, William S. Lieberman, Philippe de Montebello, Pierre Schneider, and Gary Tinterow. Twentieth-Century Modern Masters: The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1989. See more

Lipchitz, Jacques. "Jacques Lipchitz: His Life in Sculpture." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 6 (June–July, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Marbot, Bernard, and Weston J. Naef. After Daguerre: Masterworks of French Photography (1848–1900) from the Bibliothèque Nationale . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. See more

Martin, Richard, and Harold Koda. Christian Dior . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. See more

Martin, Richard, and Harold Koda. Madame Grès . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. See more

Martin, Richard. American Ingenuity: Sportswear, 1930s–1970s . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. See more

Martin, Richard. Cubism and Fashion . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. See more

Martin, Richard. Gianni Versace . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997. See more

Martin, Richard. Our New Clothes: Acquisitions of the 1990s . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. See more

Mayor, A. Hyatt. "Photographs by Eakins and Degas." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 3, no. 1 (Summer, 1944). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944. See more

Mayor, A. Hyatt. "The Artists for Victory Exhibition." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 1, no. 4 (December, 1942). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1942. See more

Mayor, A. Hyatt. "The Photographic Eye." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 5, no. 1 (Summer, 1946). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946. See more

Mayor, A. Hyatt. "The World of Atget." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 10, no. 6 (February, 1952). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1952. See more

Mayor, A. Hyatt. "Toulouse-Lautrec." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 10, no. 3 (November, 1951). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1951. See more

McBride, Virginia. "Souvenirs in Silver: Daguerrean Constructions by Joseph Cornell": Metropolitan Museum Journal, v. 58 (2023). University of Chicago Press: Chicago. 2023. See more

Mckinley, Mary Clare . Birds of a Feather: Joseph Cornell's Homage to Juan Gris . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018. See more

Meech, Julia. "Early Collections of Japanese Prints and The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 17 (1982). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982. See more

Messinger, Lisa Mintz, Lisa Gail Collins, and Rachel Mustalish. African-American Artists, 1929–1945: Prints, Drawings, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003. See more

Messinger, Lisa Mintz. "American Art: The Edith and Milton Lowenthal Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 54, no. 1 (Summer, 1996). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. See more

Messinger, Lisa Mintz. "Georgia O'Keeffe." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 42, no. 2 (Autumn, 1984). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984. See more

Messinger, Lisa Mintz. Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper. Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992. See more

Miller, R. Craig. Modern Design in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1890–1990 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1990. See more

Miller, Reinhold, and Gary Marotta. Rodin: The B. Gerald Cantor Collection . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986. See more

Moffett, Charles S. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985. See more

Moffett, Kenworth. "The Sculpture of Jules Olitski." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 8 (April, 1969). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. See more

Monahan, Anne, Isabelle Duvernois, and Sylvia A. Centeno. "'Working My Thought More Perfectly': Horace Pippin’s The Lady of the Lake": Metropolitan Museum Journal , v. 52. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2017. See more

Museo del Barrio, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Art Heritage of Puerto Rico: Pre-Columbian to Present . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974. See more

Naef, Weston J. "The Art of Seeing: Photographs from the Alfred Stieglitz Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 35, no. 4 (Spring, 1978). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1978. See more

Naef, Weston J. The Collection of Alfred Stieglitz: Fifty Pioneers of Modern Photography . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1978. See more

Newton, Douglas. "Mother Cassowary's Bones: Daggers of the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 24 (1989). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1989. See more

O'Neill, John P., ed. Clyfford Still . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. See more

Oaklander, Christine I. Jonathan Sturges, W. H. Osborn, and William Church Osborn: A Chapter in American Art Patronage. Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 43 (2008). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008. See more

Orenstein, Nadine M., and Jeff L. Rosenheim, with Stephen C. Pinson. "A Centennial Album: Drawings, Prints, and Photographs": The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v.74, no. 3 (Winter, 2017). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2017. See more

Paul, Stella. 20th-Century Art: A Resource for Educators . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. See more

Pickvance, Ronald. Van Gogh in Arles . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984. See more

Pickvance, Ronald. Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986. See more

Porter, Eliot. Intimate Landscapes: Photographs . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979. See more

Priest, Alan. "Modern Chinese Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 1, no. 6 (February, 1943). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1943. See more

Priest, Alan. "Mr. Kao and Miss Chang." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 2, no. 7 (March, 1944). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944. See more

Rabinow, Rebecca A., ed., with Douglas W. Druick, Ann Dumas, Gloria Groom, Anne Roquebert, and Gary Tinterow. Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006. See more

Ramljak, Suzanne. Unique by Design: Contemporary Jewelry in the Donna Schneier Collection . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014. See more

Raoul, Rosine. "The Danish Tradition in Design." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 19, no. 4 (December, 1960). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1960. See more

Reff, Theodore. "Degas: A Master Among Masters." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 34, no. 4 (Spring, 1977). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977. See more

Reff, Theodore. "The Pictures within Degas's Pictures." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 1 (1968). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. See more

Reff, Theodore. "The Technical Aspects of Degas's Art." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 4 (1971). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1971. See more

Reff, Theodore. Degas: The Artist's Mind . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976. See more

Rewald, John. "Degas's Sculpture: A Reply to Arabesques in Bronze ." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 5, no. 1 (Summer, 1946). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1946. See more

Rewald, John. "The Impressionist Brush." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 32, no. 3 (1974). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974. See more

Rewald, Sabine, and James Dempsey. Obsession: Nudes by Klimt, Schiele, and Picasso from the Scofield Thayer Collection . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018. See more

Rewald, Sabine, with an essay by Ian Buruma. George Grosz in Berlin: The Relentless Eye . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2022. See more

Rewald, Sabine, with essays by Ian Buruma and Matthias Eberle. Glitter and Doom: German Portraits from the 1920s . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Balthus' Mountain Guide Revisited." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 37 (2002). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Balthus's Thérèses." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 33 (1998). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Dix at the Met." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 31 (1996). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. See more

Rewald, Sabine. Balthus: Cats and Girls . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Rewald, Sabine. Balthus . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984. See more

Rewald, Sabine. Max Beckmann in New York . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016. See more

Rewald, Sabine. Paul Klee: The Berggruen Klee Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. See more

Ripin, Edwin M. "A Suspicious Spinet." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 4 (February–March, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Rippner, Samantha. The Prints of Vija Celmins . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. See more

Rosenblatt, Arthur. "The New Visionaries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 26, no. 8 (April, 1968). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. See more

Rosenheim, Jeff L. and Karan Rinaldo . diane arbus: in the beginning . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016. See more

Rosenheim, Jeff L., with essays by Gabriele Conrath-Scholl, Virginia Heckert, and Lucy Sante, and an interview with Max Becher. Bernd & Hilla Becher . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2022. See more

Rosenheim, Jeff. Unclassified: a Walker Evans Anthology . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000.

Rosenheim, Jeff. Walker Evans Polaroids . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002.

Rosenthal, Nan. Anselm Kiefer: Works on Paper in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1998. See more

Rosenthal, Nan. Terry Winters: Printed Works . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001. See more

Rousseau, Theodore. "New Accessions of Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 14, no. 8 (April, 1956). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1956. See more

Rubin, Stephen D. John Singer Sargent's Alpine Sketchbooks: A Young Artist's Perspective . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991. See more

Saint Laurent, Yves, with Diana Vreeland, René Huyghe, Pierre Bergé, Paloma Picasso-Lopez, Marella Agnelli, Catherine Deneuve, Duane Michals, Pierre Boulat, and Nicholas Vreeland. Yves Saint Laurent . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983. See more

Salinger, Margaretta M. "Manet and George Moore." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 15, no. 5 (January, 1957). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1957. See more

Salinger, Margaretta M. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 1 (Summer, 1968). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. See more

Sassoon, Adrian. Jewels by JAR . The Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 2013. See more

Sayers, Andrew, with a foreword by William S. Lieberman. Sidney Nolan: The Ned Kelly Story . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. See more

Schwarz, Jane. "An Interview with Wilson Burch." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 5 (January, 1969). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. See more

Sheppard, Jennifer M. "The Inscription in Manet's The Dead Christ, with Angels." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 16 (1981). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981. See more

Shone, Richard. The Janice H. Levin Collection of French Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. See more

Sims, Lowery Stokes, with contributions by William C. Agee, Robert Hunter, Lewis Kachur, Diane Kelder, John R. Lane, Lisa J. Servon, and Karen Wilkin. Stuart Davis: American Painter . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991. See more

Sims, Lowery Stokes. Hans Hofmann in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. See more

Skull, Robert C. "Re the F-111: A Collector's Notes." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 26, no. 7 (March, 1968). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. See more

Spassky, Natalie. John Singer Sargent: A Selection of Drawings and Watercolors from The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1971. See more

Spies, Werner, and Sabine Rewald, ed., with essays by Sabine Rewald, Ludger Derenthal, Thomas Gaehtgens, Robert Storr, Werner Spies, and Pepe Karmel. Max Ernst: A Retrospective . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. See more

Sterling, Charles, and Margaretta Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 2, Nineteenth Century . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1966. See more

Sterling, Charles, and Margaretta Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1967. See more

Stieglitz, Alfred. "Letter from Alfred Stieglitz to Olivia Paine of the Museum's Print Department." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 7 (March, 1969). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. See more

Stieglitz, Alfred. "The Boston Museum (1922–23) and The Metropolitan Museum (1926)." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 7 (March, 1969). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. See more

Stieglitz, Alfred. Georgia OKeeffe, A Portrait . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1978.

Stuckey, Charles F. Manet . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983.

Swenson, G. R. "An Interview with James Rosenquist." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 26, no. 7 (March, 1968). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. See more

Szabó, George. Twentieth-Century French Drawings from the Robert Lehman Collection . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981. See more

Taylor, Roger, with Larry J. Schaaf . Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840–1860 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. See more

Thaw, Eugene Victor. "The Abstract Expressionists." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 44, no. 3 (Winter, 1986–87). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986. See more

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, introduction by Gary Tinterow. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 8, Modern Europe . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. See more

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 36, no. 2 (February, 1942). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1941.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Block: Poems . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995.

Thomas, Abraham, and Douglas Kearney. The Roof Garden Commission: Lauren Halsey . The Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York, 2022. See more

Tice, George A. "Paterson, New Jersey: Thirty Photographs by George A. Tice." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 5 (June–July, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Tinterow, Gary, Kathryn Calley Galitz, Asher E. Miller, Rebecca A. Rabinow, Sabine Rewald, and Susan Alyson Stein. Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. See more

Tinterow, Gary, Lisa Mintz Messinger, and Nan Rosenthal, eds. Abstract Expressionism and Other Modern Works: The Muriel Kallis Steinberg Newman Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007. See more

Tinterow, Gary, and Geneviève Lacambre, with Deborah L. Roldán, Juliet Wilson-Bareau, Jeannine Baticle, Marcus B. Burke, Ignacio Cano Rivero, Mitchell A. Codding, Trevor Fairbrother, María de los Santos García Felguera, Stéphane Guégan, Ilse Hempel Lipschutz, Dominique Lobstein, Javier Portús Pérez, H. Barbara Weinberg, and Matthias Weniger. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003. See more

Tinterow, Gary, and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. See more

Tinterow, Gary, compiled with Susan Alyson Stein and Barbara Burn. The New Nineteenth-Century European Paintings and Sculpture Galleries . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. See more

Tolles, Thayer, ed., with contributions by William H. Gerdts, Melissa Dabakis, Joyce K. Schiller, Thomas P. Somma, Andrew J. Walker, Alexis L. Boylan, and Janis C. Conner. Perspectives on American Sculpture Before 1925 . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003. See more

Tolles, Thayer. "Daniel Chester French, Paul Manship, and the John Pierpont Morgan Memorial for the Metropolitan Museum." Metropolitan Museum Journal , Vol. 41 (2006). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006. See more

Tomer, Limor and Megan Metcalf with contributions by Adam Gopnik, Lee Mingwei, Bijayini Satpathy, Andrea Miller, Silas Farley, Louisa Proske, and Vijay Iyer. Live Arts at The Met: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v.80, no. 1 (Summer, 2022). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2022.

Tucker, Priscilla. "Poor Peoples' Plan." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 27, no. 5 (January, 1969). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. See more

Villein, Renata. "France in Color." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 30, no. 5 (Apri–May, 1972). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. See more

Vincent, Clare. "Rodin at the Metropolitan Museum of Art," Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 38, no. 4 (Spring, 1981), pp. 3–48. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981. See more

Virch, Claus. "Painting in France, 1900–1967." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 26, no. 8 (April, 1968). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. See more

Virch, Claus. "The Annual Summer Loan Exhibition." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , v. 26, no. 1 (Summer, 1967). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1967. See more

Virch, Claus. "The Electra Havemeyer Webb Memorial Exhibition." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin , New ser., v. 20, no. 1 (Summer, 1961). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1961. See more

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Online Titles

Ali, Atteqa. "Early Modernists and Indian Traditions." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

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Ali, Atteqa. "Modern Art in West and East Pakistan." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Ali, Atteqa. "Postmodernism: Recent Developments in Art in India." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Ali, Atteqa. "Postmodernism: Recent Developments in Art in Pakistan and Bangladesh." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Alteveer, Ian. "Anselm Kiefer (born 1945)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Alteveer, Ian. "Below the Surface." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Amory, Dita. "Georges Seurat (1859–1891) and Neo-Impressionism." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Amory, Dita. "Pierre Bonnard (1867–1947): The Late Interiors." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Auricchio, Laura. "The Nabis and Decorative Painting." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

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Bolton, Andrew. "Extreme Fashion." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

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Charleston, Beth Duncuff. "Christian Dior (1905–1957)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

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Cullinan, Nicholas. "Gesture." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Dabrowski, Magdalena. "Henri Matisse (1869–1954)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Department of Asian Art. "Traditional Chinese Painting in the Twentieth Century." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Department of Photographs. "Eugène Atget (1857–1927)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Department of Photographs. "Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908–2004)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

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Department of Photographs. "Photography at the Bauhaus." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Department of Photographs. "Photojournalism and the Picture Press in Germany." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Department of Photographs. "The New Vision of Photography." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Ekhtiar, Maryam and Marika Sardar. "Modern and Contemporary Art in Iran." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Ekhtiar, Maryam and Marika Sardar. "Nineteenth-Century Iran: Art and the Advent of Modernity." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Eklund, Doug. "Dedicated to Myself." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Eklund, Douglas. "Photography in Düsseldorf." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Farrell, Jennifer. “Letterforms and Writing in Contemporary Art.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Fineman, Mia. "Love." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Gontar, Cybele. "Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1827–1875)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Goss, Jared. "French Art Deco." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Griffith Winton, Alexandra . "The Bauhaus, 1919–1933." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Hostetler, Lisa. "International Pictorialism." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Hostetler, Lisa. "Photography in Europe, 1945–60." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Koda, Harold and Andrew Bolton. "Paul Poiret (1879–1944)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Koda, Harold and Richard Martin. "Orientalism: Visions of the East in Western Dress." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Krick, Jessa. "Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895) and The House of Worth." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Krick, Jessa. "Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (1883–1971) and the House of Chanel." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

McKever, Rosalind. “Umberto Boccioni (1882–1916).” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Mikdadi, Salwa. "Egyptian Modern Art." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Mikdadi, Salwa. "Modern Art in West Asia: From Colonial to Post-colonial Period." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Mikdadi, Salwa. "West Asia: Ancient Legends, Modern Idioms." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Mikdadi, Salwa. "West Asia: Between Tradition and Modernity." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Mikdadi, Salwa. "West Asia: Postmodernism, the Diaspora, and Women Artists." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Murrell, Denise. "African Influences in Modern Art." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

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Myers, Nicole. "The Lure of Montmartre, 1880–1900." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

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Rabinow, Rebecca. "Reading Matisse." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Reeder, Jan. "Elsa Schiaparelli (1890–1973)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Reifert, Eva. “Unfinished Works in European Art, ca. 1500–1900” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Cubism." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Doomed." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Fauvism." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Rewald, Sabine. "Paul Klee (1879–1940)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Rippner, Samatha. "Accident." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

Rosenthal, Nan. "Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Samu, Margaret. "Impressionism: Art and Modernity." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Sardar, Marika. "Art and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century Turkey." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Schenkel, Ruth. "Edgar Degas (1834–1917): Painting and Drawing." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Sorabella, Jean. "The Nude in Baroque and Later Art." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Syson, Luke, Sheena Wagstaff, Emerson Bowyer, and Brinda Kumar with contributions by Bharti Kher, Jeff Koons, Alison Saar, Hillel Schwartz, Marina Warner, and Fred Wilson. Like Life: Sculpture, Color, and the Body . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018. See more

Vincent, Clare. "Auguste Rodin (1840–1917)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Vincent, Clare. "Edgar Degas (1834–1917): Bronze Sculpture." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Voorhies, James. "Pablo Picasso (1881–1973)." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Voorhies, James. "Post-Impressionism." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Voorhies, James. "School of Paris." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. See more

Wagstaff, Sheena. "Deciphering the Flowers." 82nd & Fifth . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. See more

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Arts Dissertation Research Topics

Published by Carmen Troy at January 6th, 2023 , Revised On August 11, 2023

Introduction

Arts is an important academic subject. It has a range of subdisciplines including Economics , History , Political Science , Geography , Sociology , Philosophy , Psychology , Computer Science , Linguistics , Law , Journalism & Media and Tourism & Hotel Management . If you are looking for some exciting yet manageable arts dissertation topics then you definitely landed on the right page.

This blog post provides twenty arts dissertation topic examples so you can come up with an idea that will enable you to achieve a high academic grade in your arts dissertation project. These topics have been proposed by our expert art writers so you can be confident that they will make a great dissertation paper.

Without further ado, here are the top five arts dissertation topics.

Topic 1: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Modern Art: An Exploratory Study to Find Advancements AI can Bring in Modern Art

Topic 2: what’s wrong with mona lisa a critical review of mona lisa’s painting from various artists’ lens, topic 3: performing arts and cultural development- a study to find the impact of performing arts on the youth cultural development in ancient germany, topic 4: the role of arts in the cultural invasion- a case of western culture penetrating in asian societies, topic 5: the influence of oil-based portrait painting on portrait photography.

You may also want to start your dissertation by requesting  a brief research proposal  from our writers on any of these topics, which includes an  introduction  to the topic,  research question ,  aim and objectives ,  literature review  along with the proposed  methodology  of research to be conducted.  Let us know  if you need any help in getting started.

Check our  dissertation examples  to get an idea of  how to structure your dissertation .

Review the full list of  dissertation topics for 2022 here.

2022 Arts Dissertation Research Topics

Research Aim: This research aims to find the impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on modern art advancements. It will show how AI-based models such as Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning models can help to create more dynamic visual arts? It will test these models against real artists to show whether they can create new art based on the previous data? Lastly, it will assess the current work in the area and improve existing models to create better art.

Research Aim: This study intends to critically evaluate Mona Lisa’s painting from various artists’ viewpoints. It will try to dig deep into the picture from the painters’ imagination to the colors used in the painting. Moreover, it will utilize arts literature to draw a framework to analyze Mona Lisa’s painting critically. It will show the greatness and uniqueness in the painting and its problems, which can be modified through ideas and tools used in modern art and literature.

Research Aim: This research analyzes the impact of performing arts on the youth cultural development in ancient Germany. It will show artists and various organizations intentionally and unintentionally used performing arts to affect the youth in old Germany. It will assess the effects of performing arts on multiple aspects of youth lifestyle in Ancient Germany. It will also explore the impact of performing arts on other elements of youth, such as their imagination, productivity, creativity, and critical thinking.

Research Aim: This study assesses the role of arts in the cultural invasion. It will find how various individuals and organizations, even states use different art (performing arts, liberal arts, visual arts, etc.) to invade other cultures? Moreover, it will analyze the western nations to see how they used their culture to change mindsets in Asian societies. It will calculate the difference in fashion, activities, lifestyles, employments, traditions, norms, etc., pre and post cultural invasion times in Asian societies.

Research Aim: This research finds the influence of oil-based portrait painting on portrait photography. It will show how the introduction of oil-based portrait painting influenced various aspects of portrait photography? It will assess the change in portrait photography methods due to changes in oil-based portrait painting over time. Moreover, it will show whether oil-based portrait painting has a role in portrait photography? Or is there no empirical relationship between both? Lastly, it will show through an academic lens how both can be combined to make photography better in terms of concepts, colors, content, photography methods, etc.,?

Research on Cultural Hybridity in the UK's Contemporary Art

Research Aim: This research paper aims to analyze the cultural hybridity found in UK art culture. The UK’s various art reproduces creative work, which enhances the art culture of the entire UK. The UK’s artistic practise creates an opportunity for its art culture to expand all over the world.

Looking through a New Glass: The American Film in the Modern World

Research Aim: This research paper aims to explore American films’ future possibilities by evaluating American films in this modern era. A different perspective is implemented to analyze the entire topic.

Impressionistic Painting: A Drive to another World

Research Aim: The focus of this dissertation is to situate impressionistic painting in the contemporary era. The application of the impressionistic technique gives a new dimension to the art of the contemporary period. The features of impressionism are the insights of the paintings.

Position of Aesthetic art in UK's Tradition

Research Aim: The paper focuses on evaluating the current position of aesthetic art in the UK’s modern culture. It also tries to express how the UK relates aesthetic arts with its tradition.

Idols in Painting Practice

Research Aim: This research paper aims to evaluate the practices of Idol painting in modern art. The abstract paintings of the idol are innovative art techniques to express in-depth knowledge regarding the piece of art. Finding out the reason behind the culture of idol painting is another aim.

The Altering Perception towards Art in Contemporary Culture

Research Aim: This research paper aims to seek out the changing perception of people to art in modern culture. Art is changing in itself, which develops contemporary art, hence the changing perception of people. A comparative study is also provided between traditional art and modern art.

Music in Australia: A Development in Art Culture

Research Aim: The objective of this dissertation paper is to explore the possibilities of modern music culture in Australia. The creative works in music give Australian art an innovative way to express it in the contemporary world, enhancing the position of Australian art.

History of Sculpture Art: A Comparative Study between the East and the West

Research Aim: This dissertation aims to form a comparative study regarding the history of sculpture art between the East and the West. The history of sculpture art of both the East and the West is analyzed to develop the aspects of comparison for the research study.

A War of Photography: Retro Version Modern

Research Aim: The research paper seeks to evaluate the comparison between the war of photography between modern and retro. The black and white tradition of photography is embraced by modern people. The importance of retro in the contemporary world is like innovation in art culture. So, the paper aims to divide the features of both retro and modern photography.

The needs of Modern Painting Techniques: Human vs. Nature

Research Aim: This paper aims to compare the needs of modern painting techniques. The human-centric paintings and the paintings of nature are the comparison topics, which is contemporary painters’ preference. Modern art develops depending on current techniques in painting.

Portrait Art and its Development in Western Culture

Research Aim: This dissertation paper aims to trace the origin of portrait art and its gradual development in western culture. The innovative portrait art is the need of modern civilization.

Classroom Creativity Development through Art and Craft

Research Aim: This dissertation paper is written to analyze the importance of art in the creative development of the classroom. The students in the school are instructed to do art and craftwork to develop their creative insight. Developing creativity is the beginning of innovation.

Visual art: a Communicator of Creative Genius

Research Aim: This dissertation aims to evaluate the significance of visual art as a communicative medium of creative genius. Visual art develops creativity. The impact of visual art can extract creativity from a thoughtful mind.

Art of Ancient Era: A Reflective Study of the East

Research Aim: The objective of this research is to trace the history of ancient art in the East. The importance of ancient art is invaluable through which the culture came into existence. Ancient art helps in developing modern art.

Modern Art: A Tool to Expand the Region of Art Culture

Research Aim: This paper aims to explore the possibilities of modern art and how it can expand the dimensions of art in the future. Through a complete evaluation of contemporary art and its role in the contemporary era, the dissertation seeks the importance of modern art.

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Pinpricks, but No Dagger in Putinland

dissertation on contemporary art

By Steven Lee Myers

  • Sept. 25, 2013

MOSCOW — There were some complications when the Conceptual artist John Baldessari brought his latest works to Russia as part of the fifth Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art . First, the title of his project, “Double Take,” did not translate easily into Russian.

“We decided it was kind of crazy to come up with a title that makes no sense,” said the curator of the Baldessari show, Kate Fowle, who settled on a new one: “1+1=1.”

More troubling, two collectors refused to lend works by Mr. Baldessari for the show. They cited concerns about the political environment in Russia, like the granting of asylum to the security-file leaker Edward J. Snowden, the adoption of a law against gay “propaganda” and the prosecution of Pussy Riot, the punk performance act.

“I’ve had no problems at all personally,” Mr. Baldessari, 82, said in an interview at Garage , a gallery here in Gorky Park that is considered the city’s premier center of contemporary art. “But I know the climate is there.”

The biennale, which opened last week and runs through Oct. 20, encapsulates that climate. It is modern and energetic, flush with corporate sponsorship and eagerly attended, yet seemingly wary of political and bureaucratic land mines that can attract the wrath of the authorities in Vladimir V. Putin’s Russia.

From its start in 2005, the biennale has gingerly steered a course between the organizers’ ambition to make this city an international center of contemporary art and the reflexive conservatism of a country where the line between what is acceptable and unacceptable can be a fine one.

Only a month before the biennale opened, officials in St. Petersburg seized four paintings from a gallery on the eve of the annual meeting of the Group of 20 nations. One depicted Mr. Putin in a woman’s pink nightie, styling the hair of his onetime protégé, Prime Minister Dmitri A. Medvedev, who was shown in a bra and panties. The artist, Konstantin Altunin, promptly fled to France. By contrast, none of the artists chosen to exhibit in the biennale have used the opportunity to confront the issues of the day directly.

In unusually frank remarks, Ivan I. Demidov, a deputy minister of culture, described the ministry’s sponsorship of the biennale as both an honor and a burden. “It seems to me that when the government, a conservative structure by definition, supports the pursuit, especially in such sensitive societal topics of culture and art, especially modern art, there is a certain degree of risk,” he said last week at a preview. “Perhaps even for both sides.”

The curator of this year’s event, Catherine de Zegher, is no stranger to collisions between the art world and politics. She served for nine years as the director of the Drawing Center in New York before resigning in 2006 after officials scuttled plans for the center to relocate to the former World Trade Center site. A furor had arisen over the content of some of the Drawing Center’s exhibitions, with critics arguing that the center was antipatriotic and did not belong at ground zero.

“I know how important it is not to jeopardize a project,” Ms. de Zegher, a curator and writer now based in Belgium, said in an interview.

The biennale’s budget is just over $3 million, 55 percent of which was provided by the federal ministry of culture. The Moscow city government chipped in about 10 percent, though it plans to recoup part of that through ticket sales. Corporate sponsors, including Alfa Bank, the Russian telecommunications company Beeline, Hyundai and Samsung, covered the rest.

In the biennale’s first five days, more than 18,000 people streamed into the main exhibition site at Manezh, a historic riding academy a few hundred yards from the Kremlin that became a museum in the 1950s. Dozens of tandem exhibitions are also under way in galleries across Moscow, including Mr. Baldessari’s at Garage, which features 44 of his paintings.

For the main exhibition, Ms. de Zegher assembled works by 72 artists from around the world. The Manezh building’s central hall has been turned into a maze of galleries with views through the south windows of the Kremlin’s towers.

The biennale’s theme is “Bolshe Sveta,” or “More Light,” which Ms. de Zegher described as a reconsideration of time and space in a world where both seem increasingly encroached upon by technology and exploitation.

Mr. Demidov, who banned the screening of a Serbian film titled “Clip” last year because of its depictions of drug use and sex, has endorsed the theme, saying that it “especially warms our bureaucratic souls.”

At a time when Russian prohibitions on free expression have drawn international criticism, including calls for protests or boycotts of the Olympic Games in Sochi next February, Ms. de Zegher said she avoided any overtly confrontational topics.“There’s nothing they stopped me from doing,” she said, “but some things took negotiation. I think there is more self-censoring than censoring.”

At its Web site, the state television channel, Kultura, has praised the biennale for what it called “family values, positive mood, unlimited fantasy.” Its review said, “Nothing negative, provocative, sensational — everything that one expects from actual art.”

Others, though, complained that the event sacrificed artistic potency for the sake of expediency. Dmitri Pilikin, a curator and art critic from St. Petersburg, has sharply questioned the organizers’ choices, which he considers anodyne.

“Contemporary art is occupied namely with negation,” he said. “To do a project which makes such a positive conclusion is a risk, because the question begs itself: How authentic is it? Is it not an attempt to recreate some sort of Stalinist glamour kitsch for us?”

Ms. de Zegher disputed that, although she acknowledged that she prefers subtlety over outright aggression. “I don’t like provocation, actually, because it stops everything,” she said. She pointed out that the exhibition examined crucial issues of the day, from environmentalism to feminism, personal freedom to political freedom.

Some politically themed works are so low key that they conceivably could be overlooked. The Irish artist Tom Molloy, for example, has mounted tiny photographic cutouts of protests from around the world on a long shelf in what looks like a massive protest march in miniature. An observant visitor will find an image in the piece of a woman wearing a mask saying “No vote” and signs declaring “Free Pussy Riot” and “Putin Must Die” from protests in 2011-12.

“If you look carefully, you can see a lot of questioning and critique going on,” Ms. de Zegher said. “It’s for the people who look.”

Mr. Baldessari’s works have no direct connection to the political controversies here, but he found himself addressing the issue of an artist’s place in an authoritarian society at a forum organized by Garage, where he was joined by the artist Ilya Kabakov.

In their hourlong debate , Mr. Kabakov recalled the desperate urgency of young artists in the Soviet Union, where he lived and worked until he emigrated in 1987, eventually settling in the United States. He recalled visiting Soviet museums that, despite stifling conformity and censorship, forged a collective ideal for artists.

“They were tiny islands of culture and civilization that still managed to survive behind the Iron Curtain,” Mr. Kabakov said. “You should never forget the atmosphere of fear, or tribalism. It was the essence of our life.”

Mr. Baldessari said he was struck by the description of fear: “I think what artists fear in the U.S. is not being noticed, and nobody caring.”

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dissertation on contemporary art

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The Eldrazi are here in full force and looking cooler than ever. Whether it's in a foil-etched or borderless concept card, Emrakul is the star of the show in these Collector Booster–exclusive treatments.

Emrakul, the World Anew (Borderless Concept)

The borderless concept Eldrazi only feature on three legendary Eldrazi and even come in serialized versions, each out of 250 copies. Serialized cards are found in English only in all languages of Modern Horizons 3 Collector Boosters.

Emrakul, the World Anew (Serialized Borderless Concept)

Textured foils also return in Collector Boosters featured on a variety of cards, including double-faced planeswalkers.

Ajani, Nacatl Pariah (Textured Foil)

The frame break treatment returns as well, giving some of the set's hottest cards a striking look.

Flare of Cultivation (Frame Break)

Fans of the Commander Masters borderless profile treatment will be delighted to see it return with faces across the set.

Laelia, the Blade Reforged (Borderless Profile)

For the nostalgic among us, many cards also feature with the retro frame treatment.

Emrakul, the World Anew (Retro Frame)

And those ally fetch lands? You can find them in many returning treatments, too!

Bloodstained Mire (Borderless)

All of this—the power, the style, and more—awaits you with Modern Horizons 3 . You can check out all the combinations of treatments and cards previewed now with the Modern Horizons 3 Card Image Gallery !

Modern Horizons 3 Key Details

Modern Horizons 3 Set Logo

Modern Horizons 3 Set Code : MH3

Modern Horizons 3 Commander Set Code : M3C

Special Guests Set Code : SPG

Website : Modern Horizons 3

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Modern Horizons 3 is available to preorder at your local game store , online at Amazon , and elsewhere Magic products are sold.

Modern Horizons 3 Preview Events

  • Debut and Previews Begin on WeeklyMTG : May 21
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Modern Horizons 3 Play Events

  • Prerelease Events Begin at Your Local Game Store : June 7
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Modern Horizons 3 Play Booster Display

As a special treat for Commander fans, each Modern Horizons 3 Commander deck also has a Collector's Edition featuring the entire deck in a new foil treatment. We're not ready to show it off today, but stay tuned for all the details when previews for Modern Horizons 3 kick off on May 21!

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More From Forbes

The best of contemporary indigenous art makes rare appearance in north carolina.

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Rose B. Simpson (Santa Clara Pueblo), Maria, 2014, 1985 Chevy El Camino, H. 54 × W. 72 × D. 202 in., ... [+] Courtesy of the artist.

For Nancy Strickland Fields (Lumbee) it was like something out of a dream. Returning from taking one of her University of North Carolina Pembroke Museum Studies classes to visit the Town Creek Indian Mound State Historic Park , they had time to kill and stopped at the Rankin Museum of American Heritage in Ellerbe, population 1,000.

“Very small, couple of thousand square foot museum, that sort of typical thing you find on the back roads of anywhere in the country,” Fields told Forbes.com. “The guy that started the museum was a doctor and he started buying Native art in the 40s and the early 50s.”

The Institute of American Indian Arts Museum Studies graduate, former employee of the Smithsonian National Museum of the America Indian in Washington, D.C., and director/curator of the Museum of the Southeast American Indian at UNC Pembroke’s expectations were low. She could never have imagined what was waiting for her inside.

“I about lost it,” Fields remembers as if it happened yesterday. “There is a Maria Martinez and Julian (Martinez) pot sitting on the floor in this atmospheric natural history environment of desert sand and the tufts of gasses and I was like, ‘what the hell!’ Then I looked around and it just multiplied over and over again.”

Maria Martinez (1887–1980; San Ildefonso Pueblo) may be the most famous Indigenous artist ever for her iconic black-on-black pottery produced in conjunction with her husband, Julian (1879–1943; San Ildefonso Pueblo). Having met four presidents–or four presidents having met her–gives some indication of her stature. Finding a Maria Martinez pot in a DIY museum on a country road in North Carolina strains believability.

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“I walked over to this u-shaped case and there was a collection of archaeological pottery–early stuff–and this pot absolutely grasped my soul. It was absolute perfection,” Fields said. “It was well balanced. It was huge! (It had) this beautiful beaded rim, super thin composition, the clay itself was perfection–no cracks, no bubbles, no hairline fractures, nothing.”

The piece was pre-contact and from the area that is now North Carolina. Everything about it was exceptional and rare.

“All of a sudden I found myself in conversation with the maker,” Fields recalls.

What was that conversation?

“’Who were you?’ ‘Who taught you this?’ ‘How many times did you make a pot like this,’” Fields repeats. “I started envisioning a woman, digging clay, cleaning the clay, running it through a sieve. I can see her hand. You are absolutely magnificent.”

A flood of emotions nearly overwhelmed her.

“As Native peoples, when we make objects, there is an intent when you give that object shape, you're bringing all of the elements together, you're putting yourself into it–and I saw her there–you're putting that knowledge into practice,” Fields explains. “As an artist, you're remembering the lessons that you learned and what you saw. Then the intent with the meaning. What does it mean to make this pot? What is its purpose? What life is it going to have? And of course, our objects are alive, so how did this artist put that intent and that spirit in that piece of pottery?”

She’ll never forget it.

“As I sat there, it just came to me: this is the show,” Fields said.

Glad you asked.

‘To Take Shape And Meaning’

Jamie Okuma (Luiseño/Shoshone-Bannock/Wailaki/Okinawan), Adaptation II, 2012, shoes designed by ... [+] Christian Louboutin, leather, glass beads, porcupine quills, sterling silver cones, brass sequins, and chicken feathers, each H. 8 5/8 × W. 3 1/4 × D. 9 3/16 in., Minneapolis Institute of Art, Bequest of Virginia Doneghy, by exchange.

The North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh’s history dates back to 1924. In its 100-year existence, it has never presented an exhibition of Native American art. Never.

NCMA leadership asked Fields to change that. To make history by curating an exhibition of Native American art there.

Fields’ initial idea was too high concept for a museum just learning about Native American art. Something else was required. Something she couldn’t pin down until that day in Ellerbe.

The Rankin Museum pot and its once-known maker cleared the logjam in her mind.

“The show, ‘To Take Shape and Meaning: Form and Design in Contemporary American Indian Art’ reflects that heritage. It reflects that cultural continuum that is still carried forward,” Fields said.

Presenting exclusively 3-D works, “To Take Shape and Meaning” brings together 75 Native American contemporary artists, most of them living artists, representing over 50 tribes across the U.S. and Canada. It is rooted in reverence for tradition while pushing the boundaries of contemporary interpretation.

The works demonstrate the continuity and evolution of Native and Indigenous arts in contemporary culture, including baskets made out of blown glass, cars transformed into works of art, and cutting-edge fashion ensembles embellished with goose feathers and turkey quills, all revealing transitions of place, experiments in materiality, and meanings blended from present-day and traditional beliefs.

The Best Of The Best

Virgil Ortiz (Cochiti Pueblo), Convergence, Defenders Descend from Portal to Pueblo, 2023, Cochiti ... [+] red clay, white clay slip, red clay slip, and black pigment (wild spinach plant), H. 28 1/2 × W. 19 × D. 18 in., Gift of Alan and Benjamin King, Jeffrey Childers and Onay Cruz Gutierrez, Joyce Fitzpatrick and Jay Stewart, Valerie Hillings and B. J. Scheessele, Marjorie Hodges and Carlton Midyette, Stefanie and Douglas Kahn, Bonnie and John Medinger, Mindy and Guy Solie, Cathy and Jim Stuart, Libby and Lee Buck, Liza and Lee Roberts.

“To Take Shape and Meaning” features the 21 st century’s most iconic Indigenous makers and their most iconic objects. Fields has assembled the contemporary Native Art equivalent of “The Avengers.”

The checklist is astonishing.

Marie Watt Blanket Story . Yep.

Preston Singletary glasswork . Yep.

Virgil Ortiz Indigenous futurism ceramic . Yep.

Jamie Okuma beaded stilettos. Yep.

Jeffrey Gibson punching bag, the kind of which led him to being selected as the first Native American artist to represent the United States at the Venice Biennale. Yep.

Raven Halfmoon monumental figure . Yep.

“The show itself, as we were putting together the catalog, was taking on its own shape and meaning,” Fields said. “What all of these pieces are saying collectively, and how they're operating together, and that energy they're bringing, this chorus of voices of artists from around the country, talking about their genealogy, talking about their rootedness, their place of being.”

The piece de resistance, the cherry on top, the icing on the cake, Rose B. Simpson’s one-of-a-kind Maria , her iconic interpretation of a Maria Martinez black-on-black pot applied to a 1985 El Camino.

“This is badass,” Fields remembers thinking when Maria arrived at NCMA. “I was like I need to lay down, I'm gonna’ faint.”

Simpson’s Maria marks the second time the great matriarch of Modern Pueblo pottery has intersected with “To Take Shape and Meaning.” The third time, unquestionably, proves how her spirit is watching over the show and again strains believability.

The North Carolina Museum of Art had exactly one piece of Native American art in its collection prior to staging this exhibition: a black-on-black Maria Martinez pot. It will be on view next to Maria .

The Museum has subsequently purchased a handful of contemporary Native pieces from Watt, Singletary, Ortiz and others.

The historic pot from the Rankin Museum which sparked Fields’ imagination in putting this show together will not be included. Her research revealed it to be a funerary urn and NCMA’s policy, thankfully, prohibits the display of Native American funerary objects.

“I don’t want (visitors) just to lean into the aesthetic … and I don’t want people to lean into the surprise,” Fields said. “They need to understand the why. Why are they creating, and what did they go through to do this, to create this, and the time that that's put into it, and the cultural knowledge.”

Native North Carolina

Kathleen Wall (Jemez Pueblo), Holding Her Culture, (2023). Jemez Clay, slip, underglaze; 28” X 10” X ... [+] 11”

For a state with the largest number of citizens identifying as Native American east of the Mississippi River, finding Native American art on view in North Carolina is exceedingly rare.

“It's not easy to do at all and that is another reason this exhibition is so important,” Fields said. “That shows a value system, so if a region is highlighting and sharing Native culture it's saying, to a degree, we value this culture, we value these people. They're an important part of who we are.”

The region has not historically valued Indigenous people.

“We're in the South. We are still living out these legacies of colonialism, but furthering that is Jim Crow, and Jim Crow was not that long ago,” Fields said. “When you look at the effects of Jim Crow, that pushed this ideology that Indians are worthless, don't have any value with the exception of labor, and so that makes it really hard to take pride and express cultural identity and art.”

As far back as the early 1700s, North Carolina passed a law forbidding Indigenous people from having any kinds of cultural expression, a policy the United States would enact in the following century.

“A cultural Indian (in North Carolina) was a dead Indian in the early 1700s, and as families move forward to just exist–that core human agency to survive–there was a lot of things that were let go,” Fields explained.

Eight North Carolina artists are featured in the exhibit.

Related Programming

The public is invited to celebrate the opening of “To Take Shape and Meaning” on March 2 with a full day of Indigenous art and culture . Visitors can join open studios to create alongside traditional basket weavers and Southeastern gorget makers, and meet leading Native American artists. Lumbee culture dancers and drummers will perform. Native food vendors will be on hand.

Admission is free and includes access to “To Take Shape and Meaning.”

Fields will also be leading one-hour tours of the exhibition starting at 1:00 PM on March 2, April 20, May 18 and June 8. Admission is free, but RSVP is required .

“To Take Shape and Meaning: Form and Design in Contemporary American Indian Art” will remain on view at the North Carolina Museum of Art through July 28, 2024.

Chadd Scott

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Legendary Arizona artist Ed Mell dies at 81. His legacy is a celebration of the Southwest

dissertation on contemporary art

Ed Mell, a Phoenix artist whose renowned and innovative Southwestern landscapes earned him worldwide acclaim, has died. He was 81.

“Ed Mell was a legend,” painter Mark Maggiori wrote in a social-media post on Thursday, Feb. 22. “He passed away last night leaving us one of the most amazing body of work in art history. Ed Mell carved the path for all of us. Broke the rules, opened the doors to the possibles, dropped modernism on western art and took it to the next level.”

Betsy Fahlman, the adjunct curator of American Art at the Phoenix Art Museum, said, “Ed Mell is an iconic Arizona artist who painted spectacular scenes that captured the sublime beauty of this rugged southwestern state. His work is significant to the collection of Phoenix Art Museum and can be seen on view here. His talents were a great match for the handsome landscapes that were typical of his work.”

Western Art Collector Magazine, in a Facebook post, described Mell and his work: “Ed was once called Arizona's Son because he was from the Grand Canyon State and also because he knew how to capture Arizona's landscapes with their dramatic forms and intense light.” Indeed, his work inspired the design of “Riders of the Purple Sage,” which was Arizona Opera’s first world premiere.

Friends and fans share memories of Ed Mell

Phoenix Mayor Kate Gallego also posted a tribute on Facebook: “From soaring sandstone spires to ferocious thunderstorms, Ed captured his love for Arizona in every painting — and in his signature U.S. Postal Service Centennial stamp. His unique voice will be greatly missed.”

His son, Carson Mell said, "My dad was one of the genuinely nicest people I've ever met. He treated everyone the same, from the oddballs that peopled the Coronado neighborhood in the '80s-'90s to the buyers of his art. He taught me that you say 'Thank you, sir/ma'am' any time anyone helps you with anything. He lived his life and made his art calmly, and it's something I'll always admire and strive to emulate."

Mell was known worldwide. And yet you’d never know how famous he was, according to friends.

“He was so unassuming,” Bob Boze Bell , artist, co-owner of True West magazine and a friend of Mell’s, said. “He was such a normal guy.”

His work was anything but. Mell forged a new vision of Southwestern landscape, angular and striking, familiar but offbeat — like maybe if Picasso used a ruler. Which, in fact, sometimes Mell did.

Bell, who for a time shared studio space with Mell, said a group once came through to watch Mell work.

“Ed’s doing one of his landscapes with a straight edge,” Bell said. “A woman said, ‘Isn’t that cheating?’ And he said, ‘Not if I don’t get caught.’ He looked at her like he was going to kill her. That’s him to a T. He could always find the humor. … He was very, very funny.”

Mell was born in Phoenix in 1942, and graduated from Phoenix Junior College and the ArtCenter College of Design in Pasadena. He moved to New York, where he and Skip Andrews created an illustration firm, Sagebrush. (A work of note: an illustration of Minnie Mouse wearing pasties on a 1970 cover of National Lampoon, which resulted in a lawsuit.)

Eventually Mell moved back to Arizona. That’s when Bell met him and his brothers, Frank and Lee.

“They were counter-culture legends,” Bell said. “I couldn’t be more in awe of meeting someone if it was John Lennon when I met the Mell brothers.”

Mell's work initially got 'a lot of blowback'

Bell said Mell was initially met with “a lot of blowback from the traditional cowboy art. He blazed a new trail.” But Mell “knew the history of art, especially southwest art, and he knew what it needed.”

He worked at it, hard.

“The thing that just blew me away was just his work ethic,” Bell said. His brothers were also talented, he said, and “by his own admission, they were more talented than he was. But Ed made up for it with his work ethic.”

Mell’s humor will also be remembered.

“He was a laugh riot,” Bell said. “Even when he called me with stage 4 cancer, a serious subject, within 30 seconds I’m laughing. That’s truly a gift.”

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